Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a multinational
networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm,
Sweden. The company offers services, software and infrastructure in
information and communications technology for telecommunications
operators, traditional telecommunications and
Internet Protocol (IP)
networking equipment, mobile and fixed broadband, operations and
business support services, cable television, IPTV, video systems, and
an extensive services operation.
Ericsson had 35% market share in the 2G/3G/4G mobile network
infrastructure market in 2012.
The company was founded in 1876 by Lars Magnus Ericsson; as of
2016[update] it is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. The company
employs around 100,000 people and operates in around 180
Ericsson holds over 42,000 granted patents as of
December 2016, including many in wireless communications. On 20
June 2017, Bloomberg disclosed that
Ericsson hired Morgan Stanley to
explore the sale of its media businesses.
1.2 International expansion
1.3 Automatic equipment
1.4 Shareholding changes
1.5 Wallenberg era begins
1.6 Market development
1.7 Further development
1.8 1995–2003: emergence of the Internet
1.9 2003–2016: rebuilding and growing
1.10 Acquisitions, expansion, consolidation and cooperation
2 Corporate governance
3 Research and development
4 Products and services
4.1 Business Area Networks (earlier Business Unit Networks)
4.2 Business Unit Global Services
4.3 Business Unit Support Solutions
4.3.1 Systems integration
4.3.2 Network services
4.3.3 Broadcast services
4.4 Business Unit Modems
5 Divested businesses
5.1 Mobile (cell) telephones
Ericsson Mobile Platforms
.mobi and mobile Internet
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
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Lars Magnus Ericsson
Lars Magnus Ericsson
Lars Magnus Ericsson began his association with telephones in his
youth as an instrument maker. He worked for a firm that made telegraph
equipment for the Swedish government agency Telegrafverket. In 1876,
at the age of 30, he started a telegraph repair shop with help from
Carl Johan Andersson
Carl Johan Andersson in central
Stockholm and repaired
foreign-made telephones. In 1878
Ericsson began making and selling his
own telephone equipment. His telephones were not technically
innovative. In 1878 he made an agreement to supply telephones and
switchboards to Sweden's first telecommunications operating company,
Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag.
Also in 1878, local telephone importer Numa Peterson hired
adjust some telephones from the Bell Telephone Company. He bought a
number of Siemens telephones and analyzed the technology;
a scholarship at Siemens a few years earlier. He was familiar with
Bell and Siemens Halske telephones through his firm's repair work for
Telegrafverket and Swedish Railways. He improved these designs to
produce a higher-quality instrument to be used by new telephone
companies such as
Rikstelefon to provide cheaper service than the Bell
Ericsson had no patent or royalty problems because Bell had not
patented their inventions in Scandinavia. His training as an
instrument maker was reflected in the standard of finish and the
ornate design of
Ericsson telephones of this period. At the end of the
year he started to manufacture telephones much like those of Siemens;
the first product was finished in 1879.
Ericsson became a major supplier of telephone equipment to
Scandinavia. Its factory could not keep up with demand; joinery and
metal-plating were contracted out. Much of its raw materials were
imported; in the following decades
Ericsson bought into a number of
firms to ensure supplies of brass, wire, ebonite, and magnet steel.
Much of the walnut wood used for cabinets was imported from the United
Stockholm's telephone network expanded that year and the company
reformed into a telephone manufacturer. When Bell bought the biggest
telephone network in Stockholm, it only allowed its own telephones to
be used with it. Ericsson's equipment was sold mainly to free
telephone associations in the Swedish countryside and in other Nordic
The prices of Bell equipment and services led Henrik Tore
form an independent telephone company called Stockholms Allmänna
Telefonaktiebolag in 1883. As Bell would not deliver equipment to
competitors, he formed a pact with
Ericsson to supply the equipment
for his new telephone network. In 1918 the companies were merged into
Allmänna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson.
In 1884, a multiple-switchboard manual telephone exchange was mostly
copied from a design by C. E. Scribner at Western Electric. This
was legal because the device was not patented in Sweden, although in
the United States it had held patent 529421 since 1879. A single
switchboard could handle up to 10,000 lines. The following year, LM
Cedergren toured the United States, visiting several
telephone exchange stations to gather "inspiration".
They found U.S. switchboard designs were more advanced but Ericsson
telephones were equal to others.
In 1884, a technician named Anton Avén at Stockholms Allmänna
Telefonaktiebolag combined the earpiece and the mouthpiece of a
standard telephone into a handset. It was used by operators in the
exchanges where operators needed to have one hand free when talking to
Ericsson picked up this invention and incorporated it into
Ericsson products, beginning with a telephone named The Dachshund.
An early, wooden,
Ericsson telephone, made by the
Co. Ltd., of Nottingham, England, it is now in the collection of
Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum.
As production grew in the late 1890s, and the Swedish market seemed to
be reaching saturation,
Ericsson expanded into foreign markets through
a number of agents. The UK (
Ericsson Telephones Ltd.) and Russia were
early markets, where factories were later established improve the
chances of gaining local contracts and to augment the output of the
Swedish factory. In the UK, the
National Telephone Company
National Telephone Company was a major
customer; by 1897 sold 28% of its output in the UK. The Nordic
countries were also
Ericsson customers; they were encouraged by the
growth of telephone services in Sweden.
Other countries and colonies were exposed to
Ericsson products through
the influence of their parent countries. These included Australia and
New Zealand, which by the late 1890s were Ericsson's largest
Mass production techniques now firmly
established; telephones were losing some of their ornate finish and
Despite their successes elsewhere,
Ericsson did not make significant
sales into the United States. The Bell Group, Kellogg and Automatic
Electric dominated the market.
Ericsson eventually sold its U.S.
assets. Sales in Mexico led to inroads into South American countries.
South Africa and China were also generating significant sales. With
his company now multinational, Lars
Ericsson stepped down from the
company in 1901.
LM Ericsson's former headquarters at
Telefonplan in Stockholm, see LM
Ericsson ignored the growth of automatic telephony in the United
States and concentrated on manual exchange designs. Their first dial
telephone was produced in 1921, although sales of the early automatic
switching systems were slow until the equipment had proven itself on
the world's markets. Telephones of this period had a simpler design
and finish, and many of the early automatic desk telephones in
Ericsson's catalogues were magneto styles with a dial on the front and
appropriate changes to the electronics. Elaborate decals decorated the
cases. World War I, the subsequent Great Depression, and the loss
of its Russian assets after the Revolution slowed the company's
development and restricted its sales to countries such as
The acquisition of other telecommunications companies put pressure on
Ericsson's finances; in 1925, Karl Fredric Wincrantz took control of
the company by acquiring most of the shares. Wincrantz was partly
funded by Ivar Kreuger, an international financier. The company was
renamed Telefon AB LM Ericsson. Kreuger started showing interest in
the company, being a major owner of Wincrantz holding companies.
Ericsson began issuing "A" and "B" shares; an "A" share had
1000 votes against a "B" share. Wincrantz controlled the company by
having only a few "A" shares, not a majority of the shares. The
company raised more money by issuing a lot of "B" shares, while
maintaining the status quo of power distribution. In
1930, a second issue of "B"-shares took place, and Kreuger gained
majority control of the company with a mixture of "A" and "B" shares
he bought with money lent by LM Ericsson, with security given in
German state bonds. He then took a loan for his own company Kreuger
& Toll from
ITT Corporation (administered by Sosthenes Behn),
giving parts of LM
Ericsson as security, and used its assets and name
in a series of international financial dealings.
Ericsson was now regarded by ITT as a takeover target as its main
international competitor. In 1931, ITT acquired enough shares from
Kreuger to have a majority interest in Ericsson. This news was not
made public for some time because of a government-imposed limit on
foreign shareholdings in Swedish companies, so the shares were still
listed in Kreuger's name. Kreuger in return gained
shares in ITT; he stood to make a profit of $11 million[clarification
needed] on the deal. When ITT's Behn wanted to cancel
this deal in 1932, he discovered there was no money left in the
company, just a large claim on the same Kreuger & Toll that
Kreuger had himself lent money to. Kreuger had effectively bought LM
Ericsson with its own money.
Kreuger had been using the company as security for loans; despite his
profits he unable to repay them.
Ericsson found they had invested in
some doubtful share deals, whose losses were deemed significant. ITT
examined the deal and found it had been misled about Ericsson's
value. ITT asked Kreuger to go to New York City for a
conference, but he did not attend. As word of Kreuger's financial
position spread, the banking institutions pressured him to provide
security for his loans. ITT canceled the deal to buy
Ericsson shares. Kreuger could not repay the $11 million, and
committed suicide in Paris in 1932. ITT owned one
third of Ericsson, but was forbidden to exercise this ownership
because of a paragraph in the company's articles of association
stating that no foreign investor was allowed to control more than 20%
of the votes.
Wallenberg era begins
Ericsson was saved from bankruptcy and closure with the help of banks
Stockholms Enskilda Bank
Stockholms Enskilda Bank (now Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken)
and other Swedish investment banks controlled by the Wallenberg
family, and some Swedish government backing. Marcus Wallenberg Jr.
negotiated a deal with several Swedish banks to rebuild Ericsson
financially. The banks gradually increased their possession of LM
Ericsson "A" shares, while ITT was still the largest shareholder. In
Wallenberg family arranged with ITT to buy its shares in
Ericsson, and has since controlled the company.
Ericsson DBH1001 (1931) was the first combined telephone set with
a housing and handset made from Bakelite. The design is attributed to
Ericsson DBH15 telephone, a successor of the DBH 1001 and
redesigned in 1947 by Gerard Kiljan
In the 1920s and 1930s, the world telephone markets were being
organized and stabilized by many governments. The fragmented
town-by-town systems serviced by small, private companies that had
evolved were integrated and offered for lease to a single company.
Ericsson obtained some leases, which represented further sales of
equipment to the growing networks.
Ericsson got almost one third of
its sales under the control of its telephone operating companies.
Negotiations between the major telephone companies aimed at dividing
up the world between them. The size of ITT made it
hard to compete with.
Ericsson reduced its involvement in telephone
operating companies and went back to manufacturing telephones and
switchgear. The Beeston factory in the UK had been a joint venture
Ericsson and the National Telephone Company.
The factory built automatic switching equipment for the GPO under
license from Strowger, and exported products to former UK
colonies. The UK government divided its equipment
contracts between competing manufacturers, but Ericsson's presence and
manufacturing facilities in the UK allowed it to get most of the
Sales drives resumed after the Great Depression, but the company never
achieved the market penetration that it had at the turn of the
century. It still produced a range of telephones and switching
equipment; the latter was becoming a more important part of its range.
Ericsson styles became subdued by the increasing use
of bakelite telephones starting in the 1930s.
Ericsson introduced the world's first fully automatic mobile telephone
system, MTA, in 1956. It released one of the world's first
hands-free speaker telephones in the 1960s. In 1954, it released the
Ericsson crossbar switching equipment was used in telephone
administrations in many countries. In 1983 the
company introduced the
ERIPAX suite of network products and services.
1995–2003: emergence of the Internet
In the 1990s, during the emergence of the Internet,
regarded as slow to realize its potential and falling behind in the
area of IP technology. But the company had established an Internet
project in 1995 called Infocom Systems to exploit opportunities
leading from fixed-line telecom and IT.
CEO Lars Ramqvist wrote in the
1996 annual report that in all three of its business areas – Mobile
Telephones and Terminals, Mobile Systems, and Infocom Systems – "we
will expand our operations as they relate to customer service and
Internet Protocol (IP) access (Internet and intranet access)".
The growth of GSM, which became a de facto world standard, combined
with Ericsson’s other mobile standards, such as
D-AMPS and PDC,
meant that by the start of 1997,
Ericsson had an estimated 40% share
of the world’s mobile market, with around 54 million subscribers.
There were also around 188 million AXE lines in place or on order in
117 countries. Telecom and chip companies worked in the 1990s to
provide Internet access over mobile telephones. Early versions such as
Wireless Application Protocol
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) used packet data over the existing
GSM network, in a form known as
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service),
but these services, known as 2.5G, were fairly rudimentary and did not
achieve much mass-market success.
International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) had prepared the
specifications for a 3G mobile service that included several
Ericsson pushed hard for the
WCDMA (wideband CDMA) form
based on the
GSM standard, and began testing it in 1996. Japanese
NTT DoCoMo signed deals to partner with
Ericsson and Nokia,
who came together in 1997 to support
WCDMA over rival standards.
DoCoMo was the first operator with a live 3G network, using its own
WCDMA called FOMA.
Ericsson was a significant developer of
WCDMA version of GSM, while US-based chip developer Qualcomm
promoted the alternative system CDMA2000, building on the popularity
CDMA in the US market. This resulted in a patent infringement
lawsuit that was resolved in March 1999 when the two companies
agreed to pay each other royalties for the use of their respective
Ericsson purchased Qualcomm’s wireless
infrastructure business and some R&D resources.
Qualcomm conflict was settled,
Ericsson continued to be
involved in mobile Internet. It announced a partnership with Microsoft
to combine its web browser and server software with Ericsson’s
mobile Internet technologies. The subsequent joint venture was
dissolved in 2001 in the aftermath of the Internet and telecom
Ericsson got caught up in the
Dot-com bubble of the late 1990s. The
company’s market value increased; its share price peaked at SEK 825
in March 2000, from a low of SEK 20 at the start of the 1990s.
Lars Ramqvist resigned as
CEO in January 1998, and later became
chairperson of the board. Sven-Christer Nilsson took over as
early 1998, and led the company in a clearer IP direction. Under his
leadership, the company's acquisitions including a share in US router
Ericsson had become a leading player in networks and the production of
mobile telephones, sharing top place with
1997. Services were becoming increasingly important;
offered network rollout services for many years, and had operated
networks, but at the end of the 1990s the services operations were
amalgamated into a services unit.
In June 1999, Kurt Hellström, the head of Ericsson’s mobile
division, replaced Nilsson as CEO. Worldwide hype around the potential
of the internet – and for
Ericsson in particular the mobile internet
– had inflated industry expectations. Operators in
many Westernized countries used much of their capital bidding for 3G
licenses, and could not afford the new networks required to use the
spectrum they had acquired. The order intake that
Ericsson and other telecom vendors had expected, and invested in
preparing for, was disappointing, causing job losses and
consolidations across the industry.
Ericsson issued a profit warning in March 2001. Over the coming year,
sales to operators halved. Mobile telephones became a burden; the
company's telephones unit made a loss of SEK 24 million in 2000. A
fire in a Philips chip factory in New Mexico in March 2000 caused
severe disruption to Ericsson’s phone production, dealing a coup
de grâce to Ericsson’s mobile phone hopes. Mobile phones would be
spun off into a joint venture with Sony,
Communications, in October 2001.
Ericsson launched several rounds
of restructuring, refinancing and job-cutting; during 2001, staff
numbers fell from 107,000 to 85,000. A further 20,000 went the
next year, and 11,000 more in 2003. A new rights issue raised
SEK 30 billion to keep the company afloat. The company had survived as
mobile Internet started growing. With record profits, it was in better
shape than many of its competitors.
2003–2016: rebuilding and growing
The emergence of full mobile Internet began a period of growth for the
global telecom industry, including Ericsson. After the launch of 3G
services during 2003, people started to access the Internet
using their telephones.
Ericsson’s position as a supplier of
GSM equipment to many major
operators, and its pioneering role in the emerging 3G standards and
associated technology, placed it at the forefront of many of the
changes to come. The cutbacks that followed 10 consecutive quarters of
losses meant the company could return to profit in Q3 2003, and begin
to grow again. After announcing in 2003 that it had returned to
CEO Carl-Henric Svanberg said the company was to
concentrate on operational excellence, a wide-ranging push for
efficiency and better return on investment that dominated Ericsson’s
corporate culture for several years.
During the cutbacks,
Ericsson had reduced its
CDMA organization. This
standard, used largely in North America, Japan and mainland Asia, was
a rival to GSM, and
Ericsson had a global market share of 25%, but the
overall volumes were too low so
Ericsson wound down its CDMA
commitment, ending it completely by 2006. Ericsson
started a series of acquisitions to strengthen its position in key
technologies and market segments. The first of these
was Marconi, a company dating back to the dawn of radio whose assets
included a strong portfolio in transmission, fiber optic and fixed
Further acquisitions included
Redback Networks (carrier edge-routers),
Entrisphere (fiber) and
LHS Telekommunikation (customer care services)
in 2007, and
Tandberg Television in 2008. Ericsson
sold its enterprise PBX division to
Aastra Technologies the same
Ericsson re-entered the
CDMA market after acquiring
North American vendor Nortel’s
CDMA operations and assets in
2009. The acquisitions followed Ericsson’s general
strategy of expanding into next-generation network technologies and
multimedia, a combined offering that became more important as video
became the dominant form of data traffic on mobile broadband
networks.40% of the world's mobile traffic is carried
Ericsson created a division to develop its
multimedia business in early 2007.
Ericsson was working on ways to improve
WCDMA as operators were buying
and rolling it out; it was the first generation of 3G access. New
advances included IMS (IP
Multimedia Subsystem) and the next evolution
of WCDMA, called
High-Speed Packet Access
High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA). It was initially
deployed in the download version called HSDPA; the technology spread
from the first test calls in the US in late 2005 to 59 commercial
networks in September 2006. HSPA would provide the world’s first
In July 2016, Hans Vestberg stepped down as Ericsson's CEO, after a
half-dozen years heading the company. Jan Frykhammar, who has been
working for the company since 1991 will be stepping in as interim CEO
Ericsson searches for a full-time replacement.
On January 16, 2017, following Ericsson's announcement on October 26,
Börje Ekholm started and interim
CEO Jan Frykhammar
stepped down the following day.
Acquisitions, expansion, consolidation and cooperation
Around 2000, companies and governments began to push for standards for
mobile Internet. In May 2000, the
European Commission created the
Wireless Strategic Initiative, a consortium of four
telecommunications suppliers in Europe – Ericsson, Nokia, Alcatel
Siemens AG (Germany) – to develop and test new
prototypes for advanced wireless communications systems. Later that
year, the consortium partners invited other companies to join them in
a Wireless World Research Forum in 2001. In December
1999, Microsoft and
Ericsson announced a strategic partnership to
combine the former's web browser and server software with the latter's
mobile-internet technologies. In 2000, the
Dot-com bubble burst
with marked economic implications for Sweden. Ericsson, the world's
largest producer of mobile telecommunications equipment, shed
thousands of jobs, as did the country's Internet consulting firms and
dot-com start-ups. In the same year, Intel, the world's largest
semiconductor chip manufacturer, signed a $1.5 billion deal to supply
flash memory to
Ericsson over the next three years.
The short-lived joint venture called
Ericsson Microsoft Mobile Venture
AB, owned 70/30 percent by
Ericsson and Microsoft, respectively, ended
in October 2001 when
Ericsson announced it would absorb the former
joint venture and adopt a licensing agreement with Microsoft
instead. The same month,
Ericsson announced the launch of Sony
Ericsson, a joint venture mobile telephone business, together with
Ericsson remained in operation until
February 2012, when
Sony bought out Ericsson's share;
Ericsson said it
wanted to focus on the global wireless market as a whole.
Lower stock prices and job losses affected many telecommunications
companies in 2001. The major equipment manufacturers – Motorola
Lucent Technologies (U.S.),
Cisco Systems (U.S.), Marconi
Siemens AG (Germany),
Nokia (Finland), as well as
all announced job cuts in their home countries and in subsidiaries
around the world. Ericsson's workforce worldwide fell during 2001 from
107,000 to 85,000.
In September 2001,
Ericsson purchased the remaining shares in EHPT
from Hewlett Packard. Founded in 1993,
Ericsson Hewlett Packard
Telecom (EHPT) was a Joint Venture made up of 60%
and 40% Hewlett-Packard interests.
In 2002, ICT investor losses topped $2 trillion and share prices fell
by 95% until August that year. More than half a million people lost
their jobs in the global telecom industry over the two years. The
collapse of U.S. carrier WorldCom, with more than $107 billion in
assets, was the biggest in U.S. history. The sector's problems
caused bankruptcies and job losses, and led to changes in the
leadership of a number of major companies.
Ericsson made 20,000 more
staff redundant and raised about $3 billion from its shareholders.
In June 2002,
Infineon Technologies AG
Infineon Technologies AG (then the sixth-largest
semiconductor supplier and a subsidiary of Siemens AG) bought
Ericsson’s microelectronics unit for $400 million.
Co-operation with Hewlett-Packard did not end with EHPT; in 2003
Ericsson outsourced its IT to HP, which included Managed Services,
Help Desk Support, Data Center Operations, and HP Utility Data Center.
The contract was extended in 2008. There have also been a number
of joint Ericsson/HP Telecoms outsourcing deals with telecoms
operators including H3G and Vodafone. In October
Ericsson acquired the bulk of the troubled UK telecommunications
manufacturer Marconi Company, including its brand name that dates back
to the creation of the original
Marconi Company by the "father of
radio" Guglielmo Marconi. In September 2006,
Ericsson sold the
greater part of its defense business
Ericsson Microwave Systems, which
mainly produced sensor and radar systems, to Saab AB, which renamed
the company to Saab Microwave Systems. The sale meant Saab
Ericsson Space, previously a joint venture, was now fully owned by
Saab. Not included in the sale to Saab was the National Security &
Public Safety division, which was transferred to
Ericsson with the
Ericsson acquired carrier edge-router maker Redback Networks,
and then Entrisphere, a US-based company providing fiber-access
technology. In September 2007,
Ericsson acquired an 84% interest
in German customer-care and billing software firm LHS, a stake later
raised to 100%. In 2008,
Ericsson sold its enterprise PBX
Aastra Technologies, and acquired
the television technology division of Norwegian company Tandberg.
Ericsson bought the
CDMA2000 and LTE business of Nortel’s
carrier networks division for USD 1.18 billion; Bizitek, a Turkish
business support systems integrator; the Estonian manufacturing
operations of electronic manufacturing company Elcoteq; and completed
its acquisition of LHS. Acquisitions in 2010 included assets from
the Strategy and Technology Group of inCode, a North American business
and consulting-services company; Nortel’s majority shareholding
(50% plus one share) in LG-Nortel, a joint venture between LG
Nortel Networks providing sales, R&D and
industrial capacity in South Korea, now known as Ericsson-LG; further
Nortel carrier-division assets, relating from Nortel’s
in the United States and Canada; Optimi Corporation, a U.S.–Spanish
telecommunications vendor specializing in network optimization and
management; and Pride, a consulting and systems-integration
company operating in Italy.
Ericsson acquired manufacturing and research facilities, and
staff from the Guangdong
Nortel Telecommunication Equipment Company
(GDNT) as well as Nortel’s Multiservice Switch business. It
also formed a strategic alliance with
Akamai Technologies to develop
and market mobile cloud acceleration services.
Ericsson acquired U.S. company
Telcordia Technologies in January
2012, an operations and business support systems (OSS/BSS)
company. In March,
Ericsson announced it was buying the
broadcast-services division of Technicolor, a media broadcast
technology company. In April 2012
the acquisition of BelAir Networks a strong Wi-Fi network technology
On 3 May 2013,
Ericsson announced it would divest its power cable
operations to Danish company NKT Holding. On 1 July 2013, Ericsson
announced it would acquire the media management company Red Bee Media,
subject to regulatory approval. The acquisition was completed on 9
May 2014. In September 2013,
Ericsson completed its acquisition of
Microsoft's Mediaroom business and televisions services, originally
announced in April the same year. The acquisition makes
largest provider of
IPTV and multi-screen services in the world, by
market share; it was renamed
Ericsson Mediaroom. In September
Ericsson acquired majority stake in
Apcera for cloud policy
As of 2016[update], members of the board of directors of LM Ericsson
were: Leif Johansson, Jacob Wallenberg, Kristin S. Rinne, Helena
Stjernholm, Sukhinder Singh Cassidy, Börje Ekholm, Ulf J. Johansson,
Mikael Lännqvist, Zlatko Hadzic, Kjell-Åke Soting, Nora Denzel,
Kristin Skogen Lund, Pehr Claesson, Karin Åberg and Roger
Research and development
Ericsson has structured its R&D in three levels depending on when
products or technologies will be introduced to customers and
users. Its research and development organization is part of Group
Function Technology and addresses several facets of network
architecture: wireless access networks; radio access technologies;
broadband technologies; packet technologies; multimedia technologies;
services software; EMF safety and sustainability; security; and global
services. The head of research since 2012 is Sara Mazur.
Group Function Technology holds research co-operations with several
major universities and research institutes including: Lund University
Eötvös Loránd University
Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary and Beijing
Institute of Technology in China.
Ericsson also holds research
co-operations within several European research programs such as
GigaWam and OASE.
Ericsson holds 33,000 granted patents, and is
the number-one holder of GSM/GPRS/EDGE, WCDMA/HSPA, and LTE essential
Ericsson hosts a developer program called
Connection designed to encourage development of applications and
Ericsson also has an open innovation initiative for beta
applications and beta API's & tools called
needed] The company hosts several internal innovation competitions
among its employees.
Products and services
Ericsson’s business includes technology research, development,
network and software development, and running and evolving
operations. and software
Ericsson offers end-to-end
services for all major mobile communication standards, and has
four main business units.
Business Area Networks (earlier Business Unit Networks)
Business Unit Networks has been headed by Johan Wibergh since 2008. It
develops network infrastructure for communication needs over mobile
and fixed connections. As of 1 July 2014, BNET has been divided
into Business Unit Radio and Business Unit Cloud & IP. Its
products include radio base stations, radio network controllers,
mobile switching centers and service application nodes. Operators use
Ericsson products to migrate from 2G to 3G and, most recently, to 4G
The company's network division has been described as a driver in the
development of 2G, 3G, 4G/LTE technology, future 5G and the evolution
towards all-IP, and it develops and deploys advanced LTE
systems, but it is still developing the older GSM, WCDMA,
CDMA technologies. The company's networks portfolio also
includes core networks, microwave transport,
Internet Protocol (IP)
networks, fixed-access services for copper and fiber, and mobile
broadband modules, several levels of fixed broadband access,
radio access networks from small pico cells to high-capacity macro
cells, controllers for radio base stations, and core network nodes
that interconnect radio access networks with other parts of the
Ericsson Power Modules supplies direct
current (DC)/DC converters and DC/DC regulators, mainly to the
communications industry, for advanced applications, such as
multiplexors, switches, routers and radio base stations.
Manufacturing is in China.
Business Unit Global Services
Magnus Mandersson has been Head of Business Unit Global
Services. It provides telecoms-related managed services, including
taking responsibility for running an operator’s network and the
related business support systems. The unit is active
in 180 countries; it supplies managed services, systems
integration, consulting, network rollout, design and optimization,
broadcast services, learning services and support. The
company also works with television and media, public safety, and
Ericsson claims to manage networks that serve more than 1
billion subscribers worldwide, and to support customer networks
that serve more than 2.5 billion subscribers.
Business Unit Support Solutions
Per Borgklint has headed Business Unit Support Solutions since
2011. Initially established in 2007, as Business Unit Multimedia,
Ericsson announced a new strategy for its multimedia business in
February 2012. Its Business Unit Support Solutions now develops
software for operations and business support systems (OSS and BSS),
real-time, multi-screen and on-demand television and media, and for
the emerging m-commerce eco-system.
Ericsson claims a leading position
in charging and billing, serving 1.6 billion people.
OSS and BSS expanded after the integration of Telcordia, and it
Customer experience management including fulfilment,
assurance, network optimization and real-time charging.
TV and media offers products that enable operators and content owners
to sell multi-screen TV services.
M-Commerce sells mobile e-commerce products, for mobile operators
and financial institutions offer mobile wallet services to
Ericsson has announced m-commerce deals with Western
Union and African wireless carrier MTN.
Ericsson's systems integration offering currently[when?] consists of
seven service offerings:
Operations Support Systems
Business Support Systems
IP Networks and Architecture
TV, Applications and Service Delivery Platforms
Solution and Life-Cycle Management
Ericsson's network rollout services employ in-house capabilities,
subcontractors and central resources to make changes to live
networks. Services such as technology deployment, network
transformation, and network optimization are also provided.
Ericsson's Broadcast Services deal with the playout of live and
pre-recorded, commercial and public service television programmes,
including presentation (continuity announcements), trailers, and
ancillary access services such as closed-caption subtitles, audio
description and in-vision sign language interpreters. Its media
management services consist of Managed Media Preparation and Managed
Media Internet Delivery.
Business Unit Modems
As of 7 May 2014, Robert Puskaric assumed the role as Vice President
and Head of Business Unit Modems, succeeding Mats Norin who had the
position since August 2013. This unit designs and sells LTE
multimode thin modems, including 2G, 3G and 4G interoperability.
This activity was transferred to
Ericsson from ST-
Ericsson when the
new Modems organization was put in place. The unit has developed
products including the
Ericsson M7000 series multimode modems which
support LTE (FDD /TDD), HSPA+, HSPA, TD-S
CDMA and EDGE. In September
Ericsson announced it would stop developing modems, shutting a
loss-making unit it took on after joint venture partner
Microelectronics pulled out.
Ericsson Mobile Communications AB (
Sony Ericsson) was a joint
Sony that merged the previous mobile telephone operations
of both companies. It manufactured mobile telephones, accessories and
personal computer (PC) cards.
Ericsson was responsible for
product design and development, marketing, sales, distribution and
customer services. On 16 February 2012,
Sony announced it had
completed the full acquisition of
Further information: List of
Mobile (cell) telephones
As a joint venture with Sony, Ericsson’s mobile telephone production
was moved into the company
Ericsson in 2001. The following is a
list of mobile phones marketed under the brand name Ericsson.
Ericsson GS88 – Cancelled mobile telephone where
the "Smartphone" name for
Ericsson GA628 – Known for its
Ericsson SH888 – First mobile telephone to have wireless modem
Ericsson A1018 – Dualband cellphone, notably easy to hack
Ericsson A2618 &
Ericsson A2628 – Dualband cellphones. Use
graphical LCD display based on PCF8548 I²C controller.
Ericsson T10 – Colourful Cellphone
Ericsson T18 – Business model of the T10, with active flip
Ericsson T28 – Very slim telephone. Uses lithium polymer batteries.
Ericsson T28 FAQ use graphical LCD display based on PCF8558 I²C
Ericsson T29s – Similar to the T28s, but with WAP support
Ericsson T29m – pre-alpha prototype for the T39m
Ericsson T36m – Prototype for the T39m. Announced in yellow and
blue. Never hit the market due to release T39m
Ericsson T39 – Similar to the T28, but with a
GPRS modem, Bluetooth
and triband capabilities
Ericsson T68m – The first
Ericsson handset to have a color display,
later branded as
Ericsson R250s Pro – Fully dust and water resistant telephone
Ericsson R320s Titan – Limited Edition with titanium front
GPRS – Prototype for testing
Ericsson R360m – Pre-alpha prototype for the R520m
Ericsson R380 – First cellphone to use the Symbian OS
Ericsson R520m – Similar to the T39, but in a candy bar form
factor[clarification needed] and with added features such as a
built-in speakerphone and an optical proximity sensor
Ericsson R520m UMTS – Prototype to test UMTS networks
Ericsson R520m SyncML – Prototype to test the SyncML implementation
Ericsson R580m – Announced in several press releases. Supposed to be
a successor of the R380s without external antenna and with color
Ericsson Mobile Platforms
Ericsson Mobile Platforms
Ericsson Mobile Platforms was a supplier of technology platforms for
GSM/EDGE and WCDMA/HSPA platforms used in devices, such as mobile
handsets and PC cards. Through
Ericsson licensed open-standard, end-to-end
interoperability-tested GSM/EDGE and
platforms. The product offering included reference
designs, platform software, application-specific integrated circuit
(ASIC) designs and development boards, development and test tools,
training, support and documentation.
Ericsson Mobile Platforms
Ericsson Mobile Platforms had
operations at nine global locations, with main operations in
The company existed for eight years; on 12 February 2009, Ericsson
announced it would be merged with the mobile platform company of
STMicroelectronics, ST-NXP Wireless, to create a 50/50 joint venture
Ericsson and STMicroelectronics. This joint venture was
divested in 2013 and remaining activities can be found in Ericsson
Modems and STMicroelectronics.
Ericsson Mobile Platform ceased being a
legal entity early 2009.
Starting in 1983
Ericsson Enterprise provided communications systems
and services for businesses, public entities and educational
institutions. It produced products for voice over Internet protocol
(VoIP)-based private branch exchanges (PBX), wireless local area
networks (WLAN), and mobile intranets.
Ericsson Enterprise operated
Sweden but also operated through regional units and other
partners/distributors. In 2008 it was sold to Aastra.
.mobi and mobile Internet
Ericsson was an official backer in the launch of the
.mobi top level
domain created specifically for the mobile internet. Since the
.mobi in September 2006,
Ericsson has launched
SonyEricsson.mobi, the mobile portal of
Ericsson Nikola Tesla
Erlang (programming language)
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Hennes & Mauritz
Modern Times Group
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