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ERFURT (German pronunciation: ( listen ) ) is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia
Thuringia
, central Germany. It lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin , within the wide valley of the Gera
Gera
river . It is located 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Leipzig
Leipzig
, 300 km (186 mi) south-west of Berlin
Berlin
, 400 km (249 mi) north of Munich and 250 km (155 mi) north-east of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
. Together with neighbouring cities Weimar
Weimar
and Jena
Jena
it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants.

Erfurt's old town is one of the most intact medieval cities in Germany, having survived World War II
World War II
with very little damage. Tourist attractions include the Krämerbrücke
Krämerbrücke
(Merchants' bridge), the ensemble of Erfurt Cathedral
Erfurt Cathedral
and Severikirche (St Severus's Church) and Petersburg Citadel, one of the largest and best preserved town fortresses in Europe. The city's economy is based on agriculture, horticulture and microelectronics. Its central location has led to it becoming a logistics hub for Germany
Germany
and central Europe. Erfurt
Erfurt
hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany
Germany
(after Leipzig) as well as the public television children’s channel KiKa
KiKa
.

The city is situated on the Via Regia
Via Regia
, a medieval trade and pilgrims' road network. Modern day Erfurt
Erfurt
is also a hub for ICE high speed trains and other German and European transport networks. Erfurt was first mentioned in 742, as Saint Boniface founded the diocese. Although the town did not belong to any of the Thuringian states politically, it quickly became the economic centre of the region. It was part of the Electorate of Mainz during the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, and later became part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1802. From 1949 until 1990 Erfurt
Erfurt
was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).

Notable institutions in Erfurt
Erfurt
are the Federal Labour Court of Germany
Germany
, the University of Erfurt and the Fachhochschule Erfurt (University of Applied Sciences).

The university was founded in 1379, making it the first university to be established within the geographic area which constitutes modern-day Germany. It closed in 1816 and was re-established in 1994, with the main modern campus on what was a former teachers' training college. Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483 - 1546) was the most famous student of the institution, studying there from 1501.

Other famous Erfurters include the medieval philosopher and mystic Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
(c. 1260-1328), the Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), the sociologist Max Weber
Max Weber
(1864-1920), rapper Clueso (Thomas Hübner) (1980-), and Gunda Niemann (1966- ), three-times Olympic speed skating gold-medal winner.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistory and antiquity * 1.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 1.3 Early modern period * 1.4 Erfurt
Erfurt
during the Napoleonic Wars * 1.5 Since 1815

* 2 Geography and demographics

* 2.1 Topography * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Administrative division * 2.4 Demographics

* 3 Culture, sights and cityscape

* 3.1 Residents notable in cultural history * 3.2 Museums * 3.3 Theatre * 3.4 Sport * 3.5 Cityscape

* 3.6 Sights and architectural heritage

* 3.6.1 Churches, monasteries and synagogues

* 3.6.1.1 Catholic churches and monasteries * 3.6.1.2 Protestant churches and monasteries * 3.6.1.3 Former churches * 3.6.1.4 Synagogues

* 3.6.2 Secular architecture

* 3.6.2.1 Street and square ensembles * 3.6.2.2 Fortifications * 3.6.2.3 19th- and 20th-century architecture in the outskirts

* 4 Economy and infrastructure

* 4.1 Agriculture, industry and services

* 4.2 Transport

* 4.2.1 By rail * 4.2.2 By road * 4.2.3 By light rail and bus * 4.2.4 By airplane * 4.2.5 By bike

* 4.3 Education * 4.4 Media

* 5 Politics

* 5.1 Mayor and city council * 5.2 Twin towns

* 6 People from Erfurt
Erfurt
* 7 Footnotes * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Erfurt

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

Erfurt
Erfurt
is an old Germanic settlement . The earliest evidence of human settlement dates from the prehistoric era; archaeological finds from the north of Erfurt
Erfurt
revealed human traces from the paleolithic period, ca. 100,000 BCE. The Melchendorf dig in the southern city part showed a settlement from the neolithic period . The Thuringii
Thuringii
inhabited the Erfurt
Erfurt
area ca. 480 and gave their name to Thuringia
Thuringia
ca. 500.

MIDDLE AGES

Erfurt, woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle , 1493 Old synagogue , the oldest in Europe (1094) Collegium maius building of the old university (1392)

The town is first mentioned in 742 under the name of "Erphesfurt": in that year, Saint Boniface wrote to Pope Zachary to inform him that he had established three dioceses in central Germany, one of them "in a place called Erphesfurt, which for a long time has been inhabited by pagan natives." All three dioceses (the other two were Würzburg and Büraburg ) were confirmed by Zachary the next year, though in 755 Erfurt
Erfurt
was brought into the diocese of Mainz
Mainz
. That the place was populous already is borne out by archeological evidence, which includes 23 graves and six horse burials from the sixth and seventh centuries.

Throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, Erfurt
Erfurt
was an important trading town because of its location, near a ford across the Gera
Gera
river. Together with the other five Thuringian woad towns of Gotha
Gotha
, Tennstedt , Arnstadt and Langensalza it was the centre of the German woad trade, which made those cities very wealthy. Erfurt
Erfurt
was the junction of important trade routes: the Via Regia
Via Regia
was one of the most used east–west roads between France
France
and Russia
Russia
(via Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Erfurt, Leipzig
Leipzig
and Wrocław ) and another route in north–south direction was the connection between the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
ports (e. g. Lübeck ) and the potent upper Italian city-states like Venice
Venice
and Milan
Milan
.

During the 10th and 11th centuries both the Emperor and the Electorate of Mainz held some privileges in Erfurt. The German kings had an important monastery on Petersberg hill and the Archbishops of Mainz
Mainz
collected taxes from the people. Around 1100, some people became free citizens by paying the annual "Freizins" (liberation tax), which marks a first step in becoming an independent city. During the 12th century, as a sign of more and more independence, the citizens built a city wall around Erfurt
Erfurt
(in the area of today's Juri-Gagarin-Ring). After 1200, independence was fulfilled and a city council was founded in 1217; the town hall was built in 1275. In the following decades, the council bought a city-owned territory around Erfurt
Erfurt
which consisted at its height of nearly 100 villages and castles and even another small town ( Sömmerda ). Erfurt
Erfurt
became an important regional power between the Landgraviate of Thuringia
Thuringia
around, the Electorate of Mainz
Mainz
to the west and the Electorate of Saxony to the east. Between 1306 and 1481, Erfurt
Erfurt
was allied with the two other major Thuringian cities ( Mühlhausen and Nordhausen
Nordhausen
) in the Thuringian City Alliance and the three cities joined the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
together in 1430. A peak in economic development was reached in the 15th century, when the city had a population of 20,000 making it to one of the largest in Germany. Between 1432 and 1446, a second and higher city wall was established. In 1483, a first city fortress was built on Cyriaksburg hill in the southwestern part of the town.

The Jewish community of Erfurt
Erfurt
was founded in the 11th century and became, together with Mainz
Mainz
, Worms and Speyer
Speyer
, one of the most influential in Germany. Their Old Synagogue is still extant and a museum today, as is the mikveh at Gera
Gera
river near Krämerbrücke. In 1349, during the wave of Black Death Jewish persecutions across Europe, the Jews of Erfurt
Erfurt
were rounded up, with more than 100 killed and the rest driven from the city. Before the persecution, a wealthy Jewish merchant buried his property in the basement of his house. In 1998, this treasure was found during construction works. The Erfurt Treasure with various gold and silver objects is shown in the exhibition in the synagogue today. Only a few years after 1349, the Jews moved back to Erfurt
Erfurt
and founded a second community, which was disbanded by the city council in 1458.

In 1379, the University of Erfurt was founded. Together with the University of Cologne it was one of the first city-owned universities in Germany, while they were usually owned by the Landesherren . Some buildings of this old university are extant or restored in the "Latin Quarter" in the northern city centre (like Collegium Maius, student dorms "Georgenburse" and others, the hospital and the church of the university). The university quickly became a hotspot of German cultural life in Renaissance humanism
Renaissance humanism
with scholars like Ulrich von Hutten , Helius Eobanus Hessus and Justus Jonas .

EARLY MODERN PERIOD

Erfurt
Erfurt
in 1650 Kurmainzische Statthalterei, seat of the governors of Erfurt
Erfurt
(at front) Christina, Queen of Sweden, depicted on a 1645 Erfurt
Erfurt
10 ducat coin.

In 1501 Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483 - 1546) moved to Erfurt
Erfurt
and began his studies at the university, finishing in 1509 with a doctorate degree. After 1505, he lived in the Augustinian Monastery. In 1507 he became a priest at Erfurt
Erfurt
Cathedral. He moved to Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in 1511. His Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
found its way to Erfurt
Erfurt
in 1521.

In 1530, the city became one of the first in Europe to be officially bi-confessional with the Hammelburg Treaty. It kept that status through all the following centuries. The later 16th and the 17th century brought a slow economic decline of Erfurt. Trade shrank, the population was falling and the university lost its influence. The city's independence was endangered. In 1664, the city and surrounding area were brought under the dominion of the Electorate of Mainz and the city lost its independence. The Electorate built a huge fortress on Petersberg hill between 1665 and 1726 to control the city and instituted a governor to rule Erfurt.

During the late 18th century, Erfurt
Erfurt
saw another cultural peak. Governor Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg had close relations with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
, Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
, Johann Gottfried Herder , Christoph Martin Wieland and Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
, who often visited him at his court in Erfurt.

ERFURT DURING THE NAPOLEONIC WARS

Main article: Principality of Erfurt
Principality of Erfurt
Die Napoleonshöhe im Steiger bei Erfurt, painted by Nikolaus Dornheim (de) in 1812. Inaugurated in March 1811 to celebrate Napoleon
Napoleon
's birthday, this Greek-style temple with grotto, flowerbeds and fountain in the Stiegerwald was burned in November 1813 and completely destroyed by Erfurters and their besiegers in 1814.

Erfurt
Erfurt
became part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in 1802, to compensate for territories Prussia
Prussia
lost to France
France
on the Left Bank of the Rhine . In the Capitulation of Erfurt the city, its 12,000 Prussian and Saxon defenders under William VI, Prince of Orange-Nassau , 65 artillery pieces, and the Petersberg and Cyriaksburg fortresses (Zitadellen von Petersberg und Cyriaksburg) were handed over to the French on 16 October 1806; At the time of the capitulation, Joachim Murat , Marshal of France
Marshal of France
, had about 16,000 troops near Erfurt. With the attachment of the Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
territory of Blankenhain , the city became part of the First French Empire
First French Empire
in 1806 as the Principality of Erfurt
Erfurt
, directly subordinate to Napoleon
Napoleon
as an "imperial state domain" (French : domaine réservé à l'empereur), separate from the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
, which the surrounding Thuringian states had joined. Erfurt
Erfurt
was administered by a civilian and military Senate (Finanz- und Domänenkammer Erfurt) under a French governor, based in the Kurmainzische Statthalterei, previously the seat of city's governor under the Electorate. Napoleon
Napoleon
first visited the principality on 23 July 1807, inspecting the citadels and fortifications. In 1808, the Congress of Erfurt was held with Napoleon
Napoleon
and Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia
visiting the city.

During their administration, the French introduced street lighting and a tax on foreign horses to pay for maintaining the road surface . The Peterskirche suffered under the French occupation, with its inventory being auctioned off to other local churches — including the organ , bells and even the tower of the Corpus Christi chapel (Fronleichnamskapelle) — and the former monastery's library being donated to the University of Erfurt (and then to the Boineburg Library when the university closed in 1816). Similarly the Cyriaksburg Citadel was damaged by the French, with the city-side walls being partially dismantled in the hunt for imagined treasures from the convent, workers being paid from the sale of the building materials.

In 1811, to commemorate the birth of the Prince Imperial , a 70-foot (21-metre) ceremonial column (Die Napoleonsäule) of wood and plaster was erected on the common . Similarly, the Napoleonshöhe — a Greek-style temple topped by a winged victory with shield, sword and lance and containing a bust of Napoleon
Napoleon
sculpted by Friedrich Döll — was erected in the Stiegerwald woods, including a grotto with fountain and flower beds, using a large pond (lavoratorium) from the Peterskirche, inaugurated with ceremony on 14 August 1811 after extravagant celebrations for Napoleon's birthday, which were repeated in 1812 with a concert in the Predigerkirche conducted by Louis Spohr .

With the Sixth Coalition forming after French defeat in Russia, on 24 February 1813 Napoleon
Napoleon
ordered the Petersburg Citadel to prepare for siege , visiting the city on 25 April to inspect the fortifications, in particular both Citadels. On 10 July 1813, Napoleon
Napoleon
put Alexandre d\'Alton (fr), baron of the Empire , in charge of the defences of Erfurt. However, when the French decreed that 1000 men would be conscripted into the Grande Armée, the recruits were joined by other citizens in rioting on 19 July that led to 20 arrests, of whom 2 were sentenced to death by French court-martial ; as a result, the French ordered the closure of all inns and alehouses.

Within a week of the Sixth Coalition's decisive victory at Leipzig (16–19 October 1813), however, Erfurt
Erfurt
was besieged by Prussian, Austrian and Russian troops under the command of Prussian Lt Gen von Kleist . After a first capitulation signed by d'Alton on 20 December 1813 the French troops withdrew to the two fortresses of Petersberg and Cyriaksburg, allowing for the Coalition forces to march into Erfurt
Erfurt
on 6 January 1814 to jubilant greetings; the Napoleonsäule ceremonial column was burned and destroyed as a symbol of the citizens' oppression under the French; similarly the Napoleonshöhe was burned on 1 November 1813 and completely destroyed by Erfurters and their besiegers in 1814. After a call for volunteers 3 days later, 300 Erfurters joined the Coalition armies in France. Finally, in May 1814, the French capitulated fully, with 1,700 French troops vacating the Petersberg and Cyriaksburg fortresses. During the two and a half months of siege, the mortality rate rose in the city greatly; 1,564 Erfurt
Erfurt
citizens died in 1813, around a thousand more than the previous year.

After the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
, Erfurt
Erfurt
was restored to Prussia
Prussia
on 21 June 1815, becoming the capital of one of the three districts (Regierungsbezirke) of the new Province of Saxony , but some southern and eastern parts of Erfurter lands joined Blankenhain in being transferred to the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach the following September. Although enclosed by Thuringian territory in the west, south and east, the city remained part of the Prussian Province of Saxony
Saxony
until 1944.

SINCE 1815

Streetscape in the southern city extension ( Gründerzeit style) Housing projects in Bauhaus
Bauhaus
style from 1930 Hotel "Erfurter Hof", place of the first meeting of East and West German heads of government in 1970

After the 1848 Revolution , many Germans desired to have a united national state. An attempt in this direction was the failed Erfurt Union of German states in 1850.

The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
reached Erfurt
Erfurt
in the 1840s, when the Thuringian Railway connecting Berlin
Berlin
and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
was built. During the following years, many factories in different sectors were founded. One of the biggest was the "Royal Gun Factory of Prussia
Prussia
" in 1862. After German Unification in 1871, Erfurt
Erfurt
moved from the southern border of Prussia
Prussia
to the centre of Germany, so that the fortifications of the city were not needed anymore. The demolition of the city fortifications in 1873 led to a construction boom in Erfurt, because it was now possible to build in the area formerly occupied by the city walls and beyond. Many public and private buildings emerged and the infrastructure (such as tramway, hospitals, schools) improved rapidly. The number of inhabitants grew from 40,000 around 1870 to 130,000 in 1914 and the city expanded in all directions.

The " Erfurt Program " was adopted by the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
during its congress at Erfurt
Erfurt
in 1891.

Between the wars, the city kept growing. Housing shortages were fought with building programmes and social infrastructure was broadened according to the welfare policy in the Weimar
Weimar
Republic . The Great Depression
Great Depression
between 1929 and 1932 led to a disaster for Erfurt, nearly one out of three became unemployed. Conflicts between far-left and far-right oriented milieus increased and many inhabitants supported the new Nazi government and Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. Others, especially some communist workers, put up resistance against the new administration. In 1938, the new synagogue was destroyed during the Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
. Jews lost their property and emigrated or were deported to Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
(together with many communists). In 1914, the company Topf and Sons began the manufacture of crematoria later becoming the market leader in this industry. Under the Nazis, JA Topf "> Socialist-era street signs removed from around the city of Erfurt
Erfurt
after 1990

With the re-formation of the state of Thuringia
Thuringia
in 1990, the city became the state capital. After reunification, a deep economic crisis occurred in Eastern Germany. Many factories closed and many people lost their jobs and moved to the former West Germany. At the same time, many buildings were redeveloped and the infrastructure improved massively. In 1994, the new university was opened, as was the Fachhochschule in 1991. Between 2005 and 2008, the economic situation improved as the unemployment rate decreased and new enterprises developed. In addition, the population began to increase once again.

GEOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHICS

Gera
Gera
river in the city centre

TOPOGRAPHY

Erfurt
Erfurt
is situated in the south of the Thuringian basin , a fertile agricultural area between the Harz mountains 80 km (50 mi) to the north and the Thuringian forest
Thuringian forest
30 km (19 mi) to the southwest. Whereas the northern parts of the city area are flat, the southern ones consist of hilly landscape up to 430 m of elevation. In this part lies the municipal forest of Steigerwald with beeches and oaks as main tree species. To the east and to the west are some non-forested hills so that the Gera
Gera
river valley within the town forms a basin. North of the city are some gravel pits in operation, while others are abandoned, flooded and used as leisure areas.

CLIMATE

Erfurt
Erfurt
has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F) and lows of 12 °C (54 °F). Winters are relatively cold with average high temperatures of 2 °C (36 °F) and lows of −3 °C (27 °F). The city's topography creates a microclimate caused by the location inside a basin with sometimes inversion in winter (quite cold nights under −20 °C (−4 °F)) and inadequate air circulation in summer. Annual precipitation is only 502 millimeters (19.8 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ERFURT (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 3.3 (37.9) 8.0 (46.4) 13.1 (55.6) 17.7 (63.9) 20.4 (68.7) 23.2 (73.8) 23.1 (73.6) 18.4 (65.1) 13.1 (55.6) 6.9 (44.4) 2.9 (37.2) 12.7 (54.86)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.1 (26.4) −2.9 (26.8) 0.3 (32.5) 3.3 (37.9) 7.5 (45.5) 10.4 (50.7) 12.5 (54.5) 12.3 (54.1) 9.1 (48.4) 5.4 (41.7) 1.4 (34.5) −2.0 (28.4) 4.52 (40.12)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 24.1 (0.949) 25.5 (1.004) 39.1 (1.539) 42.1 (1.657) 63.9 (2.516) 57.1 (2.248) 72.8 (2.866) 54.4 (2.142) 46.8 (1.843) 34.7 (1.366) 43.4 (1.709) 35.1 (1.382) 539 (21.221)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 60.9 79.2 118.3 173.0 211.0 209.2 223.4 208.6 153.4 117.2 60.5 44.6 1,659.3

Source: Météoclimat

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

Districts of Erfurt
Erfurt

Erfurt
Erfurt
abuts the districts of Sömmerda (municipalities Witterda , Elxleben , Walschleben , Riethnordhausen , Nöda , Alperstedt , Großrudestedt , Udestedt , Kleinmölsen and Großmölsen ) in the north, Weimarer Land (municipalities Niederzimmern , Nohra
Nohra
, Mönchenholzhausen and Klettbach
Klettbach
) in the east, Ilm-Kreis (municipalities Kirchheim , Rockhausen and Amt Wachsenburg ) in the south and Gotha
Gotha
(municipalities Nesse-Apfelstädt
Nesse-Apfelstädt
, Nottleben
Nottleben
, Zimmernsupra and Bienstädt ) in the west.

The city itself is divided into 53 districts. The centre is formed by the district Altstadt (old town) and the Gründerzeit districts Andreasvorstadt in the northwest, Johannesvorstadt in the northeast, Krämpfervorstadt in the east, Daberstedt in the southeast, Löbervorstadt in the southwest and Brühlervorstadt in the west. More former industrial districts are Ilversgehofen (incorporated in 1911), Hohenwinden and Sulzer Siedlung in the north. Another group of districts is marked by Plattenbau settlements, constructed during the GDR period: Berliner Platz, Moskauer Platz, Rieth, Roter Berg and Johannesplatz in the northern as well as Melchendorf, Wiesenhügel and Herrenberg in the southern city parts.

Finally, there are many villages with an average population of approximately 1,000 which were incorporated during the 20th century; however, they mostly stayed rural to date:

* Alach (incorporated 1994) * Azmannsdorf (1994) * Bindersleben (1950) * Bischleben-Stedten (1950) * Büßleben (1994) * Dittelstedt (1994) * Egstedt (1994) * Ermstedt (1994) * Frienstedt (1994) * Gispersleben (1950) * Gottstedt (1994) * Hochheim (1938) * Hochstedt (1994) * Kerspleben (1994) * Kühnhausen (1994) * Linderbach (1994) * Marbach (1950) * Mittelhausen (1994) * Möbisburg-Rhoda (1950) * Molsdorf (1994) * Niedernissa (1994) * Rohda (1994) * Salomonsborn (1994) * Schaderode (1994) * Schmira (1950) * Schwerborn (1994) * Stotternheim (1994) * Tiefthal (1994) * Töttelstädt (1994) * Töttleben (1994) * Urbich (1994) * Vieselbach (1994) * Wallichen (1994) * Waltersleben (1994) * Windischholzhausen (1994)

DEMOGRAPHICS

History of the population from 1493 to 2014.

TEN LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2013)

Russia
Russia
753

Vietnam
Vietnam
661

Ukraine
Ukraine
575

Poland
Poland
452

Turkey
Turkey
445

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
358

Hungary
Hungary
286

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
249

Iraq
Iraq
228

Latvia
Latvia
220

Around the year 1500, the city had 18,000 inhabitants and was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. The population then more or less stagnated until the 19th century. The population of Erfurt
Erfurt
was 21,000 in 1820, and increased to 32,000 in 1847, the year of rail connection as industrialization began. In the following decades Erfurt grew up to 130,000 at the beginning of World War I and 190,000 inhabitants in 1950. A maximum was reached in 1988 with 220,000 persons. The bad economic situation in eastern Germany
Germany
after the reunification resulted in a decline in population, which fell to 200,000 in 2002 before rising again to 206,000 in 2011. The average growth of population between 2009 and 2012 was approximately 0.68% p. a, whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Erfurt. It occurred after reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders.

The birth deficit was 200 in 2012, this is -1.0 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was +8.3 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of Erfurt
Erfurt
migrants are rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and Saxony as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria.

Like other eastern German cities, foreigners account only for a small share of Erfurt's population: circa 3.0% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 5.9% are migrants (according to the 2011 EU census ). Differing from the national average, the most important groups of migrants in Erfurt
Erfurt
are Vietnamese , Russians and Ukrainians .

Due to the official atheism of the former GDR , most of the population is non-religious. 14.8% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany
Germany
and 6.8% are Catholics (according to the 2011 EU census). The Jewish Community consists of 500 members. Most of them migrated to Erfurt
Erfurt
from Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
in the 1990s.

CULTURE, SIGHTS AND CITYSCAPE

RESIDENTS NOTABLE IN CULTURAL HISTORY

See also: List of people from Erfurt

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) studied law and philosophy at the University of Erfurt from 1501. He gained his B.A. (1502) and M.A. (1505). He lived in St. Augustine\'s Monastery in Erfurt, as a monk from 1505 to 1511.

The theologian, philosopher and mystic Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
(c. 1260-1328) entered the Dominican monastery in Erfurt
Erfurt
when he was aged about 18 (around 1275). Eckhart was the Dominican Prior at Erfurt
Erfurt
from 1294 until 1298, and Vicar of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1298 to 1302. After a year in Paris, he returned to Erfurt
Erfurt
in 1303 and administered his duties as Provincial of Saxony
Saxony
from there until 1311.

Max Weber
Max Weber
(1864 - 1920) was born in Erfurt. He was a sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist whose ideas have profoundly influenced modern social theory and social research.

The textile designer Margaretha Reichardt (1907 - 1984) was born and died in Erfurt. She studied at the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
from 1926 to 1930, and while there worked with Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer
on his innovative chair designs. Her former home and weaving workshop in Erfurt, the Margaretha Reichardt Haus, is now a museum, managed by the Angermuseum Erfurt.

Johann Pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel
(1653 - 1706) served as organist at the Prediger church in Erfurt
Erfurt
from June 1678 until August 1690. Pachelbel composed approximately seventy pieces for organ while in Erfurt.

After 1906 the composer Richard Wetz (1875 - 1935) lived in Erfurt and became the leading person in the town's musical life. His major works were written here, including three symphonies, a Requiem and a Christmas Oratorio.

Alexander Müller (1808 - 1863) pianist, conductor and composer, was born in Erfurt. He later moved to Zürich , where he served as leader of the General Music Society's subscription concerts series.

The city is the birthplace of one of Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
's cousins, Johann Bernhard Bach , as well as Johann Sebastian Bach's father Johann Ambrosius Bach
Johann Ambrosius Bach
. Bach's parents were married in 1668 in a small church, the Kaufmannskirche (Merchant's Church), that still exists on the main square, Anger.

Famous modern musicians from Erfurt
Erfurt
are Clueso , the Boogie Pimps and Yvonne Catterfeld .

MUSEUMS

Erfurt
Erfurt
has a great variety of museums:

* The Stadtmuseum (municipal museum) shows aspects of Erfurt's history with a focus on the Middle Ages, early modern history, Martin Luther and the university. Other parts of the Stadtmuseum are the Neue Mühle (new mill), an old water mill still in operation, and the Benaryspeicher (Benary's magazine) with an exhibition of old printing machines. * The Alte Synagoge (Old Synagogue ) is the oldest Synagogue in Europe which is intact to its roof. Its museum was opened in 2009 and has exhibitions on the history of Erfurt's Jewish Community. It houses facsimiles of medieval Hebrew manuscripts and the Erfurt Treasure , a hoard of coins, goldsmiths' work and jewellery that is assumed to have belonged to Jews who hid them in 1349 at the time of the Black Death pogroms . * The Erinnerungsort Topf font-style: normal;"> (de) in the district of Molsdorf is a Baroque palace with an exhibition about the painter Otto Knöpfer (de).

*

Stadtmuseum *

Angermuseum *

Naturkundemuseum *

Deutsches Gartenbaumuseum *

Museum für Thüringer Volkskunde *

Memorial site of "Topf ">

Schloss Molsdorf

THEATRE

Since 2003, the modern opera house is home to Theater Erfurt and its Philharmonic Orchestra. The "grand stage" section has 800 seats and the "studio stage" can hold 200 spectators. In September 2005, the opera Waiting for the Barbarians by Philip Glass premiered in the opera house. The Erfurt
Erfurt
Theater has been a source of controversy recently. In 2005, a performance of Engelbert Humperdinck 's opera Hänsel und Gretel stirred up the local press since the performance contained suggestions of pedophilia and incest. The opera was advertised in the program with the addition "for adults only".

On 12 April 2008, a version of Verdi 's opera Un ballo in maschera directed by Johann Kresnik opened at the Erfurt
Erfurt
Theater. The production stirred deep controversy by featuring nude performers in Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse
masks dancing on the ruins of the World Trade Center and a female singer with a painted on Hitler toothbrush moustache performing a straight arm Nazi salute, along with sinister portrayals of American soldiers, Uncle Sam , and Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
impersonators. The director described the production as a populist critique of modern American society, aimed at showing up the disparities between rich and poor. The controversy prompted one local politician to call for locals to boycott the performances, but this was largely ignored and the première was sold out.

SPORT

Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann Halle

The Messe Erfurt serves as playground for the Oettinger Rockets , a professional basketball team in Germany's first division, the Basketball Bundesliga .

Notable types of sport in Erfurt
Erfurt
are athletics, ice skating, cycling (with the oldest velodrome in use in the world, opened in 1885), swimming, handball, volleyball, tennis and football. The city's football club FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt
FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt
is member of 3. Fußball-Liga and based in Steigerwaldstadion
Steigerwaldstadion
with a capacity of 20,000. The Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann Halle was the second indoor speed skating arena in Germany.

CITYSCAPE

Architecture from the Gründerzeit in Brühlervorstadt district

Erfurt's cityscape features a medieval core of narrow, curved alleys in the centre surrounded by a belt of Gründerzeit architecture, created between 1873 and 1914. In 1873, the city's fortifications were demolished and it became possible to build houses in the area in front of the former city walls. In the following years, Erfurt
Erfurt
saw a construction boom. In the northern area (districts Andreasvorstadt, Johannesvorstadt and Ilversgehofen) tenements for the factory workers were built whilst the eastern area (Krämpfervorstadt and Daberstedt) featured apartments for white-collar workers and clerks and the southwestern part (Löbervorstadt and Brühlervorstadt) with its beautiful valley landscape saw the construction of villas and mansions of rich factory owners and notables.

During the interwar period, some settlements in Bauhaus
Bauhaus
style were realized, often as housing cooperatives.

After World War II
World War II
and over the whole GDR period, housing shortages remained a problem even though the government started a big apartment construction programme. Between 1970 and 1990 large Plattenbau settlements with high-rise blocks on the northern (for 50,000 inhabitants) and southeastern (for 40,000 inhabitants) periphery were constructed. After reunification the renovation of old houses in city centre and the Gründerzeit areas was a big issue. The federal government granted substantial subsidies, so that many houses could be restored.

Compared to many other German cities, little of Erfurt
Erfurt
was destroyed in World War II. This is one reason why the centre today offers a mixture of medieval, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture
as well as buildings from the last 150 years.

Public green spaces are located along Gera
Gera
river and in several parks like the Stadtpark, the Nordpark and the Südpark. The largest green area is the Egapark (de), a horticultural exhibition park and botanic garden established in 1961.

SIGHTS AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

Churches, Monasteries And Synagogues

St Mary's Cathedral (left) and St Severus' Church (right) on Domberg hill

The city centre has about 25 churches and monasteries, most of them in Gothic style, some also in Romanesque style or a mixture of Romanesque and Gothic elements, and a few in later styles. The various steeples characterize the medieval centre and led to one of Erfurt's nicknames as the "Thuringian Rome".

Catholic Churches And Monasteries

* The Allerheiligenkirche (All Saints' Church) is a 14th-century Gothic parish church in Market Street, which hosts a columbarium . * The Dom St. Marien (St Mary\'s Cathedral ) perches above Domplatz, the Catherdral square. It is the Episcopal see
Episcopal see
and one of the main sights of Erfurt. It combines Romanesque and Gothic elements and has the largest medieval bell in the world, which is named Gloriosa . One of the works of art inside the Cathedral is Lucas Cranach the Elder\'s 'The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine' painted around 1520. * The Lorenzkirche (St Laurence's Church) is a small 14th-century Gothic parish church at Anger Square. * The Martinikirche (St Martin's Church) was built in the 15th century in Gothic style and later converted to Baroque style. It was both a Cistercian monastery and a parish church of Brühl, a medieval suburban zone. * The Neuwerkskirche St. Crucis (church of the new work/Holy Cross Church) is a 15th-century Gothic parish church at Neuwerk Street, that was later converted to Baroque style. Until 1285, it was used as an Augustinian monastery. * The Schottenkirche St. Nikolai und St. Jakobi (Scots Monks' Church of St Nicholas and St James) is an 11th-century Romanesque monastery church with a Baroque façade, which was later used as a parish church. * The Severikirche (St Severus' Church) is the second-largest parish church after the cathedral and stands next to it on the Domberg hill. It is a Gothic church and was built around 1300. * The Ursulinenkirche, St. Ursula's Church, is a Gothic church at Anger Square. It is attached to the Ursulinenkloster, St. Ursula's Nunnery, founded in 1136. It is the only medieval monastery or nunnery in Erfurt
Erfurt
which has been in continuous operation since it opened. * The Wigbertikirche (St Wigbert's Church) is a 15th-century Gothic parish church at Anger Square.

*

All Saints' Church *

St Laurence's Church *

St Martin's Church *

Holy Cross Church *

Scots Monks' Church *

Ursulines Church *

St Wigbert's Church

Protestant Churches And Monasteries

* Ägidienkirche (St Giles' Church) is a 14th-century Gothic parish church at Wenigenmarkt Square. It is the surviving one of formerly two bridge-head churches of the Krämerbrücke
Krämerbrücke
located on both ends of the bridge. As a result, the nave is on the 1st floor, while on ground level is a passage to the bridge. The steeple is open to the public and offers a good view over the city centre. Today, St Giles' Church is a Methodist
Methodist
parish church. * Andreaskirche (St Andrew's Church) is a 14th-century Gothic parish church at Andrew's Street. The old craftsmen's quarter around it is named Andreasviertel after the church. * St. Augustine\'s Monastery dates from 1277. Martin Luther
Martin Luther
lived there as a monk between 1505 and 1511. The site has had a varied history and the restored complex has both modern and medieval buildings. Today it belongs to the Evangelical Church in Germany
Germany
and as well as being a place of worship it is also a meeting and conference centre, and provides simple guest accommodation. In 2016 an application was made for it to be included in the already existing UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
"Luther sites in Central Germany". * The Kaufmannskirche St. Gregor (Merchant's Church St Gregory) is a 14th-century Gothic parish church at Anger Square. It is one of the largest and most important original parish churches in Erfurt. The parents of Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
, Johann Ambrosius Bach
Johann Ambrosius Bach
and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt married here in 1668. * Michaeliskirche (St Michael's Church) is a 13th-century Gothic parish church in Michaelisstrasse. It became the church of the university in 1392. * The Predigerkirche (Dominican Church) is a Gothic monastery church of the Dominicans at Prediger-straße. Since the Reformation in the 16th century, it is the main Protestant church of Erfurt
Erfurt
and furthermore one of the largest former churches of the mendicant orders in Germany. The theologian and mystic Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
(c. 1260 - 1328) entered Prediger Monastery around 1275. He was Prior from 1294 until 1298, and Vicar of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1298 to 1302. After a year in Paris, he returned to the monastery in 1303 and administered his duties as Provincial of Saxony
Saxony
from there until 1311. The baroque composer Johann Pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel
(1653-1706) was organist at the church from 1678 until 1690. * The Reglerkirche St. Augustinus (Regulated St Augustine's Church) is a 12th-century Romanesque-Gothic monastery church of the Augustinians
Augustinians
at Station Street. After the Reformation, it became a Protestant parish church.

*

St Giles' Church *

St Andrew's Church *

St Augustine's Church *

Merchants' Church *

St Michael's Church *

Dominican Church *

Regulated St Augustine's Church

Former Churches

* The Barfüßerkirche is a 14th-century Gothic monastery church at Barfüßer-straße. The former Franciscan
Franciscan
monastery became a Protestant parish church after the Reformation. In 1944, the church was badly damaged by Allied bombing. Since that time its ruins have been preserved as a memorial against war and violence. * The Bartholomäuskirche (St Bartholomew's Church) was a parish church at Anger Square. The church was demolished before 1667 and only the steeple remained. Today, the steeple hosts a carillon with 60 bells. * The Georgskirche (St George's Church) was a parish church at Michael's Street. It was demolished in 1632 to yield construction material for the new citadel, and only the steeple remained. * The Hospitalkirche (Hospital Church) was the church of the former Great City Hospital at Juri-Gagarin-Ring. It is a 14th-century Gothic building and now part of the museum of popular art and cultural anthropology. * The Johanneskirche (St John's Church) was a parish church at John's Street. It was demolished in 1819, but the steeple remained. * The Kartäuserkirche St. Salvatorberg (Carthusian Church, Mount St Saviour) was a monastery church at Kartäuser-straße. The Baroque church was closed in 1803 and afterwards used for many different purposes. Today, it is part of a housing complex. * The Nikolaikirche (St Nicholas' Church) was a parish church in Augustine's Street. It was demolished in 1747 and only the steeple remained. * The Paulskirche (St Paul's Church) was a parish church in Paul's Street. It was demolished before 1759. The steeple remained and is in use as belfry of Preacher's Church. * The Peterskirche (St Peter's Church) was a monastery church at Petersberg hill. It was built in the 12th century in Romanesque style as church of the Benedictine
Benedictine
monastery. For its establishment 20 grivna of silver was donated by Roman the Great
Roman the Great
. It was in use as a church until 1806. Later, it was part of the Petersberg Citadel and reconstructed for military uses. In the process, the precious interior and furniture were lost. Today, St Peter's Church is a museum of concrete art.

*

Discalced Church ruin *

St Bartholomew's steeple *

Hospital Church *

Carthusian Church *

St Nicholas' steeple *

St Paul's steeple *

St Peter's Church

Synagogues

The oldest parts of Erfurt's Alte Synagoge (Old Synagogue ) date to the 11th century. It was used until 1349 when the Jewish community was destroyed in a pogrom known as the Erfurt
Erfurt
Massacre . The building had many other uses since then. It was conserved in the 1990s and in 2009 it became a museum of Jewish history. A rare Mikveh
Mikveh
, a ritual bath, dating from c.1250, was discovered by archeologists in 2007. It has been accessible to visitors on guided tours since September 2011. In 2015 the Old Synagogue and Mikveh
Mikveh
were nominated as a World Heritage Site . It has been tentatively listed but a final decision has not yet been made.

As religious freedom was granted in the 19th century, some Jews returned to Erfurt. They built their synagogue on the banks of the Gera
Gera
river and used it from 1840 until 1884. The neoclassical building is known as the Kleine Synagoge (Small Synagogue). Today it is used an events centre. It is also open to visitors.

A larger synagogue, the Große Synagoge (Great Synagogue), was opened in 1884 because the community had become larger and wealthier. This moorish style building was destroyed during nationwide Nazi riots, known as Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
on 9–10 November 1938.

In 1947 the land which the Great Synagogue had occupied was returned to the Jewish community and they built their current place of worship, the Neue Synagoge (New Synagogue) which opened in 1952. It was the only synagogue building erected under communist rule in East Germany.

*

Old Synagogue *

Small Synagogue *

New Synagogue

Secular Architecture

Besides the religious buildings there is a lot of historic secular architecture in Erfurt, mostly concentrated in the city centre, but some 19th- and 20th-century buildings are located on the outskirts. The Michaelisstraße is known as the lithic chronicle of Erfurt
Erfurt

Street And Square Ensembles

* The Krämerbrücke
Krämerbrücke
(Merchants' bridge) is the most famous tourist attraction of Erfurt. This 15th-century bridge is completely covered with dwellings and unique in Europe north of the Alps. Today, there are some art handicraft and souvenir shops in the houses. * The Domplatz (Cathedral Square) is the largest square in Erfurt and one of the largest historical market squares in Germany. The cathedral and St Severus' Church on its western side can be reached over the Domstufen, a wide flight of stairs. On the north side lies the courthouse, a historic building from 1880. The eastern and southern side is fronted by early-modern patrician houses. On the square are the Minerva Fountain from 1784 and the Erthal Obelisk from 1777. The Domplatz is the main setting of the Erfurt
Erfurt
Christmas Market in December and the location for "DomStufen-Festival", an open-air theatre festival in summer. * The Fischmarkt (Fish Market) is the central square of Erfurt's city centre. It is surrounded by renaissance-style patrician houses and the town hall, a neo-gothic building from 1882. In the middle of the square is a statue called Römer (Roman), a symbol of the city's independence, erected by the citizens in 1591. * The Wenigemarkt (Minor Market) is a small square on the east side of the Gera
Gera
river (opposite to the Fischmarkt on the west side), surrounded by early-modern patrician and merchants' houses. The fountain on this square with the sculpture "Scuffling Boys" was created in 1975. Today, Wenigemarkt square also has various cafés and bars. Next to the Wenigemarkt in Futterstraße is the Kaisersaal building, a neoclassicistic event hall from 1831 (current building). The Congress of Erfurt took place here in 1808. * The Anger (originally the German term for "village green ") is a protracted square in the eastern city centre. All tram lines are linked here, so that it became the new city centre during the 20th century with many important buildings. On its northern side is the main post office, built in 1886 in neo-gothic style with its prominent clock tower. In the north-east there is the Martin Luther
Martin Luther
monument from 1889 in front of the Merchants' Church. Between the church and the Ursuline monastery lies the "Anger 1" department store from 1908. On the south side next to Station Street is the Angermuseum, the art history museum of Erfurt, inside a Baroque palace from 1711. The western part of Anger square is surrounded by large historicist business houses from the late 19th century. The west end of the square is marked by the Angerbrunnen fountain from 1890. The Jesuit College near Schlösserstraße was built in 1737 and used until the ban of the Jesuits in 1773. * The Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
Square is the southern gate to the city centre in front of the main station. Opposite to the station is the former hotel Erfurter Hof, where the first meeting of the East- and West-German heads of government took place in 1970. On the western side is the building of the old Erfurt
Erfurt
station (1847–95) with a clock tower and the former offices of the Thuringian Railway Company. * The Hirschgarten (Deer Garden) is a small park in front of the Thuringian government seat in the western city centre. The minister-president's seat is the Kurmainzische Statthalterei, a Renaissance-Baroque palace from the 17th century. * The Michaelisstraße (Michael's Street) is known as "the lithic chronicle of Erfurt", because of its mostly medieval buildings. It is the main street of the Latin quarter around the old university and today one of the favourite nightlife districts of the Erfurters with various bars, restaurants and cafés. The central building of the old university, Collegium Maius, was built in 1515, destroyed by Allied bombs in 1945 and originally rebuilt in 1999. * The Juri-Gagarin-Ring is an inner-city circular road following the former inner city wall. The road was set out in the 1890s by closing a branch of the Gera
Gera
river. The buildings along the street originate from all periods of the 20th century, including some GDR-era highrise residence buildings. An old building complex here is the former Great Hospital, established in the 14th century. Today, it hosts the museum of popular art and cultural anthropology. * The Andreasviertel (St Andrew's Quarter) is a small quarter in the northern part of the city centre between Domplatz in the south-west and Moritzwallstraße in the north-east. It was the former craftsmen quarter with narrow alleys and old (16th/17th century) little houses. During the 20th century, there were plans to demolish the quarter because of its bad housing conditions. After 1990, the houses were redeveloped by private individuals so that it is one of the favourite neighbourhoods today. The largest building here is the former Municipal Corn Storage in Gothic style from 1466 with a floor area of 1,800 m2 (19,375 sq ft).

*

Krämerbrücke
Krämerbrücke
*

Christmas market at Domplatz *

Fischmarkt *

Wenigemarkt *

Post office at Anger *

Angermuseum *

Hirschgarten

Fortifications

Petersberg Citadel

Fortifications played an important role during Erfurt's history. Nevertheless, the city wall was broken down in 1873. There are only a few remains of the walls today, for example the Johannesmauer near Franckestraße in the north-east of the city centre. More important are the two early-modern citadels of Erfurt, which remain more or less in their original state.

The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. Since 1990, it has been renovated, but in parts is still not finished.

The Cyriaksburg Citadel is a smaller early-modern citadel south-west of the city centre, built during the Thirty Years\' War . Today, it hosts the German horticultural museum.

19th- And 20th-century Architecture In The Outskirts

Between 1873 and 1914, a belt of Gründerzeit architecture emerged around the city centre. The mansion district in the south-west around Cyriakstraße, Richard-Breslau-Straße and Hochheimer Straße hosts some interesting Gründerzeit and Art Nouveau buildings.

The "Mühlenviertel" ("mill quarter"), is an area of beautiful Art Nouveau apartment buildings, cobblestone streets and street trees just to the north of the old city, in the vicinity of Nord Park, bordered by the Gera
Gera
river on its east side. The "Schmale Gera" stream runs through the area. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
numerous small enterprises using the power of water mills occupied the area, hence the name "Mühlenviertel", with street names such as Waidmühlenweg (woad, or indigo, mill way), Storchmühlenweg (stork mill way) and Papiermühlenweg (paper mill way).

The Bauhaus
Bauhaus
style is represented by some housing cooperative projects in the east around Flensburger Straße and Dortmunder Straße and in the north around Neuendorfstraße. Lutherkirke Church in Magdeburger Allee (1927), is an Art Deco
Art Deco
building.

The former malt factory "Wolff" at Theo-Neubauer-Straße in the east of Erfurt
Erfurt
is a large industrial complex built between 1880 and 1939, and in use until 2000. A new use has not been found yet, but the area is sometimes used as a location in movie productions because of its atmosphere.

Some examples of Nazi architecture are the buildings of the Landtag (Thuringian parliament) and Thüringenhalle (an event hall) in the south at Arnstädter Straße. While the Landtag building (1930s) represents more the neo-Roman/fascist style, Thüringenhalle (1940s) is marked by some neo-Germanic Heimatschutz style elements.

The Stalinist early-GDR style is manifested in the main building of the university at Nordhäuser Straße (1953) and the later more international modern GDR style is represented by the horticultural exhibition centre "Egapark" at Gothaer Straße, the Plattenbau housing complexes like Rieth or Johannesplatz and the redevelopment of Löbertor and Krämpfertor area along Juri-Gagarin-Ring in the city centre.

The current international glass and steel architecture is dominant among most larger new buildings like the Federal Labour Court of Germany
Germany
(1999), the new opera house (2003), the new main station (2007), the university library, the Erfurt
Erfurt
Messe (convention centre) and the Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann ice rink.

*

Gründerzeit tenements in Johannesvorstadt district *

Cubistic fountain in a Bauhaus
Bauhaus
housing complex *

Art Deco
Art Deco
Luther's Church *

Entrance of the Thuringian parliament *

Lobby of the university main building *

GDR architecture in Johannesplatz district *

Inner yard of the Federal Labour Court

ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from 21% in 2005 to 9% in 2013. Nevertheless, some 14,000 households with 24,500 persons (12% of population) are dependent upon state social benefits (Hartz IV ).

AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY AND SERVICES

Former factory building, now reused for services Anger 1, a big department store in centre

Farming has a great tradition in Erfurt: the cultivation of woad made the city rich during the Middle Ages. Today, horticulture and the production of flower seeds is still an important business in Erfurt. There is also growing of fruits (like apples, strawberries and sweet cherries), vegetables (e.g. cauliflowers, potatoes, cabbage and sugar beets) and grain on more than 60% of the municipal territory.

Industrialization in Erfurt
Erfurt
started around 1850. Until World War I, many factories were founded in different sectors like engine building, shoes, guns, malt and later electro-technics, so that there was no industrial monoculture in the city. After 1945, the companies were nationalized by the GDR government, which led to the decline of some of them. After reunification, nearly all factories were closed, either because they failed to successfully adopt to a free market economy or because the German government sold them to west German businessmen who closed them to avoid competition to their own enterprises. However, in the early 1990s the federal government started to subsidize the foundation of new companies. It still took a long time before the economic situation stabilized around 2006. Since this time, unemployment has decreased and overall, new jobs were created. Today, there are many small and medium-sized companies in Erfurt
Erfurt
with electro-technics, semiconductors and photovoltaics in focus. Building engines, the production of food (i.e. a big noodle factory), the Braugold
Braugold
brewery, and Born Feinkost a producer of Thuringian mustard, are still an important industries.

Erfurt
Erfurt
is an Oberzentrum (which means "supra-centre" according to Central place theory ) in German regional planning. Such centres are always hubs of service businesses and public services like hospitals, universities, research, trade fairs, retail etc. Additionally, Erfurt is the capital of the federal state of Thuringia, so that there are many institutions of administration like all the Thuringian state ministries and some nationwide authorities. Typical for Erfurt
Erfurt
are the logistic business with many distribution centres of big companies, the Erfurt
Erfurt
Trade Fair and the media sector with KiKa
KiKa
and MDR as public broadcast stations. A growing industry is tourism, due to the various historical sights of Erfurt. There are 4,800 hotel beds and (in 2012) 450,000 overnight visitors spent a total of 700,000 nights in hotels. Nevertheless, most tourists are one-day visitors from Germany. The Christmas Market in December attracts some 2,000,000 visitors each year.

TRANSPORT

Erfurt Hauptbahnhof , Erfurt's main railway station.

By Rail

The ICE railway network makes Erfurt
Erfurt
1½ hours from Berlin
Berlin
, 2 hours from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Dresden
Dresden
, and 45 minutes from Leipzig
Leipzig
. In 2017 the ICE line to Munich
Munich
will open, making the trip to Erfurt
Erfurt
only 2 hours.

There are regional trains from Erfurt
Erfurt
to Weimar
Weimar
, Jena
Jena
, Gotha
Gotha
, Eisenach
Eisenach
, Bad Langensalza , Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, Nordhausen
Nordhausen
, Göttingen
Göttingen
, Mühlhausen , Würzburg , Meiningen , Ilmenau
Ilmenau
, Arnstadt , and Gera
Gera
.

In freight transport there is an intermodal terminal in the district of Vieselbach (Güterverkehrszentrum, GVZ) with connections to rail and the autobahn.

By Road

The two Autobahnen crossing each other nearby at Erfurter Kreuz are the Bundesautobahn 4 ( Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Dresden
Dresden
) and the Bundesautobahn 71 ( Schweinfurt Sangerhausen
Sangerhausen
). Together with the east tangent both motorways form a circle road around the city and lead the interregional traffic around the centre. Whereas the A 4 was built in the 1930s, the A 71 came into being after the reunification in the 1990s and 2000s. In addition to both motorways there are two Bundesstraßen : the Bundesstraße 7 connects Erfurt
Erfurt
parallel to A 4 with Gotha
Gotha
in the west and Weimar
Weimar
in the east. The Bundesstraße 4 is a connection between Erfurt
Erfurt
and Nordhausen
Nordhausen
in the north. Its southern part to Coburg
Coburg
was annulled when A 71 was finished (in this section, the A 71 now effectively serves as B 4). Within the circle road, B 7 and B 4 are also annulled, so that the city government has to pay for maintenance instead of the German federal government. The access to the city is restricted as Umweltzone since 2012 for some vehicles. Large parts of the inner city are a pedestrian area which can not be reached by car (except for residents).

By Light Rail And Bus

Light rail
Light rail
tram near Anger square

The Erfurt
Erfurt
public transport system is marked by the area-wide Erfurt Stadtbahn (light rail ) network, established as a tram system in 1883, upgraded to a light rail ( Stadtbahn ) system in 1997, and continually expanded and upgraded through the 2000s. Today, there are six Stadtbahn lines running every ten minutes on every light rail route.

Additionally, Erfurt
Erfurt
operates a bus system, which connects the sparsely populated outer districts of the region to the city center. Both systems are organized by SWE EVAG, a transit company owned by the city administration. Trolleybuses were in service in Erfurt
Erfurt
from 1948 until 1975, but are no longer in service.

By Airplane

Erfurt- Weimar
Weimar
Airport lies 3 km (2 mi) west of the city centre. It is linked to the central train station via Stadtbahn (tram). It was significantly extended in the 1990s, with flights mostly to Mediterranean holiday destinations and to London
London
during the peak Christmas market tourist season. Connections to longer haul flights are easily accessible via Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport , which can be reached in 2 hours via a direct train from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport to Erfurt, and from Leipzig/Halle Airport , which can be reached within half an hour.

By Bike

Biking is becoming increasingly popular since construction of high quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. There are cycle lanes for general commuting within Erfurt
Erfurt
city.

Long-distance trails, such as the Gera
Gera
track and the Radweg Thüringer Städtekette (Thuringian cities trail), connect points of tourist interest. The former runs along the Gera
Gera
river valley from the Thuringian forest
Thuringian forest
to the river Unstrut ; the latter follows the medieval Via Regia
Via Regia
from Eisenach
Eisenach
to Altenburg
Altenburg
via Gotha
Gotha
, Erfurt, Weimar
Weimar
, and Jena
Jena
.

The Rennsteig Cycle Way was opened in 2000. This designated high-grade hiking and bike trail runs along the ridge of the Thuringian Central Uplands. The bike trail, about 200 km (124 mi) long, occasionally departs from the course of the historic Rennsteig hiking trail, which dates back to the 1300s, to avoid steep inclines. It is therefore about 30 km (19 mi) longer than the hiking trail.

The Rennsteig is connected to the E3 European long distance path , which goes from the Atlantic coast of Spain to the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, and the E6 European long distance path , running from Arctic Finland to Turkey.

EDUCATION

After reunification, the educational system was reorganized. The University of Erfurt , founded in 1379 and closed in 1816, was refounded in 1994 with a focus on social sciences, modern languages, humanities and teacher training. Today there are approximately 6,000 students working within four faculties, the Max Weber
Max Weber
Center for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies, and three academic research institutes. The University has an international reputation and participates in international student exchange programmes.

The Fachhochschule Erfurt, is a university of applied sciences , founded in 1991, which offers a combination of academic training and practical experience in subjects such as social work and social pedagogy, business studies, and engineering. There are nearly 5,000 students in six faculties, of which the faculty of landscaping and horticulture has a national reputation.

Adam-Ries- Fachhochschule (de) is a privately run university of applied sciences, founded in 2008, with a focus on business and economics.

The world renowned Bauhaus
Bauhaus
design school was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar
Weimar
, approximately 20 km (12 mi) from Erfurt, 12 minutes by train. The buildings are now part of a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and are today used by the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
Weimar
, which teaches design, arts, media and technology related subjects.

Furthermore, there are eight Gymnasien , six state-owned, one Catholic and one Protestant. One of the state-owned schools is a Sportgymnasium, an elite boarding school for young talents in athletics, swimming, ice skating or football. Another state-owned school, Albert Schweitzer Gymnasium, offers a focus in sciences as an elite boarding school in addition to the common curriculum.

MEDIA

The German national public television children’s channel KiKa
KiKa
is based in Erfurt.

MDR (Mittel Deutschland Rundfunk), a radio and television company, has a broadcast centre and studios in Erfurt.

The Thüringer Allgemeine , a newspaper, is headquartered in the city.

POLITICS

MAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL

The first freely elected mayor after German reunification
German reunification
was Manfred Ruge , CDU (in office from 1990 to 2006), followed by Andreas Bausewein , SPD (in office since 2006).

The last municipal election was held in 2014 with the result:

PARTY PERCENTAGE SEATS IN COUNCIL

SPD 28.7 15

CDU 24.7 12

The Left 22.0 11

Greens 9.7 5

Alternative for Germany
Germany
4.5 2

Free Voters 3.4 2

FDP 2.5 1

NPD 2.5 1

Pirate Party of Germany
Germany
2.1 1

TWIN TOWNS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

Erfurt
Erfurt
is twinned with:

* Győr
Győr
, Hungary
Hungary
(1971) * Vilnius
Vilnius
, Lithuania
Lithuania
(1972) * Kalisz
Kalisz
, Poland
Poland
(1982) * Mainz
Mainz
, Germany
Germany
(1988) * Lille
Lille
, France
France
(1991) * Shawnee, Kansas
Shawnee, Kansas
, United States
United States
(1993) * San Miguel de Tucumán , Argentina
Argentina
(1993) * Lovech
Lovech
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(1996) * Haifa
Haifa
, Israel
Israel
(2000) * Xuzhou , China
China
(2005) * Kati , Mali
Mali
(2011) * Bowling Green, Kentucky , United States

PEOPLE FROM ERFURT

* See: List of people from Erfurt

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Between 1631 and 1648, during the Thirty Years’ War, Erfurt was occupied by Swedish forces, thus the effigy of Queen Christina appears on the 1645 Erfurt
Erfurt
10 Ducat (Portugaloser). There are seven gold coins known to exist bearing the effigy of Queen Christina: a unique 1649 five ducat, and six 1645 10 ducat specimen.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde, erfüllende/beauftragende Gemeinden, Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (in German). July 2016. * ^ Mangold, Max (2005). "Erfurt". Das Aussprachewörterbuch. Mannheim, Leipzig, Wien, Zürich: Duden Verlag. p. 311. ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7 . Retrieved 2011-06-22. * ^ Petersberg – Erfurt-web.de (in German). (Accessed 31 October 2016). * ^ A B C Timeline * ^ Heinemeyer, Karl (2004). "Bonifatius in Mitteldeutschland". In Hardy Eidam; Marina Moritz; Gerd-Rainer Riedel; Kai-Uwe Schierz. Bonifatius: Heidenopfer, Christuskreuz, Eichenkult (in German). Stadtverwaltung Erfurt. pp. 73–87. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Schmidt, Christoph G. (2004). "Im Machtbereich der Merowinger: Politische und gesellschaftliche Strukturen in Thüringen vom 6. bis 8. Jahrhundert". In Hardy Eidam; Marina Moritz; Gerd-Rainer Riedel; Kai-Uwe Schierz. Bonifatius: Heidenopfer, Christuskreuz, Eichenkult (in German). Stadtverwaltung Erfurt. pp. 39–56. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Archeologists Discover Medieval Jewish Bath in Erfurt, 12.04.2007, Deutsche Welle, * ^ Stürzebecher, Maria (June–July 2014). "Zwei Schätze: Zeugnisse jüdischer Kultur in Erfurt". Archäologie in Deutschland (in German). Darmstadt: WGB (3/2014): 32–35. ISSN 0176-8522 . * ^ A B C History and Buildings * ^ Cuhaj, George S., ed. (2009a). Standard Catalog of World Gold Coins 1601 – present (6 ed.). Krause. pp. 490–491. ISBN 978-1-4402-0424-1 . * ^ Friedberg, Arthur; Friedberg, Ira (2009). Gold Coins of the World: From Ancient Times to the Present (8 ed.). The Coin & Currency Institute. pp. 688–89. ISBN 978-0-87184-308-1 . * ^ Kunker Rarities Auction, retrieved 1 March 2015 * ^ "Hauptschluß der ausserordentlichen Reichsdeputation" (in German). documentArchiv.de. 25 February 1803. Retrieved 17 January 2016. * ^ The full text of Hauptschluß der außerordentlichen Reichsdeputation vom 25. Februar 1803 at Wikisource * ^ Francis Loraine Petre (1993) . Napoleon's Conquest of Prussia 1806. Lionel Leventhal . pp. 194–95. ISBN 1-85367-145-2 . * ^ Digby Smith (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. Greenhill. p. 226. ISBN 1-85367-276-9 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N "1806–1814: Erfurt
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Erfurt
(in German). Euratibor. Retrieved 2 January 2016. * ^ Gerhard Robert Walter von Coeckelberghe-Dützele (1834). Ruinen oder Taschenbuch zur Geschichte verfallener Ritterburgen und Schlößer (etc.) (in German). Mich. Lechner. p. 21. Retrieved 23 January 2016. Nach der unglücklichen Schlacht bei Jena
Jena
und dem Rückzuge der Preußen, wurde sie durch Kapitulation den Franzosen übergeben, und erhielt anfangs eine ziemlich starke Besatzung; doch wurde sie in der Folge so von ihnen vernachläßigt, daß in einer gewissen Epoche der Marketender Sturm mit seiner Familie und ein alter Unteroffizier ihre ganze Garnison ausmachten. Damals war es, wo der Intendant Devismes und der Domainen-Direktor Gentil in der nach der Stadt zugekehrten Seite der Mauer einen Schatz suchen ließ, der noch aus den Zeiten des ehemaligen Benedektiner-Nonnenklosters hier versteckt seyn sollte, ohne zu bedenken, daß zufolge der oben angeführten, an der Mauer befindlichen Inschrift, kein Schatz von 1478 her in einer Mauer versteckt seyn konnte, die über 100 Jahre darnach erst erbaut worden war; aber die Habsucht eilte hier jeder nähern Untersuchung vor. Bei dieser Gelegenheit wurde auch die alte Burgkapelle demoliert und aus den verkauften Baumaterialien die Arbeiter bezahlt, die beim Schatzgraben hilfreiche Hand geleistet hatten. * ^ A B C D E "Denkmale Erfurts 1806–1814" (in German). Thüringer Naturbrief. Retrieved 3 January 2016. * ^ Frank Palmowski (2015) . Die Belagerung von Erfurt
Erfurt
1813–1814 (in German). Sutton Verlag. p. 82. ISBN 978-3-954-00604-5 . * ^ Willibald Gutsche, ed. (1989). Geschichte der Stadt Erfurt
Erfurt
(in German) (2nd revised ed.). Weimar. ISBN 3-7400-0095-3 . * ^ A B Christoph Wilhelm von Koch (1838). Histoire abrégée des traités de paix entre les puissances de l\'Europe depuis la paix de Westphalie, Volume 3 (in French). Meline, Cans et Compagnie. Le général Kleist assiégeait Erfurt. Par suite d'une capitulation signée le 20 décembre, le générale français d'Alton se retira dans les deux forts de Petersberg et Cyriacsbourg, et la ville fut remise aux Prussiens le 6 janvier 1814. * ^ A B C D E "1814–1850: Erfurt
Erfurt
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Erfurt
Stadtverwaltung . Retrieved 3 January 2016. * ^ A B Georg Friedrich Hühn (1839), Kurzgefasste Nachricht von der Belagerung, Blokade und Einzug der Königlich Preußischen Truppen in Erfurt. Vom 21sten Oktober 1813 bis zum 8ten Januar 1814. In einem Briefe als ein Journal abgefasst, und an einen vertrauten Freund abgesendet. Bei Gelegenheit der 25jährigen Jubelfeier neu abgedruckt , Erfurt. * ^ Frank Palmowski (2015) . Die Belagerung von Erfurt
Erfurt
1813–1814 (in German). Sutton Verlag. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-954-00604-5 . Retrieved 17 January 2016. Preußische Truppen marschieren in der Stadt ein. Auf dem Anger kommt es zu Jubelszenen. Der Napoleon-Obelisk wird zerstört. * ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II
World War II
Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 150 * ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi :10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130 . Retrieved 22 January 2013. * ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. ISSN 1027-5606 . doi :10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007 . (direct: Final Revised Paper) * ^ Erfurt: Population 2013. Page 21-23. * ^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik * ^ Augustinerkloster * ^ Predigerkloster * ^ Lehmann, Hartmut. "Weber's Protestant Ethic". Cambridge University Press, 1995. 118. * ^ Korn, Ingolf (2012). "Margaretha-Reichardt-Haus", In ′Bauhaus Reisebuch′ (ISBN 978-3-8321-9411-6 ). Dumont Buchverlag, p. 74. * ^ A B Jewish Life in Erfurt. Old synagogue. Available at: http://juedisches-leben.erfurt.de/jl/en/middle-ages/old_synagogue/index.html (Accessed: 31 October 2016) * ^ http://www.thelocal.de/20141204/how-ordinary-people-smashed-the-stasi * ^ https://www.visit-thuringia.com/travel-hotel-holiday-tour/margaretha-reichardt-haus-104988.html * ^ https://www.erfurt-tourismus.de/en/all-about-erfurt/culture-and-going-out/museums/german-horticultural-museum/ * ^ "German staging of Verdi\'s A Masked Ball on 9/11 with naked cast in Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse
masks". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. London. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010. * ^ europeantraveler.net * ^ outdooractive.com * ^ Erfurt
Erfurt
Tourismus * ^ Bildungshaus St. Ursula Erfurt * ^ UNESCO World Heritage. Augustinian Monastery, Erfurt
Erfurt
extension application (Accessed: 29 May 2017) * ^ Bedeutung * ^ Monomakhovichi (Volhynian branch). Izbornik. * ^ Jewish life in Erfurt. Mikveh. (Accessed: 4 June 2017) * ^ Old synagogue and Mikveh
Mikveh
in Erfurt
Erfurt
- UNESCO world heritage centre. Available at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5982/ (Accessed: 31 October 2016). * ^ Jewish Life in Erfurt. Small synagogue. Available at: http://juedisches-leben.erfurt.de/jl/en/19-century/small_synagogue/index.html (Accessed: 31 October 2016). * ^ Jewish Life in Erfurt. Great synagogue. Available at: http://juedisches-leben.erfurt.de/jl/en/19-century/great_synagogue/index.html (Accessed: 31 October 2016) * ^ Jewish Life in Erfurt. New synagogue. Available at: http://juedisches-leben.erfurt.de/jl/en/present/new_synagogue/index.html (Accessed: 31 October 2016) * ^ "Ausbau der Erfurter Straßenbahn zur Stadtbahn" (in German). Essener Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft (EVAG). Retrieved 2013-10-20. * ^ Faculties, Institutes & Services * ^ International Students * ^ Bauhaus
Bauhaus
2019. The Bauhaus
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in Thuringia. (Accessed: 19 November 2016). * ^ "Kontakt" Thüringer Allgemeine . Retrieved on 13 January 2014. "Zentralredaktion Thüringer Allgemeine Gottstedter Landstraße 6 99092 Erfurt" * ^ Stadtsratmitgliederwahl 2014 - endgueltiges Ergebnis Retrieved 17 June 2014 * ^ City of Erfurt
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(ed.). "Parterstädte Erfurt.de" (in German). Retrieved 2014-07-06. * ^ " Kalisz
Kalisz
Official Website - Twin Towns" (in Polish). Retrieved 2008-11-29. * ^ - Kati (Mali)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Erfurt
Erfurt

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ERFURT .

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