DESIDERIUS ERASMUS ROTERODAMUS (/ˌdɛzɪˈdɪəriəs ɪˈræzməs/ ;
28 October 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as ERASMUS or ERASMUS OF
ROTTERDAM, was a Dutch
Renaissance humanist , Catholic priest, social
critic , teacher, and theologian .
Erasmus was a classical scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style.
Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists",
and has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists".
Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important
new Latin and Greek editions of the
New Testament , which raised
questions that would be influential in the
Protestant Reformation and
Counter-Reformation . He also wrote _On Free Will ,_ _The
Praise of Folly _, _
Handbook of a Christian Knight _, _On Civility in
Children_, _Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style _, _Julius
Exclusus _, and many other works.
Erasmus lived against the backdrop of the growing European religious
Reformation , but while he was critical of the abuses within the
Catholic Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from
Melanchthon and continued to recognise the authority of the
pope, emphasizing a middle way with a deep respect for traditional
faith, piety and grace, rejecting Luther's emphasis on faith alone.
Erasmus remained a member of the Roman
Catholic Church all his life,
remaining committed to reforming the Church and its clerics' abuses
from within. He also held to the Catholic doctrine of free will ,
which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of
predestination . His middle road ("
Via Media ") approach disappointed,
and even angered, scholars in both camps.
Erasmus died suddenly in
Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to
Brabant , and was buried in
Basel Minster , the former cathedral of
the city. A bronze statue of
Erasmus was erected in his city of birth
in 1622, replacing an earlier work in stone.
* 1 Early life
* 2 Ordination and monastic experience
* 3 Education and scholarship
* 4 Publication of the Greek
* 5 Beginnings of
* 5.1 Attempts at impartiality in dispute
* 5.2 Disagreement with Luther
* 6 Death
* 7 Writings
* 7.1 _Sileni Alcibiadis_ (1515)
* 8 Legacy
* 9 Representations
* 10 Works
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 14.1 Primary sources
* 15 External links
Hildo Krop (1950) at Gouda , where
Erasmus spent his
Erasmus is reported to have been born in
Rotterdam on 28
October in the late 1460s. He was named after Saint
Formiae , whom Erasmus's father Gerard personally favored. A
17th-century legend has it that
Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts
(also Gerhard Gerhards or Gerrit Gerritsz), but this is unfounded.
He was born in Rotterdam, but there are insufficient records to
confirm that. A well-known wooden picture indicates: _Goudæ
conceptus, Roterodami natus_ (Latin: conceived in Gouda , born in
Rotterdam). According to an article by historian Renier Snooy
Erasmus was born in Gouda.
The exact year of his birth is controversial, but most agree it was
in 1466. Evidence confirming the year of Erasmus' birth in 1466 can
be found in his own words: fifteen out of twenty-three statements he
made about his age indicate 1466. He was christened "Erasmus" after
the saint of that name . Although associated closely with Rotterdam,
he lived there for only four years, never to return. Information on
his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his
writings. His parents were not legally married . His father, Gerard,
was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda. Little is known of his
mother, although her known name was Margaretha Rogerius (Latinized
form of Dutch surname 'Rutgers') and she was the daughter of a
Zevenbergen . She may have been Gerard's housekeeper.
Although he was born out of wedlock ,
Erasmus was cared for by his
parents until their early deaths from the plague in 1483. This
solidified his view of his origin as a stain, and threw a smoke-screen
around his youth.
Erasmus was given the highest education available to a young man of
his day, in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools. At the age
of nine, he and his older brother Peter were sent to one of the best
Latin schools in the Netherlands, located at
Deventer and owned by the
chapter clergy of the Lebuïnuskerk (St. Lebuin's Church), though
some earlier biographies assert it was a school run by the Brethren of
the Common Life . During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by
the principal of the school,
Alexander Hegius . For the first time
ever Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe,
and this is where he began learning it. He also gleaned there the
importance of a personal relationship with God but eschewed the harsh
rules and strict methods of the religious brothers and educators. His
education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, and his
mother, who had moved to provide a home for her sons, died from the
ORDINATION AND MONASTIC EXPERIENCE
Portrait of Desiderius
Albrecht Dürer , 1526,
Nuremberg , Germany.
Most likely in 1487, poverty forced
Erasmus into the consecrated
life as a canon regular of St. Augustine at the canonry of Stein , in
South Holland . He took vows there in late 1488, and was ordained to
the Catholic priesthood at about the age of 25, in 1492. It is said
that he never seemed to have actively worked as a priest for a longer
time, and certain abuses in religious orders were among the chief
objects of his later calls to reform the Church from within.
While at Stein,
Erasmus wrote a series of letters to a fellow monk,
Servatius Rogerus, in which
Erasmus called him "half my soul". He
wrote, "I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly". Regarding
this letters, while
Diarmaid MacCulloch says that
Erasmus "fell in
love" with him, Harry Vredeveld says that the letters are "surely
expressions of true friendship", citing what
Erasmus said to Grunnius:
"It is not uncommon at age to conceive passionate attachments for
some of your companions". In 1497,
Erasmus tutored in
Paris to the
Northoff brothers and two Englismen, including Thomas Grey. After a
Erasmus was dismissed by Grey's guardian since he showed "an
affection strong enough" for Grey, which caused the guardian suspected
Erasmus complained that the relationship between him and Grey
was not based on "any youthful whim but an honourable love for
letters". No personal denunciation was made of
Erasmus during his
lifetime, and he took pains in later life to distance these earlier
episodes by condemning sodomy in his works, and praising sexual desire
in marriage between men and women.
Soon after his priestly ordination, he got his chance to leave the
canonry when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambrai ,
Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his
reputation as a man of letters . To allow him to accept that post, he
was given a temporary dispensation from his religious vows on the
grounds of poor health and love of Humanistic studies, though he
remained a priest.
Pope Leo X later made the dispensation permanent, a
considerable privilege at the time.
EDUCATION AND SCHOLARSHIP
Bronze statue of
Erasmus in Rotterdam. It was created by
Hendrick de Keyser in 1622, replacing a stone statue of 1557.
In 1495, with Bishop Henry's consent and a stipend, he went on to
study at the
University of Paris
University of Paris , in the
Collège de Montaigu , a
centre of reforming zeal, under the direction of the ascetic Jan
Standonck , of whose rigors
Erasmus complained. The University was
then the chief seat of Scholastic learning, but already coming under
the influence of
Renaissance humanism. For instance,
Erasmus became an
intimate friend of an Italian Humanist
Publio Fausto Andrelini , poet
and "professor of humanity" in Paris.
The chief centres of Erasmus's activity were
Leuven (in the
Duchy of Brabant
Duchy of Brabant , now in
England , and Basel; yet he never
belonged firmly in any one of these places. In 1499 he was invited
William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy , who offered to
accompany him on his trip back to England. Erasmus, "ever susceptible
to the charms of attractive, well-connected, and rich young men". His
England was fruitful in the making of lifelong friendships
with the leaders of English thought in the days of King Henry VIII :
John Colet ,
Thomas More ,
John Fisher ,
Thomas Linacre and William
Grocyn . At the
University of Cambridge , he was the Lady Margaret\'s
Professor of Divinity and had the option of spending the rest of his
life as an English professor . He stayed at Queens\' College,
Cambridge from 1510 to 1515. His rooms were in the "I" staircase of
Old Court, and he famously hated English ale and English weather. He
suffered from poor health and complained that Queens' could not supply
him with enough decent wine (wine was the
Renaissance medicine for
gallstones, from which
Erasmus suffered). Until the early
20th-century, Queens' College used to have a corkscrew that was
purported to be "Erasmus' corkscrew" which was a third of a metre
long, though today the college still has what it calls "Erasmus'
chair". Today Queens' College has an
Erasmus Building and an Erasmus
Room. His legacy is marked for someone who complained bitterly about
the lack of comforts and luxuries to which he was accustomed. As
Queens' was an unusually humanist-leaning institution in the 16th
century, Queens\' College Old Library still houses many first editions
of Erasmus' publications, many of which were acquired during that
period by bequest or purchase, including Erasmus' New Testament
translation which is signed by friend and Polish religious reformer
Jan Laski . Erasmus' friend, Chancellor
John Fisher , was president
of Queens' College from 1505 to 1508. His friendship with Fisher is
the reason he chose to stay at Queens' while lecturing in Greek at the
In 1499, while in England,
Erasmus was particularly impressed by the
Bible teaching of
John Colet who pursued a style more akin to the
church fathers than the
Scholastics . This prompted him, upon his
return from England, to master the Greek language, which would enable
him to study theology on a more profound level and to prepare a new
Bible translation . On one occasion he wrote to
"I cannot tell you, dear Colet, how I hurry on, with all sails set,
to holy literature. How I dislike everything that keeps me back, or
Despite a chronic shortage of money, he succeeded in learning Greek
by an intensive, day-and-night study of three years, continuously
begging his friends to send him books and money for teachers in his
letters. Discovery in 1506 of
Lorenzo Valla 's _
New Testament Notes_
Erasmus to continue the study of the New Testament.
Erasmus preferred to live the life of an independent scholar and made
a conscious effort to avoid any actions or formal ties that might
inhibit his freedom of intellect and literary expression. Throughout
his life, he was offered positions of honor and profit in academia but
declined them all, preferring the uncertain but sufficient rewards of
independent literary activity. From 1506 to 1509, he was in Italy: in
1506 he graduated as
Doctor of Divinity at the
Turin University , and
he spent part of the time as a proofreader at the publishing house of
Aldus Manutius in
Venice . According to his letters, he was associated
with the Venetian natural philosopher,
Giulio Camillo , but, apart
from this, he had a less active association with Italian scholars than
might have been expected.
His residence at Leuven, where he lectured at the University ,
Erasmus to much criticism from those ascetics, academics and
clerics hostile to the principles of literary and religious reform and
the loose norms of the
Renaissance adherents to which he was devoting
his life. In 1517, he supported the foundation at the University, by
Hieronymus van Busleyden
Hieronymus van Busleyden , of the Collegium Trilingue for
the study of
Hebrew , Latin, and Greek—after the model of the
College of the Three Languages at the University of Alcalá . However,
feeling that the lack of sympathy which prevailed at
Leuven at that
time was actually a form of mental persecution, he sought refuge in
Basel, where under the shelter of Swiss hospitality he could express
himself freely. Admirers from all quarters of Europe visited him there
and he was surrounded by devoted friends, notably developing a lasting
association with the great publisher Johann
Only when he had mastered Latin did he begin to express himself on
major contemporary themes in literature and religion . He felt called
upon to use his learning in a purification of the doctrine by
returning to the historic documents and original languages of sacred
Scripture. He tried to free the methods of scholarship from the
rigidity and formalism of medieval traditions, but he was not
satisfied with this. His revolt against certain forms of Christian
monasticism and scholasticism was not based on doubts about the truth
of doctrine, nor from hostility to the organization of the Church
itself, nor from rejection of celibacy or monastical lifestyles. He
saw himself as a preacher of righteousness by an appeal to reason,
applied frankly and without fear of the magisterium . He always
intended to remain faithful to Catholic doctrine, and therefore was
convinced he could criticize frankly virtually everyone and
everything. Aloof from entangling obligations,
Erasmus was the centre
of the literary movement of his time, corresponding with more than
five hundred men in the worlds of politics and of thought.
PUBLICATION OF THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
New Testament printed in Greek was not by
Erasmus but by
Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, as part of the Complutensian
Polyglot . This portion was printed in 1514, but publication was
delayed until 1522 by waiting for the Old Testament portion, and the
Pope Leo X . The delay allowed Erasmus' Greek New
Testament to be published first, in 1516.
Erasmus had been working for years on two projects: a collation of
Greek texts and a fresh Latin New Testament. In 1512, he began his
work on this Latin New Testament. He collected all the Vulgate
manuscripts he could find to create a critical edition. Then he
polished the Latin. He declared, "It is only fair that Paul should
address the Romans in somewhat better Latin." In the earlier phases
of the project, he never mentioned a Greek text: "My mind is so
excited at the thought of emending Jerome’s text, with notes, that I
seem to myself inspired by some god. I have already almost finished
emending him by collating a large number of ancient manuscripts, and
this I am doing at enormous personal expense."
While his intentions for publishing a fresh Latin translation are
clear, it is less clear why he included the Greek text. Though some
speculate that he intended to produce a critical Greek text or that he
wanted to beat the
Complutensian Polyglot into print, there is no
evidence to support this. He wrote, "There remains the New Testament
translated by me, with the Greek facing, and notes on it by me." He
further demonstrated the reason for the inclusion of the Greek text
when defending his work: "But one thing the facts cry out, and it can
be clear, as they say, even to a blind man, that often through the
translator’s clumsiness or inattention the Greek has been wrongly
rendered; often the true and genuine reading has been corrupted by
ignorant scribes, which we see happen every day, or altered by scribes
who are half-taught and half-asleep."
So he included the Greek text to permit qualified readers to verify
the quality of his Latin version. But by first calling the final
product _Novum Instrumentum omne_ ("All of the New Teaching") and
later _Novum Testamentum omne_ ("All of the New Testament") he also
indicated clearly that he considered a text in which the Greek and the
Latin versions were consistently comparable to be the essential core
of the church's
New Testament tradition.
In a way it is legitimate to say that
Erasmus "synchronized" or
"unified" the Greek and the Latin traditions of the
New Testament by
producing an updated version of either simultaneously. Both being part
of canonical tradition, he clearly found it necessary to ensure that
both were actually presenting the same content. In modern terminology,
he made the two traditions "compatible". This is clearly evidenced by
the fact that his Greek text is not just the basis for his Latin
translation, but also the other way round: there are numerous
instances where he edits the Greek text to reflect his Latin version.
For instance, since the last six verses of _
Revelation _ were missing
from his Greek manuscript,
Erasmus translated the Vulgate's text back
Erasmus also translated the Latin text into Greek wherever
he found that the Greek text and the accompanying commentaries were
mixed up, or where he simply preferred the Vulgate’s reading to the
Greek text. Acknowledgement page engraved and published by
Froben , 1516
Erasmus said it was "rushed into print rather than edited",
resulting in a number of transcription errors. After comparing what
writings he could find,
Erasmus wrote corrections between the lines of
the manuscripts he was using (among which was
Minuscule 2 ) and sent
them as proofs to Froben. His hurried effort was published by his
Basel in 1516 and thence became the first
published Greek New Testament, the _
Novum Instrumentum omne ,
diligenter ab Erasmo Rot. Recognitum et Emendatum_.
several Greek manuscript sources because he did not have access to a
single complete manuscript. Most of the manuscripts were, however,
late Greek manuscripts of the Byzantine textual family and Erasmus
used the oldest manuscript the least because "he was afraid of its
supposedly erratic text." He also ignored much older and better
manuscripts that were at his disposal.
In the second (1519) edition, the more familiar term _Testamentum_
was used instead of _Instrumentum_. This edition was used by Martin
Luther in his German translation of the
Bible , written for people who
could not understand Latin. Together, the first and second editions
sold 3,300 copies. By comparison, only 600 copies of the Complutensian
Polyglot were ever printed. The first and second edition texts did not
include the passage (1 John 5:7–8) that has become known as the
Comma Johanneum .
Erasmus had been unable to find those verses in any
Greek manuscript, but one was supplied to him during production of the
third edition. That manuscript is now thought to be a 1520 creation
from the Latin
Vulgate , which likely got the verses from a
fifth-century marginal gloss in a Latin copy of I John. The Roman
Catholic Church decreed that the _Comma Johanneum_ was open to dispute
(2 June 1927), and it is rarely included in modern scholarly
The third edition of 1522 was probably used by
Tyndale for the first
New Testament (Worms, 1526) and was the basis for the 1550
Robert Stephanus edition used by the translators of the Geneva Bible
King James Version
King James Version of the English Bible.
Erasmus published a
fourth edition in 1527 containing parallel columns of Greek, Latin
Vulgate and Erasmus's Latin texts. In this edition
supplied the Greek text of the last six verses of
Revelation (which he
had translated from Latin back into Greek in his first edition) from
Cardinal Ximenez 's _Biblia Complutensis _. In 1535
the fifth (and final) edition which dropped the Latin
but was otherwise similar to the fourth edition. Later versions of the
New Testament by others, but based on Erasmus's Greek New
Testament, became known as the _
Textus Receptus _.
Erasmus dedicated his work to
Pope Leo X as a patron of learning and
regarded this work as his chief service to the cause of Christianity.
Immediately afterward, he began the publication of his _Paraphrases of
New Testament _, a popular presentation of the contents of the
several books. These, like all of his writings, were published in
Latin but were quickly translated into other languages, with his
BEGINNINGS OF PROTESTANTISM
ATTEMPTS AT IMPARTIALITY IN DISPUTE
Martin Luther\'s movement began in the year following the publication
New Testament and tested Erasmus' character. The issues between
growing religious movements, which would later become known as
Protestantism , and the
Catholic Church had become so clear that few
could escape the summons to join the debate. Erasmus, at the height of
his literary fame, was inevitably called upon to take sides, but
partisanship was foreign to his nature and his habits. In all his
criticism of clerical follies and abuses, he had always protested that
he was not attacking the Church itself or its doctrines, and had no
enmity toward churchmen. The world had laughed at his satire , but few
had interfered with his activities. He believed that his work so far
had commended itself to the best minds and also to the dominant powers
in the religious world.
Erasmus did not build a large body of supporters with his letters. He
chose to write in Greek and Latin, the languages of scholars. His
critiques reached an elite but small audience.
DISAGREEMENT WITH LUTHER
Free will does not exist", according to Luther in his letter De
Servo Arbitrio to
Erasmus translated into German by Justus Jonas
(1526) in that sin makes human beings completely incapable of bringing
themselves to God. Noting Luther's criticism of the Catholic Church,
Erasmus described him as "a mighty trumpet of gospel truth" while
agreeing, "It is clear that many of the reforms for which Luther calls
are urgently needed.” He had great respect for Luther, and Luther
spoke with admiration of Erasmus's superior learning. Luther hoped for
his cooperation in a work which seemed only the natural outcome of his
own. In their early correspondence, Luther expressed boundless
admiration for all
Erasmus had done in the cause of a sound and
reasonable Christianity and urged him to join the Lutheran party.
Erasmus declined to commit himself, arguing that to do so would
endanger his position as a leader in the movement for pure scholarship
which he regarded as his purpose in life. Only as an independent
scholar could he hope to influence the reform of religion. When
Erasmus hesitated to support him, the straightforward Luther became
Erasmus was avoiding the responsibility due either to
cowardice or a lack of purpose. However, any hesitancy on the part of
Erasmus stemmed, not from lack of courage or conviction, but rather
from a concern over the mounting disorder and violence of the reform
movement. To Philip
Melanchthon in 1524 he wrote:
I know nothing of your church; at the very least it contains people
who will, I fear, overturn the whole system and drive the princes into
using force to restrain good men and bad alike. The gospel, the word
of God, faith, Christ, and Holy
Spirit – these words are always on
their lips; look at their lives and they speak quite another language.
Again, in 1529, he writes “An epistle against those who falsely
boast they are Evangelicals” to Vulturius Neocomus (Gerardus
Geldenhouwer ). Here
Erasmus complains of the doctrines and morals of
You declaim bitterly against the luxury of priests, the ambition of
bishops, the tyranny of the Roman Pontiff, and the babbling of the
sophists; against our prayers, fasts, and Masses; and you are not
content to retrench the abuses that may be in these things, but must
needs abolish them entirely...
Look around on this ‘Evangelical’ generation, and observe
whether amongst them less indulgence is given to luxury, lust, or
avarice, than amongst those whom you so detest. Show me any one person
who by that Gospel has been reclaimed from drunkenness to sobriety,
from fury and passion to meekness, from avarice to liberality, from
reviling to well-speaking, from wantonness to modesty. I will show you
a great many who have become worse through following it....The solemn
prayers of the Church are abolished, but now there are very many who
never pray at all....
I have never entered their conventicles, but I have sometimes seen
them returning from their sermons, the countenances of all of them
displaying rage, and wonderful ferocity, as though they were animated
by the evil spirit....
Who ever beheld in their meetings any one of them shedding tears,
smiting his breast, or grieving for his sins ?... Confession to the
priest is abolished, but very few now confess to God.... They have
fled from Judaism that they may become Epicureans.
Apart from these perceived moral failings of the Reformers, Erasmus
also dreaded any change in doctrine, citing the long history of the
Church as a bulwark against innovation. In book I of his
_Hyperaspistes_ he puts the matter bluntly to Luther:
We are dealing with this: Would a stable mind depart from the opinion
handed down by so many men famous for holiness and miracles, depart
from the decisions of the Church, and commit our souls to the faith of
someone like you who has sprung up just now with a few followers,
although the leading men of your flock do not agree either with you or
among themselves – indeed though you do not even agree with
yourself, since in this same _Assertion_ you say one thing in the
beginning and something else later on, recanting what you said before.
Continuing his chastisement of Luther—and undoubtedly put off by
the notion of there being "no pure interpretation of Scripture
anywhere but in Wittenberg" –
Erasmus touches upon another
important point of the controversy:
You stipulate that we should not ask for or accept anything but Holy
Scripture, but you do it in such a way as to require that we permit
you to be its sole interpreter, renouncing all others. Thus the
victory will be yours if we allow you to be not the steward but the
lord of Holy Scripture.
Though he sought to remain firmly neutral in doctrinal disputes, each
side accused him of siding with the other, perhaps because of his
neutrality. It was not for lack of fidelity with either side but a
desire for fidelity with them both:
"I detest dissension because it goes both against the teachings of
Christ and against a secret inclination of nature. I doubt that either
side in the dispute can be suppressed without grave loss."
In his catechism (entitled _Explanation of the Apostles\' Creed _)
Erasmus took a stand against Luther's teaching by asserting
Sacred Tradition as just as valid a source of revelation
Bible , by enumerating the
Deuterocanonical books in the canon
Bible and by acknowledging seven sacraments . He called
"blasphemers" anyone who questioned the perpetual virginity of Mary .
However, he supported lay access to the Bible.
In a letter to
Nikolaus von Amsdorf , Luther objected to Erasmus’
Catechism and called
Erasmus a "viper," "liar," and "the very mouth
and organ of Satan."
Erasmus was accused by the monks against the Reformation, that he
"prepared the way and was responsible for Martin Luther. Erasmus,
they said, had laid the egg, and Luther had hatched it. Erasmus
wittily dismissed the charge, claiming that Luther had hatched a
different bird entirely.".
Twice in the course of the great discussion, he allowed himself to
enter the field of doctrinal controversy, a field foreign to both his
nature and his previous practice. One of the topics he dealt with was
free will, a crucial question. In his _De libero arbitrio diatribe
sive collatio _ (1524), he lampoons the Lutheran view on free will. He
lays down both sides of the argument impartially. The "Diatribe" did
not encourage any definite action; this was its merit to the Erasmians
and its fault in the eyes of the Lutherans. In response, Luther wrote
his _De servo arbitrio_ (
On the Bondage of the Will ) (1525), which
attacks the "Diatribe" and
Erasmus himself, going so far as to claim
Erasmus was not a Christian.
Erasmus responded with a lengthy,
two-part _Hyperaspistes_ (1526–27). In this controversy
it be seen that he would like to claim more for free will than St.
Paul and St. Augustine seem to allow according to Luther's
Erasmus the essential point is that humans have
the freedom of choice. The conclusions
Erasmus reached drew upon a
large array of notable authorities, including, from the Patristic
period, Origen, John Chrysostom, Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine, in
addition to many leading Scholastic authors, such as Thomas Aquinas
and Duns Scotus. The content of Erasmus' works also engaged with later
thought on the state of the question, including the perspectives of
the _via moderna_ school and of Lorenzo Valla, whose ideas he
As the popular response to Luther gathered momentum, the social
Erasmus dreaded and Luther disassociated himself
from, began to appear, including the German Peasants\' War , the
Anabaptist disturbances in Germany and in the Low Countries,
iconoclasm and the radicalization of peasants across Europe. If these
were the outcomes of reform, he was thankful that he had kept out of
it. Yet he was ever more bitterly accused of having started the whole
"tragedy" (as the Catholics dubbed Protestantism).
When the city of
Basel definitely adopted the
Reformation in 1529,
Erasmus gave up his residence there and settled in the imperial town
Freiburg im Breisgau .
Erasmus by Holbein
Certain works of
Erasmus laid a foundation for religious toleration
Ecumenism . For example, in _De libero arbitrio_, opposing certain
views of Martin Luther,
Erasmus noted that religious disputants should
be temperate in their language, "because in this way the truth, which
is often lost amidst too much wrangling may be more surely perceived."
Gary Remer writes, "Like
Erasmus concludes that truth is
furthered by a more harmonious relationship between interlocutors."
Erasmus did not oppose the punishment of heretics, in
individual cases he generally argued for moderation and against the
death penalty. He wrote, "It is better to cure a sick man than to kill
A test of the
Reformation was the doctrine of the sacraments , and
the crux of this question was the observance of the
Eucharist . In
Erasmus published a new edition of the orthodox treatise of
Algerus against the heretic
Berengar of Tours
Berengar of Tours in the eleventh century.
He added a dedication, affirming his belief in the reality of the Body
of Christ after consecration in the Eucharist, commonly referred to as
transubstantiation . The sacramentarians , headed by Œcolampadius of
Basel, were, as
Erasmus says, quoting him as holding views similar to
their own in order to try to claim him for their schismatic and
When his strength began to fail, he decided to accept an invitation
by Queen Mary of Hungary, Regent of the
Netherlands , to move from
Freiburg to Brabant . However, during preparations for the move in
1536, he suddenly died from an attack of dysentery during a visit to
Basel . He had remained loyal to the papal authorities in Rome, but
he did not have the opportunity to receive the last rites of the
Catholic Church; and whether he asked for a priest or not is nowhere
mentioned in the reports of his death. According to Jan van
Herwaarden, this is consistent with his view that outward signs were
not important; what mattered is the believer's direct relationship
with God, which he noted "as the church believes". However,
Herwaarden observes that "he did not dismiss the rites and sacraments
out of hand but asserted a dying person could achieve a state of
salvation without the priestly rites, provided their faith and spirit
were attuned to God." He was buried with great ceremony in Basel
Minster (the former cathedral ) there.
His last words, as recorded by his friend
Beatus Rhenanus , were
apparently "_Dear God_" (Dutch : _Lieve God_). A bronze statue of him
was erected in the city of his birth in 1622, replacing an earlier
work in stone.
Erasmus wrote both on ecclesiastic subjects and those of general
human interest. By the 1530s, the writings of
Erasmus accounted for 10
to 20 percent of all book sales in Europe. He is credited with
coining the adage, "In the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is
king." With the collaboration of
Publio Fausto Andrelini , he formed a
Paremiography (collection) of Latin proverbs and adages, commonly
Erasmus is also generally credited with originating
the phrase "Pandora\'s box ", arising through an error in his
Hesiod 's _
Pandora _ in which he confused _pithos_
(storage jar) with _pyxis_ (box).
His more serious writings begin early with the _Enchiridion militis
Christiani ,_ the "Handbook of the Christian Soldier" (1503)
(translated into English a few years later by the young William
Tyndale ). (A more literal translation of _enchiridion_ - 'dagger' -
has been likened to "the spiritual equivalent of the modern Swiss Army
knife .") In this short work,
Erasmus outlines the views of the
normal Christian life, which he was to spend the rest of his days
elaborating. The chief evil of the day, he says, is formalism - going
through the motions of tradition without understanding their basis in
the teachings of Christ. Forms can teach the soul how to worship God,
or they may hide or quench the spirit. In his examination of the
dangers of formalism,
Erasmus discusses monasticism, saint worship,
war, the spirit of class and the foibles of "society."
The _Enchiridion_ is more like a sermon than a satire. With it
Erasmus challenged common assumptions, painting the clergy as
educators who should share the treasury of their knowledge with the
laity. He emphasized personal spiritual disciplines, and called for a
reformation which he characterized as a collective return to the
Fathers and Scripture. Most importantly, he extolled the reading of
scripture as vital because of its power to transform and motivate
toward love. Much like the Brethren of the Common Life, he wrote that
New Testament is the law of Christ people are called to obey and
that Christ is the example they are called to imitate.
Ernest Barker , "Besides his work on the New Testament,
Erasmus laboured also, and even more arduously, on the early Fathers
...Among the Latin Fathers he edited the works of St
Jerome , St
Hilary , and
St Augustine ; among the Greeks he worked on
Erasmus also wrote of the legendary Frisian freedom fighter and rebel
Pier Gerlofs Donia (Greate Pier), though more often in criticism than
in praise of his exploits.
Erasmus saw him as a dim, brutal man who
preferred physical strength to wisdom. _ Marginal drawing of
Folly by Hans Holbein in the first edition of Erasmus's Praise of
One of Erasmus's best-known works, inspired by _De triumpho
stultitiae_ (written by Italian humanist Faustino Perisauli ), is _The
Praise of Folly _, published under the double title _Moriae encomium_
(Greek, Latinised) and _Laus stultitiae_ (Latin). A satirical attack
on superstitions and other traditions of European society in general
and the western Church in particular, it was written in 1509,
published in 1511, and dedicated to Sir Thomas More, whose name the
The _Institutio principis Christiani _ (_Education of a Christian
Prince_) (Basel, 1516) was written as advice to the young king Charles
of Spain (later
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ).
Erasmus applies the
general principles of honor and sincerity to the special functions of
the Prince, whom he represents throughout as the servant of the
people. _Education_ was published in 1516, three years after Niccolò
Machiavelli ’s _
The Prince _; a comparison between the two is worth
noting. Machiavelli stated that, to maintain control by political
force, it is safer for a prince to be feared than loved. Erasmus
preferred for the prince to be loved, and strongly suggested a
well-rounded education in order to govern justly and benevolently and
avoid becoming a source of oppression.
As a result of his reformatory activities,
Erasmus found himself at
odds with both the great parties. His last years were embittered by
controversies with men toward whom he was sympathetic. Notable among
Ulrich von Hutten , a brilliant but erratic genius, who had
thrown himself into the Lutheran cause and declared that Erasmus, if
he had a spark of honesty, would do the same. In his reply in 1523,
_Spongia adversus aspergines Hutteni_,
Erasmus displays his skill in
semantics . He accuses Hutten of having misinterpreted his utterances
about reform and reiterates his determination never to break with the
Ciceronianus _ came out in 1528, attacking the style of Latin
that was based exclusively and fanatically on Cicero's writings.
Etienne Dolet wrote a riposte titled _Erasmianus_ in 1535.
Erasmus's last major work, published the year of his death, is the
_Ecclesiastes _ or "Gospel Preacher" (Basel, 1536), in which he
comments on the function of preaching.
_SILENI ALCIBIADIS_ (1515)
Erasmus’s _Sileni Alcibiadis_ is one of his most direct assessments
of the need for Church reform. Johann
Froben published it first within
a revised edition of the _Adagia_ in 1515, then as a stand-alone work
in 1517. This essay has been likened to John Colet’s _Convocation
Sermon_, though the styles differ.
_Sileni_ is the plural (Latin) form of _Silenus_, a creature often
related to the Roman wine god
Bacchus and represented in pictorial art
as inebriated, merry revellers, variously mounted on donkeys, singing,
dancing, playing flutes etc.
Alcibiades was a Greek politician in the
5th century BCE and a general in the
Peloponnesian War ; he figures
here more as a character written into some of Plato's dialogues—a
young, debauched playboy whom Socrates tries to convince to seek truth
instead of pleasure, wisdom instead of pomp and splendor.
The term _Sileni_—especially when juxtaposed with the character of
Alcibiades—can therefore be understood as an evocation of the notion
that something on the inside is more expressive of a person's
character than what one sees on the outside. For instance, something
or someone ugly on the outside can be beautiful on the inside, which
is one of the main points of Plato's dialogues featuring _Alcibiades_
and the _Symposion_, in which
Alcibiades also appears.
In support of this,
Erasmus states, "Anyone who looks closely at the
inward nature and essence will find that nobody is further from true
wisdom than those people with their grand titles, learned bonnets,
splendid sashes and bejeweled rings, who profess to be wisdom’s
Erasmus lists several Sileni and then questions whether Christ
is the most noticeable Silenus of them all. The
Apostles were Sileni
since they were ridiculed by others. He believes that the things which
are the least ostentatious can be the most significant, and that the
Church constitutes all Christian people —that despite contemporary
references to clergy as the whole of the Church, they are merely its
servants. He criticizes those that spend the Church’s riches at the
people’s expense. The true point of the Church is to help people
lead Christian lives. Priests are supposed to be pure, yet when they
stray away, no one condemns them. He criticizes the riches of the
popes, believing that it would be better for the Gospel to be most
Cast of a skull previously presumed to have been that of
Erasmus. Part of the
The popularity of his books is reflected in the number of editions
and translations that have appeared since the sixteenth century. Ten
columns of the catalogue of the British Library are taken up with the
enumeration of the works and their subsequent reprints. The greatest
names of the classical and patristic world are among those translated,
edited or annotated by Erasmus, including Saint
Saint Augustine , Saint Basil , Saint John
In his native Rotterdam, the University and
Gymnasium Erasmianum have
been named in his honor. In 2003, a poll showing that most
Erasmus to be the designer of the local
Erasmus Bridge" instigated the founding of the
(Rotterdam), and the
Erasmus House (Jakarta) dedicated to
celebrating Erasmus's legacy. Three moments in Erasmus's life are
celebrated annually. On 1 April, the city celebrates the publication
of his best-known book _The Praise of Folly_. On 11 July, the _Night
of Erasmus_ celebrates the lasting influence of his work. His birthday
is celebrated on 28 October.
Erasmus's reputation and the interpretations of his work have varied
over time. Following his death, there was a long period of time when
his countrymen mourned his death. Moderate Catholics felt that he had
been a leading figure in attempts to reform the Church, while
Protestants recognized his initial support for Luther's ideas and the
groundwork he laid for the future Reformation. By the 1560s, however,
there was a marked change in reception.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
censored by the Index Librorum Prohibitorum
Franz Anton Knittel ,
Erasmus in his _Novum Instrumentum
omne _ did not incorporate the _Comma _ from the _Codex Montfortianus
_, because of grammar differences, but used _Complutensian Polyglotta
_. According to him the _Comma_ was known to
Protestant views of
Erasmus fluctuated depending on region and
period, with continual support in his native
Netherlands and in cities
of the Upper Rhine area. However, following his death and in the late
sixteenth century, many
Reformation supporters saw Erasmus's critiques
of Luther and lifelong support for the universal
Catholic Church as
damning, and second-generation Protestants were less vocal in their
debts to the great humanist. Nevertheless, his reception is
demonstrable among Swiss Protestants in the sixteenth-century: he had
an indelible influence on the biblical commentaries of, for example,
Konrad Pellikan, Heinrich Bullinger, and John Calvin, all of whom used
both his annotations on the
New Testament and his paraphrases of same
in their own
New Testament commentaries.
Erasmus designated his own legacy and his life works were
turned over at his death to his friend the Protestant humanist turned
Sebastian Castellio for the repair of the breach and
divide of Christianity in its Catholic, Antebaptist, and Protestant
By the coming of the
Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment , however, Erasmus
increasingly again became a more widely respected cultural symbol and
was hailed as an important figure by increasingly broad groups. In a
letter to a friend,
Erasmus once had written: "That you are patriotic
will be praised by many and easily forgiven by everyone; but in my
opinion it is wiser to treat men and things as though we held this
world the common fatherland of all." Thus, the universalist ideals of
Erasmus are sometimes claimed to be important for fixing global
Several schools, faculties and universities in the
Belgium are named after him, as is
Erasmus Hall in
Brooklyn , New
York, USA. The European Union's
Erasmus Programme scholarships enable
students to spend up to a year of their university courses in a
university in another European country.
_ Holbein's studies of Erasmus's hands, in silverpoint and
chalks, ca. 1523. (
* Hans Holbein painted him at least three times, and perhaps as many
as seven; some only survive in versions by other artists. His three
profile portraits of Erasmus, two (nearly identical) profile portraits
and one three-quarters view portrait were all painted in the same
Erasmus used the Holbein portraits as gifts for his
friends in England, such as
William Warham , the Archbishop of
Canterbury (as he writes in a letter to Warham regarding the gift
Erasmus quips that "he might have something of Erasmus
should God call him from this place.")
Erasmus spoke favourably of
Holbein as an artist and person, but later criticized Holbein whom he
had accused of sponging off various patrons to whom
recommended, for purposes more of monetary gain than artistic
Albrecht Dürer also produced portraits of Erasmus, whom he met
three times, in the form of an engraving of 1526 and a preliminary
charcoal sketch. Concerning the former
Erasmus was unimpressed,
declaring it an unfavourable likeness of him. Nevertheless, Erasmus
and Dürer maintained a close friendship, with Dürer going so far as
to solicit Erasmus's support for the Lutheran cause, which Erasmus
Erasmus wrote a glowing encomium _ about the
artist, likening him to famous Greek painter of antiquity
Erasmus was deeply affected by his death in 1528.
Quentin Matsys produced the earliest known portraits of Erasmus,
including an oil painting in 1517 and a medallion in 1519.
* In 1622,
Hendrick de Keyser cast a statue of
Erasmus in bronze
replacing an earlier stone version from 1557. This was set up in the
public square in Rotterdam, and today may be found outside the church
of St Lawrence.
Adagia _ (1500 and later editions)
Enchiridion militis Christiani _ (1503)
The Praise of Folly _ (1511)
* _Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style _ (1512) (a.k.a. _De
* _Disticha de moribus nomine Catonis_ (1513) with commentaries,
later edited and translated by
Michael Servetus et al.
* _Sileni Alcibiadis _ (1515)
Novum Instrumentum omne _ (1516), the first modern and critical
version of the Greek New Testament, part of what is now known as the
Textus Receptus .
Education of a Christian Prince _ (1516)
* _Bellum_ (essay, 1517)
* _Colloquia _ (1518); 12 more eds. by 1533
* _Lingua, Sive, De Linguae usu atque abusu Liber utillissimus_
Ciceronianus _ (1528)
* _De recta Latini Graecique sermonis pronuntiatione_ (_Dialogue
About the Correct Pronunciation of Latin and Greek_, 1528)
* _De pueris statim ac liberaliter instituendis_ (1529)
A handbook on manners for children _ (1530)
* _Consultatio de Bello Turcis Inferendo_ (1530)
* _A Playne and Godly Exposition or Declaration of the Commune Crede
* _Ecclesiastes _ (1535)
* _De octo orationis partium constructione libellus_ (1536). Edited
and translated by
Michael Servetus in 1549.
Apophthegmatum opus _ (1539)
* _The first tome or volume of the Paraphrase of
Erasmus vpon the
newe testamente _ (1548)
Damião de Góis
Damião de Góis , a humanist, a close friend and pupil of Erasmus
* List of Erasmus\'s correspondents
Erasmus Student Network
Mammotrectus super Bibliam
Paulus Bombasius –
Erasmus was in regular correspondence with
* ^ _Erasmus_ was his baptismal name , given after
St. Erasmus of
Formiae . _Desiderius_ was a self-adopted additional name, which he
used from 1496. The _Roterodamus_ was a scholarly name meaning "from
Rotterdam", though the Latin genitive would be _Roterdamensis_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of
John Colet and
Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance
Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the
Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp.
* ^ Harry Vredeveld, "The Ages of
Erasmus and the Year of his
Renaissance Quarterly_, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Winter, 1993), pp.
* ^ Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of Christianity. New York
: Harper & Brothers, 1953, p. 661.
* ^ Written to refute Martin Luther's doctrine of "enslaved will",
Alister McGrath , Luther believed that only Erasmus, of
all his interlocutors, understood and appreciated the locus of his
doctrinal emphases and reforms. McGrath, Alister (2012). _Iustitia
Dei_ (3rd ed.). 3.4: "Justification in Early Lutheranism": Cambridge
University Press. pp. xiv+ 448.
* ^ Manfred Hoffmann, "
Faith and Piety in Erasmus's Thought,"
_Sixteenth Century Journal_ (1989), 20#2, pp. 241–58
* ^ _A_ _B_ "He tried to remain in the fold of the old Church,
after having damaged it seriously, and renounced the Reformation, and
to a certain extent even Humanism, after having furthered both with
all his strength".
Johan Huizinga , _
Erasmus and the Age of
Reformation_ (tr. F. Hopman and Barbara Flower; New York: Harper and
Row, 1924), p. 190.
Erasmus Roterodamus. Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami de utraque
verborum ac rerum copia. Libri II. Osnabrucae, 1715
* ^ Avarucci, Giuseppe (1983). "Due codici scritti da 'Gerardus
Helye' padre di Erasmo", in: Italia medioevale e umanistica, 26
(1983), pp. 215–55, esp. pp. 238–39.".
* ^ Adrian Room, _Dictionary of Pseudonyms: 13,000 Assumed Names
and Their Origins_, blz. 165
* ^ _Erasmus_, Johan Huizinga, Ed. Ad Donker, Rotterdam, 2001, p.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Nauert, Charles. "Desiderius Erasmus".
_Winter 2009 Edition_.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved
Erasmus was a native of the Netherlands, born at Rotterdam
in the county of Holland on 27 October of some year in the late 1460s;
1466 now seems to be the year that most biographers prefer. Erasmus'
own statements on the year of his birth are contradictory, perhaps
because he did not know for certain but probably because later in life
he wanted to emphasize the excessively early age at which his
guardians pushed him and his elder brother Peter to enter monastic
life, in order to support his efforts to be released from his monastic
* ^ Smith, Preserved (1928). "Erasmus: A Study Of His Life Ideals
And Place In History". Harper & Brothers. pp. 445–46. Retrieved
* ^ Huizinga, _Erasmus_, pp. 4 and 6 (Dutch-language version)
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cornelius Augustijn, _Erasmus: His life, work and
influence_, University of Toronto, 1991
* ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
* ^ The famous 19th century novel _
The Cloister and the Hearth _,
Charles Reade , is an account of the lives of Erasmus's parents.
* ^ Peter Nissen: _Geloven in de Lage landen; scharniermomenten in
de geschiedenis van het christendom_. Davidsfonds/Leuven, 2004.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Harry Vredeveld, ed. (1993), _Collected Works of
Erasmus: Poems_, Translated by Clarence H. Miller, University of
Toronto Press, pp. xiv–xv, ISBN 9780802028679
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Galli, Mark, and Olsen, Ted. _131 Christians
Everyone Should Know_. Nashville: Holman Reference, 2000, p. 343.
* ^ _Collected Works of Erasmus_, vol. 1, p. 12 (
Toronto Press, 1974)
Diarmaid MacCulloch (2003). _Reformation: A History _. pg. 95.
MacCulloch says "he fell in love" and further adds in a footnote
"There has been much modern embarrassment and obfuscation on Erasmus
and Rogerus, but see the sensible comment in J. Huizinga, _
Rotterdam_ (London, 1952), pp. 11–12, and from Geoffrey Nutuall,
_Journal of Ecclesiastical History_ 26 (1975), 403".
* ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, _A History of Christianity_, 2010, p. 595
* ^ _Collected Works of Erasmus: Correspondence_, University of
Toronto Press, 1974, p. 116, ISBN 9780802019813
* ^ James D. Tracy (1996), _
Erasmus of the Low Countries_,
University of California Press, p. 29, ISBN 9780520087453
* ^ Erika Rummel (1985), _
Erasmus as a Translator of the Classics_,
Toronto Press, p. 9, ISBN 9780802056535
* ^ Erika Rummel, _Erasmus_, London, 2004
* ^ Thomas Penn, _The Winter King_, Penguin, 2013
* ^ "Erasmus, Desiderius (ERSS465D)". _A Cambridge Alumni
Database_. University of Cambridge.
* ^ John Twigg, A History of
Queens' College, Cambridge 1448–1986
(Woodbridge, Suff.: Boydell Press, 1987).
* ^ "Old Library Collections". _Queens' College Cambridge. Queens'
Special Collections_. Queens.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 8
* ^ Askin, Lindsey (12 July 2013). "
Erasmus and Queens\' College,
Cambridge". _Queens' Old Library Books Blog_. Queenslib.wordpress.com.
Retrieved 8 March 2014.
* ^ Huizinga, Dutch edition, pp. 52–53.
* ^ Anderson, Marvin (1969), "
Erasmus the Exegete", _Concordia
Theeological Monthly_, 40 (11): 722–46
* ^ _Opus Epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterdami_, Ed. H.M.Allen,
(Oxford University Press, 1937), Ep. 3032: 219–22; 2682: 8–13.
* ^ Metzger, Bruce. _The Text of the New Testament_, pp. 96–103.
* ^ "Epistle 695" in _Collected Works of
Erasmus Vol. 5: Letters
594 to 841, 1517–1518_ (tr. R.A.B. Mynors and D.F.S. Thomson;
annotated by James K. McConica; Toronto: University of
* ^ "Epistle 273" in Collected _Works of
Erasmus Vol. 2: Letters
142 to 297, 1501–1514_ (tr. R.A.B. Mynors and D.F.S. Thomson;
annotated Wallace K. Ferguson; Toronto: University of
* ^ "Epistle 305" in _Collected Works of Erasmus. Vol. 3: Letters
298 to 445, 1514–1516_ (tr. R.A.B. Mynors and D.F.S. Thomson;
annotated by James K. McConica; Toronto: University of
* ^ "Epistle 337" in _Collected Works of Erasmus_ Vol. 3, 134.
* ^ E.g. at Acts 9:6. Metzger, _The Text of the New Testament_, pp.
99–100; Kurt Aland – Barbara Aland, _The Text of the New
Testament. An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory
and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism_,Translated by Erroll F.
Rhodes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. Second edition, revised and
enlarged, 1989, p. 4
* ^ "Epistle 694" in _Collected Works of
Erasmus Volume 5_, 167.
The Latin is _prœcipitatum fuit verius quam editum_.
* ^ "History of the Printed Text", in: _New Schaff-Herzog
Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. II: Basilica – Chambers_,
p. 106 ff.
* ^ Bruce Metzger, _The Text of the New Testament. Its
Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration_, Oxford University Press,
1992, p. 102.
* ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) _Tyndale's
Testament_, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1 , p. 28.
* ^ Wallace, Peter G. (2004). _European History in Perspective: The
Long European Reformation_. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 70.
ISBN 978-0-333-64451-5 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Galli, Mark, and Olsen, Ted. 131 Christians Everyone
Should Know. Nashville: Holman Reference, 2000, p. 344.
* ^ "Letter of September 6, 1524". _Collected Works of Erasmus_.
10. University of
Toronto Press. 1992. p. 380. ISBN 0-8020-5976-7 .
* ^ Epistola contra quosdam qui se falso iactant evangelicos.
* ^ "Circumspice populum istum Euangelicum…" Latin text in
Erasmus, _Opera Omnia_, (1706), vol. 10, 1578BC.
* ^ _The Reformers on the
Reformation (foreign),_ London, Burns &
Oates, 1881, pp. 13–14. See also _Erasmus_, Preserved Smith, 1923,
Harper & Brothers, pp. 391–92.
* ^ A reference to Luther's _Assertio omnium articulorum per bullam
Leonis X. novissimam damnatorum_ (Assertion of all the Articles
condemned by the Bull of Leo X, 1520), WA VII.
* ^ _Collected Works of Erasmus, Controversies: De Libero Arbitrio
/ Hyperaspistes I_, Peter Macardle, Clarence H. Miller, trans.,
Charles Trinkhaus, ed., University of
Toronto Press, 1999, ISBN
0-8020-4317-8 , ISBN 978-0-8020-4317-7 Vol. 76, p. 203
* ^ _
Erasmus and the Middle Ages: The Historical Consciousness of a
Christian Humanist_ (Brill's Studies in Intellectual History), 200,
István Pieter Bejczy, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-12218-4
ISBN 9789004122185 p. 172
* ^ _Hyperaspistes_,
Book I, _Collected Works of Erasmus_, Vol. 76,
pp. 204–05. Latin: "Stipulaberis a nobis, ne quid requiramus aut
recipiamus praeter Litteras sacras, sed sic ut tibi concedamus, ut eas
tu solus interpreteris, submotis omnibus. Sic victoria penes te
fuerit, si patiamur te non dispensatorem, sed dominum fieri divinae
Scripturae." _Opera Omnia_ (1706), Vol. 10, 1294E–F Latin & Danish
* ^ _Opera omnia Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami_, vol. V/1, Amsterdam:
North-Holland, pp. 278–90
* ^ _A_ _B_ _Opera omnia Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami_, vol. V/1,
Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 245, 279.
* ^ _D. Martin Luther. Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe.
Briefwechsel_, vol. 7, Weimar: Böhlau, pp. 27–40.
* ^ _Concordia Theological Journal_ Was
Erasmus Responsible for
Luther? A Study of the Relationship of the Two Reformers and Their
Clash Over the Question of the Will, Reynolds, Terrence M. p. 2, 1977.
Reynolds references Arthur Robert Pennington _The Life and Character
of Erasmus_, p. 219, 1875.
* ^ Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Desiderius
humanist and scholar_, Protestant challenge
* ^ Watson, Philip (1969), "Erasmus, Luther and Aquinas",
_Concordia Theological Monthly_, 40 (11): 747–58 work
* ^ Remer, Gary, _
Humanism and the Rhetoric of Toleration_
(University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press 1996), p. 95 ISBN
* ^ Froude, James Anthony _Life and letters of Erasmus: lectures
delivered at Oxford 1893–4_ (London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1894), p.
* ^ _ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Desiderius Erasmus".
Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
* ^ Jan Van Herwaarden (2003), _Between Saint James and Erasmus:
Studies in Late Medieval Religious Life_, Leiden: BRILL, pp.
529–530, ISBN 9789004129849
* ^ Huizinga, Dutch edition, p. 202.
* ^ Galli, Mark, and Olsen, Ted. _131 Christians Everyone Should
Know. Nashville: Holman Reference,_ 2000, 343.
* ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Christianity: The First Three Thousand
Years. New York: Viking, 2010, 599.
Ernest Barker (1948) _Traditions of Civility_, chapter 4: The
Connection between the
Renaissance and the Reformation, pp. 93–94,
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
* ^ The Age of
Erasmus , Lectures Delivered in the Universities of
Oxford and London, by P. S. Allen, Clarendon Press 1914
* ^ Early title page
* ^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2012). _Western Civilization, Eighth
Edition, Volume B: 1300–1815_. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage
Learning. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-111-34215-9 .
* ^ Not
Erasmus Skull (2).jpg
* ^ Erasmushuis
* ^ Dutch cultural center
Erasmus Huis turns 30 , the _Jakarta Post
_, 27 March 2000
* ^ Knittel, _Neue Kritiken über den berühmten Sprych: Drey sind,
die da zeugen im Himmel, der Vater, das Wort, und der heilige Geist,
und diese drei sind eins_ Braunschweig 1785
* ^ Guggisbert, Hans (2003). _Sebastian Castellio, 1515-1563;
Humanist and Defender of Religious Toleration in a Confessional Age;
Translated and Edited by Bruce Gordon_. Hants England; Burlington,
Vermont, USA: Ashgate Publishing Limited. ISBN 0754630196 .
* ^ Letter 480, to Budé (ed. Allen)
* ^ Page, J. 2015. _Fixing global governance_, Online Opinion, 29
* ^ _A_ _B_ (2000) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier,
"Discovery of new editions of Bibles and of two 'lost' grammatical
works of Michael Servetus" in: _Abstracts, 37th International Congress
on the History of Medicine, September 10–15. 2000_, Galveston,
Texas, pp. 22–23.
* ^ González Echeverría, Francisco Javier, 2011, The love for
truth. Life and work of
Michael Servetus (El amor a la verdad. Vida y
obra de Miguel Servet), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza,
collaboration with the Government of Navarre, Department of
Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarre,
* ^ _A_ _B_
Michael Servetus Research Website with the two
translations of Erasmus's works to Spanish, completed by Michael
* ^ (2011) González Echeverría, Francisco Javier, The love for
truth. Life and work of
Michael Servetus (El amor a la verdad. Vida y
obra de Miguel Servet), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza,
collaboration with the Government of Navarre, Department of
Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarre,
* McDonald, Grantley. _Biblical Criticism in Early Modern Europe:
Erasmus, the Johannine Comma, and Trinitarian Debate_ (Cambridge and
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016)
* Christ-von Wedel, Christine. _
Erasmus of Rotterdam: Advocate of a
New Christianity_ (Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 2013)
* Bietenholz, Peter G. _Encounters with a Radical Erasmus. Erasmus'
Work as a Source of Radical Thought in Early Modern Europe_ (Toronto:
Toronto Press, 2009)
* Dodds, Gregory D. _Exploiting Erasmus: The Erasmian Legacy and
Religious Change in Early Modern England_ (Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 2009)
* Emerton, Ephraim (1899). _Desiderius