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The Info List - Epipalaeolithic



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(i)

↑ before Homo
Homo
( Pliocene )

Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic Late Stone Age Homo
Homo
Control of fire Stone tools Middle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans Upper Paleolithic Late Stone Age Behavioral modernity , Atlatl , Origin of the domestic dog

Epipaleolithic Mesolithic Microliths , Bow , Canoe
Canoe
Natufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic

Neolithic Neolithic Revolution , Domestication Pottery Neolithic Pottery

Chalcolithic

EPIPALEOLITHIC is a term used for the "final Upper Palaeolithic industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation which appear to merge technologically into the Mesolithic ". The period is generally dated from c.  20,000 BP to c. 10,500 BP, having emerged from the Palaeolithic era.

CONTENTS

* 1 Term usage

* 2 Hunter-gatherers

* 2.1 Animal food sources

* 3 References

TERM USAGE

The term is sometimes used as a synonym of Mesolithic . When a distinction is made, Epipaleolithic stresses the continuity with the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic as we understand it today, whilst Protoneolithic stresses a subsequent transition to the Neolithic . Alfonso Moure says in this respect:

In the language of Prehistorical Archaeology, the most extended trend is to use the term "Epipaleolithic" for the industrial complexes of the post-glacial hunter-gatherer groups. Inversely, those that are in transitional ways towards artificial production of food are inscribed in the "Mesolithic".

Some authors reserve the term Mesolithic for the cultures of Europe, where the extinction of the megafauna had a great impact on the Paleolithic populations at the end of the Ice Age, from c. 8000 BCE until the advent of the Neolithic ( Sauveterrian , Tardenoisian , Maglemosian , etc.).

HUNTER-GATHERERS

Epipalaeolithic hunter-gatherers , generally nomadic , made relatively advanced tools from small flint or obsidian blades, known as microliths , that were hafted in wooden implements.

ANIMAL FOOD SOURCES

The Epipaleolithic is best understood when discussing the southern Levant , as the period is well documented due to good preservation at the site. The most prevalent animal food sources in the Levant during this period were:

* Gazelle * Wild equids * Wild boar * Deer * Wild cattle * Ibex * Wild goat * Wild sheep

These were most likely the main food sources throughout the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) period. Of these animals, it is likely that only the equids were migrational.

REFERENCES

* ^ Bahn, Paul, The Penguin Archaeology Guide, Penguin, London, pp. 141. ISBN 0-14-051448-1 * ^ Byrnes, Andie. "Epipalaeolithic." Epipalaeolithic. N.p., 2005. Web. December 2014. * ^ "History of Europe". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved 8 April 2013. The Scandinavian Ice Sheet itself started to retreat northward about 8300 bce , and the period between then and the origins of agriculture (at various times in the 7th to 4th millennia , depending on location) was one of great environmental and cultural change. It is termed the Mesolithic Period (Middle Stone Age ) to emphasize its transitional importance, but the alternative term Epipaleolithic, used mostly in eastern Europe , stresses the continuity with processes begun earlier. * ^ A. Moure El Origen del Hombre, 1999. ISBN 84-7679-127-5

* v * t * e

Prehistoric technology

* Prehistory
Prehistory

* timeline * outline * Stone Age * subdivisions * New Stone Age * synoptic table

* Technology

* history

TOOLS

FARMING

* Neolithic Revolution

* founder crops * New World crops

* Ard / plough * Celt * Digging stick
Digging stick
* Domestication * Goad * Irrigation
Irrigation
* Secondary products * Sickle * Terracing

FOOD PROCESSING

* Fire * Basket
Basket

* Cooking
Cooking

* Earth oven

* Granaries * Grinding slab
Grinding slab
* Ground stone

* Hearth
Hearth

* Aşıklı Höyük * Qesem Cave
Cave

* Manos * Metate
Metate
* Mortar and pestle
Mortar and pestle
* Pottery * Quern-stone * Storage pit

HUNTING

* Arrow
Arrow

* Boomerang

* throwing stick

* Bow and arrow

* history

* Nets

* Spear
Spear

* Spear-thrower * baton * harpoon * woomera * Schöningen Spears
Schöningen Spears

PROJECTILE POINTS

* Arrowhead * Bare Island * Cascade * Clovis * Cresswell * Cumberland * Eden * Folsom * Lamoka * Manis Site * Plano * Transverse arrowhead

SYSTEMS

* Game drive system

* Buffalo jump
Buffalo jump

TOOLMAKING

* Earliest toolmaking

* Oldowan * Acheulean * Mousterian

* Clovis culture * Cupstone * Fire hardening * Gravettian culture * Hafting

* Hand axe

* Grooves

* Langdale axe industry * Levallois technique * Lithic core

* Lithic reduction
Lithic reduction

* analysis * debitage * flake

* Lithic technology * Magdalenian culture * Metallurgy * Microblade technology * Mining * Prepared-core technique * Solutrean industry * Striking platform * Tool stone * Uniface * Yubetsu technique

OTHER TOOLS

* Adze

* Awl

* bone

* Axe * Bannerstone

* Blade

* prismatic

* Bone tool * Bow drill
Bow drill
* Burin

* Canoe
Canoe

* Oar * Pesse canoe

* Chopper

* tool

* Cleaver * Denticulate tool
Denticulate tool
* Fire plough * Fire-saw * Hammerstone * Knife
Knife
* Microlith * Quern-stone * Racloir * Rope
Rope

* Scraper

* side

* Stone tool * Tally stick * Weapons

* Wheel
Wheel

* illustration

ARCHITECTURE

CEREMONIAL

* Göbekli Tepe * Kiva
Kiva

* Standing stones

* megalith * row * Stonehenge
Stonehenge

* Pyramid
Pyramid

DWELLINGS

* Neolithic architecture * British megalith architecture * Nordic megalith architecture * Burdei * Cave
Cave
* Cliff dwelling * Dugout

* Hut
Hut

* Quiggly hole

* Jacal * Longhouse
Longhouse

* Mud brick

* Mehrgarh

* Neolithic long house * Pit-house * Pueblitos * Pueblo
Pueblo

* Rock shelter
Rock shelter

* Blombos Cave
Cave
* Abri de la Madeleine
Abri de la Madeleine
* Sibudu Cave
Cave

* Stone roof * Roundhouse

* Stilt house

* Alp pile dwellings

* Wattle and daub

WATER MANAGEMENT

* Check dam * Cistern * Flush toilet * Reservoir
Reservoir
* Water well

OTHER ARCHITECTURE

* Archaeological features * Broch

* Burnt mound

* fulacht fiadh

* Causewayed enclosure

* Tor enclosure

* Circular enclosure

* Goseck

* Cursus

* Henge

* Thornborough

* Oldest buildings * Megalithic architectural elements * Midden * Timber circle
Timber circle

* Timber trackway
Timber trackway

* Sweet Track

ARTS AND CULTURE

MATERIAL GOODS

* Baskets * Beadwork * Beds * Chalcolithic

* Clothing/textiles

* timeline

* Cosmetics * Glue

* Hides

* shoes * Ötzi

* Jewelry

* amber use

* Mirrors

* Pottery

* Cardium * Grooved ware * Linear * Jōmon * Unstan ware
Unstan ware

* Sewing needle * Weaving

* Wine

* Winery * wine press

PREHIST ART

* Art of the Upper Paleolithic

* Art of the Middle Paleolithic

* Blombos Cave
Cave

* List of Stone Age art * Bird stone * Bradshaw rock paintings
Bradshaw rock paintings
* Cairn
Cairn
* Carved Stone Balls

* Cave
Cave
paintings

* painting * pigment

* Cup and ring mark * Geoglyph * Golden hats * Guardian stones * Megalithic art * Petroform * Petroglyph
Petroglyph
* Petrosomatoglyph
Petrosomatoglyph
* Pictogram

* Rock art

* Stone carving
Stone carving

* Sculpture * Statue menhir

* Stone circle

* list * British Isles and Brittany

* Venus figurines

BURIAL

* Burial mounds

* Bowl barrow * Round barrow

* Mound Builders culture

* U.S. sites

* Chamber tomb

* Severn-Cotswold

* Cist

* Dartmoor kistvaens

* Clava cairn * Court tomb * Cremation

* Dolmen

* Great dolmen

* Funeral pyre

* Gallery grave

* transepted * wedge-shaped

* Grave goods * Jar burial

* Long barrow

* unchambered * Grønsalen

* Megalithic tomb * Mummy * Passage grave
Passage grave
* Rectangular dolmen * Ring cairn * Simple dolmen * Stone box grave * Tor cairn
Tor cairn
* Tumulus * Unchambered long cairn

OTHER CULTURAL

* Astronomy

* sites * lunar calendar

* Behavioral modernity * Origin of language

* Prehistoric medicine

* trepanning

* Evolutionary musicology

* music archaeology

* Prehistoric music

* Alligator drum * flutes * Divje Babe flute * gudi

* Prehistoric numerals
Prehistoric numerals

* Origin of religion

* Paleolithic religion * Prehistoric religion * Spiritual drug use

* Prehistoric warfare

* Symbols

* symbolism

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