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Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic Late Stone Age

Homo Control of fire Stone tools

Middle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age

Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans

Upper Paleolithic Late Stone Age

Behavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dog

Epipaleolithic Mesolithic

Microliths, Bow, Canoe

Natufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic

Neolithic

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication

Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic

Pottery

↓ Chalcolithic

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In archaeology, the Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic. This position is also occupied by the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
and the two are sometimes confused, or used as synonyms. More often they are used for different areas: Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
for the Levant, and sometimes parts of Europe other than North and Western Europe, where Mesolithic
Mesolithic
is more often used. The Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
has been defined as the "final Upper Palaeolithic industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation which appear to merge technologically into the Mesolithic" (not meaning that the Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
is suceeded by the Mesolithic).[1] The period is generally dated from c. 20,000 BP to 10,000 BP in the Levant
Levant
(Middle East),[2] but later in Europe. If used as a synonym or equivalent for Mesolithic
Mesolithic
in Europe, it might end at about c. 3,000 BP or even later. In the Levant
Levant
the period may be subdivided into Early, Middle and Late Epipaleolithic, the last also being the Natufian.[3] The preceding final Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period is the Kebaran or "Upper Paleolithic Stage VI".[4]

Contents

1 Term usage 2 Hunter-gatherers

2.1 Animal food sources

3 Notes 4 References

Term usage[edit] When a distinction is made between it and the Mesolithic, Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
is typically used for those cultures that were not much affected by the ending of the Ice Age, like the Natufian culture
Natufian culture
of the Levant,[5] and the term Mesolithic
Mesolithic
is most likely to be used for Western Europe where the extinction of the Megafauna
Megafauna
had a great impact of the paleolithic populations at the end of the Ice Age, creating post-glacial cultures such as the Azilian, Sauveterrian, Tardenoisian, Maglemosian.[6] French archaeologists have a general tendency to prefer the term "Epipaleolithic" to "Mesolithic". "Epipaleolithic" stresses the continuity with the Upper Paleolithic. Alfonso Moure says in this respect:

In the language of Prehistorical Archaeology, the most extended trend is to use the term "Epipaleolithic" for the industrial complexes of the post-glacial hunter-gatherer groups. Inversely, those that are in transitional ways towards artificial production of food are inscribed in the "Mesolithic".[7]

Hunter-gatherers[edit] Epipalaeolithic hunter-gatherers, generally nomadic, made relatively advanced tools from small flint or obsidian blades, known as microliths, that were hafted in wooden implements. There are settlements with "flimsy structures", probably not permanently occupied except at some rich sites, but used and returned to seasonally.[8] Animal food sources[edit] The Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
is best understood when discussing the southern Levant, as the period is well documented due to good preservation at the sites, at least of animal remains. The most prevalent animal food sources in the Levant
Levant
during this period were: deer, gazelle, and ibex of various species, and smaller animals including birds, lizard, fox, tortoise, and hare. Less common were auroch, wild equids, wild boar, wild cattle, and hartebeest.[9] At Neve David
Neve David
near Haifa, 15 mammal species were found, and two reptile species. Despite then being very close to the coast, the rather small number of seashells found (7 genera) and the piercing of many, suggests these may have been collected as ornaments rather than food.[10] However the period seems to be marked by an increase in plant foods and a decrease in meat eating. Over 40 plant species have been found by analysing one site in the Jordan Valley, and some grains were processed and baked. Stones with evidence of grinding have been found.[11] These were most likely the main food sources throughout the Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A (PPNA) period. Of these animals, it is likely that only the equids were migrational. Notes[edit]

^ Bahn, Paul, The Penguin Archaeology Guide, Penguin, London, pp. 141. ISBN 0-14-051448-1 ^ Simmons, 46 ^ Simmons, 47-48 ^ Simmons, 47-48 ^ Simmons, 46-48; agriculture, origins of. (2008). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ^ "History of Europe". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
online. Retrieved 8 April 2013. The Scandinavian Ice Sheet itself started to retreat northward about 8300 bce, and the period between then and the origins of agriculture (at various times in the 7th to 4th millennia, depending on location) was one of great environmental and cultural change. It is termed the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Period (Middle Stone Age) to emphasize its transitional importance, but the alternative term Epipaleolithic, used mostly in eastern Europe, stresses the continuity with processes begun earlier.  ^ A. Moure El Origen del Hombre, 1999. ISBN 84-7679-127-5 ^ Simmons, 48-49 ^ Simmons, 48 ^ Bar-Oz, 71-73 ^ Simmons, 48

References[edit]

Bar-Oz, Guy; Dayan, Tamar; Kaufman, Daniel, The Epipalaeolithic Faunal Sequence in Israel: A View from Neve David
Neve David
(PDF), Journal of Archaeological Science, 1999, 26, 67–82 Simmons, Alan H., The Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution in the Near East: Transforming the Human Landscape, 2007, University of Arizona Press, ISBN 978-0816529667, google books

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Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbo

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