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Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
or the fringe-tufted moths is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order with about 14 genera. Previously they have been divided in two subfamilies Epermeniinae and Ochromolopinae (e.g. Common, 1990: 321) but this is no longer maintained since the last group is probably hierarchically nested within the first (Dugdale et al., 1999). They are presently placed in their own superfamily but have previously been placed among the Yponomeutoidea
Yponomeutoidea
or Copromorphoidea with which they share some features. Their systematic placement among the apoditrysian group "Obtectomera" (having pupal segments I-IV immobile) is however uncertain. They show some morphological similarities to the "plume moths" ( Alucitoidea
Alucitoidea
and Pterophoroidea), for example the wing fringe has similar groups of scales (Dugdale et al., 1999). There are also some similarities to Schreckensteinioidea, for example spiny legs and at least in some species an open-network cocoon. The genus Thambotricha
Thambotricha
from New Zealand may be the sister group of all other extant members. The most important genera are Epermenia, Ochromolopis and Gnathifera. The group has been extensively revised and catalogued by Dr Reinhard Gaedike (e.g. Gaedike, 1977, 1979).

Contents

1 Identification 2 Distribution 3 Behaviour 4 Biology 5 Host plants 6 Systematics 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Identification[edit] Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
are small narrow-winged moths, having a span of 7–20 mm, with conspicuous whorls of bristles on their legs, lacking spines on the abdomen unlike some similar moths. The smoothly scaled head bears no ocelli or "chaetosemata". They are most easily confused with Stathmopodinae (Oecophoridae), which unlike epermeniids have the tarsi of the forelegs and midlegs without the whorls of spines, and whose proboscis is scaled at the base (Robinson et al., 1994, for further details). The projecting scale tufts on the inner margin of the hindwing is the easiest field character (Common, 1990). (See External links: Tufts Distribution[edit] Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
occur worldwide in both temperate and tropical regions and especially in montane areas (Robinson et al., 1994), but are sparsely known from the Afrotropics. Gnathifera occurs from Australia to New Caledonia; Epermenia ranges from the Palaearctic
Palaearctic
to Indo- Australia
Australia
and the Pacific islands
Pacific islands
(Holloway et al., 2001). Behaviour[edit] Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
are nocturnal as adults and well-camouflaged. They rest parallel to the surface with their wings held over their back in a tent-like manner (Robinson et al., 1994). Biology[edit] The caterpillars feed inside almost any plant parts (fruits, seeds, galls, leaves or flowers), sometimes in a mine or sometimes exposed or under silk on the leaf surface; unlike some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
the pupa is not extruded from the cocoon (Robinson et al., 1994) and may be found in its fine open-network cocoon on the plant or amongst debris on the ground (Common, 1990). Host plants[edit] Many species in Europe feed on umbels of Apiaceae, and Epermenia chaerophyllella is a pest of cultivated species (Dugdale et al., 1999). Other species feed on the parasitic plant families Santalaceae (e.g. the Australian quandong moth) and Loranthaceae, or on Pinaceae, Pittosporaceae
Pittosporaceae
and Leguminosae.[1] Systematics[edit]

Africepermenia Gaedike, 2004 Agiton Turner, 1926 Epermenia Hübner, 1825

=Acanthedra Meyrick, 1917 =Calotripis Hübner, 1825 =Chauliodus Treitschke, 1833 =Epermeniola Gaedike, 1968 =Lophonotus Stephens, 1829 =Tichotripis Hübner, 1825 =Epimarptis Meyrick, 1914 =Temeluchella T. B. Fletcher, 1940 =Temelucha Meyrick, 1909 =Cataplectica Walsingham, 1894 =Heydenia Hofmann, 1868

Gnathifera Gaedike, 1978 Inuncus Gaedike, 2013 Lasiostega Meyrick, 1932 Mesepermenia Gaedike, 2004 Notodryas Meyrick, 1897 Ochromolopis Hübner, 1825 Parochromolopis Gaedike, 1977 Paraepermenia Gaedike, 1968 Phaulernis Meyrick, 1895 Picrodoxa Meyrick, 1923 Sinicaepermenia Heppner, 1990 Thambotricha
Thambotricha
Meyrick, 1922

References[edit]

Common, I.F.B. (1990). Moths of Australia. Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden. 535 pages. Dugdale, J.S., Kristensen, N.P., Robinson, G.S. and Scoble, M.J. (1999) [1998]. "The smaller microlepidoptera grade superfamilies", Ch.13., pp. 217–232 in Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.). Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal
Animal
Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta
Insecta
Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York. Gaedike, R. (1977). "Revision der nearktischen und neotropischen Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(Lepidoptera)". Beiträge zur Entomologia, 27(2): 301-312. Gaedike, R. (1979). "Katalog der Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
der Welt (Lepidoptera)". Beiträge zur Entomologia, 29: 201-209. Holloway, J.D., Kibby, G and Peggie, D. (1997). The families of Malesian moths and butterflies. Fauna Malesia Handbooks. 455 pp. Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden. Robinson, G.S., Tuck, K.R., Shaffer, M. and Cook, K. (1994). The smaller moths of South-East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.

Sources[edit]

Firefly Encyclopedia of Insects
Insects
and Spiders, edited by Christopher O'Toole, ISBN 1-55297-612-2, 2002

External links[edit]

Tufts at UKMoths Tree of Life Images at British Leafminers Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
at UKMoths Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
at Insects
Insects
of Britain and Ireland: the families of Lepidoptera Finnish species at Microlepidoptera
Microlepidoptera
of Finland - an Overview Savela, Markku. "Epermeniidae". Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved April 2, 2018. 

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Epermeniidae

v t e

Arthropoda
Arthropoda
- Insecta
Insecta
- Superfamilies of Lepidoptera

Butterflies

Hedyloidea Hesperioidea Papilionoidea

Larger Moths

Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Cimelioidea Drepanoidea Geometroidea Immoidea Lasiocampoidea Mimallonoidea Noctuoidea Sphingoidea

Microlepidoptera

Monotrysia Andesianoidea Nepticuloidea Incurvarioidea Tischerioidea Palaephatoidea

Ditrysian micros Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Choreutoidea Copromorphoidea Cossoidea Epermenioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Gracillarioidea Hyblaeoidea Incurvarioidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea

Basal lineages Micropterigoidea Agathiphagoidea Eriocranioidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Lophocoronoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae ( New Zealand
New Zealand
primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1138937 BAMONA: Epermeniidae BugGuide: 320631 EoL: 813 EPPO: 1EPRMF Fauna Europaea: 5299 GBIF: 6954 iNaturalist: 173638 ITIS: 118699 NCBI: 754029 NZOR: 83760456-9c8f-4d31-b4d4-13f98b78c64b

^ Search Results: Family Epermeniidae. HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Natural History Museum, London. Retrie

.