The ENZ is a river flowing north from the
Black Forest to the Neckar
Baden-Württemberg . It is 112 km long.
Its headstreams – the LITTLE ENZ (German : Kleine Enz) and the
GREAT ENZ or BIG ENZ (Große Enz) – rise in the Northern Black
Forest , the latter at
Enzklösterle . In
Calmbach , the Little Enz
and the Big
Enz join to form the Enz. The river passes through
Pforzheim , where it leaves the
Black Forest . It then
flows through the cities of Vaihingen and
Bietigheim-Bissingen . Along
the lower course, wine is grown.
Major tributaries to the
Nagold (with its tributary
Würm ). Near
Enz feeds into the Neckar.
In earlier times the
Enz was important for the timber rafting
* 1 Geography
* 1.2 Headstreams
* 1.3 Great
Enz and upper reaches in the
Enz valley in the Gäu and
* 1.5 Overview of the tributaries
* 1.6 Political geography
* 2 Environment and economy
* 2.1 Flora and fauna
* 2.2 Economy
* 3 Water sports
* 4 References
* 5 Literature
* 6 External links
Enz flows through two large natural regions : in the upper half
of its course, the river and its tributaries drain the eastern half of
Black Forest ; later it flows through the southwest
German Gäu landscape , mostly through the
Neckar Basin .
Including its main headstream, the Poppelbach, the
Enz has a total
length of about 105 kilometres. However, unusually, its right
tributary , the
Nagold , which discharges into the
emerging from the Black Forest, is longer - in fact almost twice as
long as its own headstream to that point. In addition, the Nagold
carries twice as much water at its mouth. Thus, above Pforzheim, the
Nagold is hydrographically the main branch of the river system of the
Enz, which is then about 149 kilometres long, and thus the third
longest of the
Neckar tributaries after the river systems of the
Kocher and the
Enz bears its name without any qualifier until it reaches the
Calmbach , where the Great
Enz (Große Enz) and Little Enz
(Kleine Enz) merge. The Great
Enz has two headstreams, both
approximately 5 kilometres long: the Poppelbach and the Kaltenbach,
which unite at Gompelscheuer . As with the source of the Danube in
Donaueschingen this purely nominal beginning of the (Great)
symbolized by the nearby
Enz Spring (Enzbrunnen) and, likewise, has
been erroneously marketed as such to tourists.
In terms of water quantity and size of catchment area, the
Poppelbach, which flows from the south, is the main headstream, whilst
the Kaltenbach, which flows from the west, has a slightly greater
length and higher source. The Poppelbach rises to the south, only 1 km
north of the source of the River
Nagold at 822 m (in the parish of
Besenfeld ); the Kaltenbach rises to the northwest, on the southern
slopes of the Schramberg at 907 m (in the parish of Forbach in the
Murg valley ).
GREAT ENZ AND UPPER REACHES IN THE BLACK FOREST
Enz in the spa park of
From the confluence of the Poppelbach and Kaltenbach, the Great Enz
initially flows through a narrow wooded valley that, after a small
change in gradient, opens into the much broader valley of the Rombach,
joining from the west. The valleys of the Enz, Rombach and other
western tributaries of the upper reaches are characterised by glacial
cirques from the last ice age . After the
Enz valley widens at
Enzklösterle it narrows again until it reaches the next glacial
valley, the Kegeltal, at Sprollenhaus. Having hitherto flowed
northeast, the Great
Enz swings northwards and flows through a steep
valley that cuts across the mostly wooded bunter sandstone plateaux of
the northern Black Forest. From the well-known
Old Württemberg resort
of Wildbad , the valley is densely populated. At
Calmbach , where the
Little Enz empties into the main river, follow the settlements of
Höfen an der Enz and
Neuenbürg . Here the
Enz makes a wide loop
enclosing a mountain spur atop which is
Neuenbürg Castle. The Black
Forest valley of the
Enz has, including the valley of the Great Enz
from Gompelscheuer, a length of approximately 38 kilometres and ends
as it enters the
Kraichgau region at Birkenfeld above Pforzheim.
ENZ VALLEY IN THE GäU AND NECKAR BASIN
After emerging from the Black Forest, the
Enz flows down to its mouth
Neckar Gäu country in the muschelkalk beds of the South German
Scarplands . From a natural regional perspective, the
between Birkenfeld and Enzberg is counted as part of the
which continues to the north, further downstream it is part of the
Neckar Basin between
OVERVIEW OF THE TRIBUTARIES
Tributaries from the confluence of the Little (Kleine) and Great
Tributary lengths are based on the source furthest from
Kleine Enz , from the right in Calmbach, 20 km and 88 km².
* Förtelbach, from the right in
Höfen an der Enz .
* Eyach , from the left between
Höfen an der Enz and Neuenbürg,
18.5 km and 52.6 km².
* Rotenbach , from the left in hamlet of Rotenbach near
* Größelbach, from the right between
Neuenbürg and Birkenfeld.
* Tiefenbach, from the left in Birkenfeld .
Nagold , from the right in Pforzheim, 90.4 km and 1,151 km².
* Mäuerachklinge, from the right im
Pforzheim village of Mäuerach.
* Igelsbach, from the left between Eutingen and
* Schlupfgraben, from the left in Enzberg
* Erlenbach , from the left in
Mühlacker , 11.1 km.
* Schmie , from the left near Vaihingen, 12.1 km and 47.4 km².
Strudelbach , from the right near
Enzweihingen , 15 km and 55
Enz , from the left in
Glems , from the right near
Unterriexingen , 47.2 km.
Leudelsbach , from the right between
Unterriexingen and Untermberg
, 6.5 km and 22.7 km².
* Saubach, from the right in Bissingen.
Metter , from the left in Bietigheim, 28 km.
* Steinbach , from the left in Besigheim.
Enz (foreground) empties into the
Enz flows mainly through the counties of Calw ,
Pforzheim and Ludwigsburg . Some headwaters of tributaries of the
Enz and the headwaters of the Kaltenbach flow partly through
Until the great territorial upheavals around 1803 and 1806, the
course of the
Enz ran mainly through the territory of Old Württemberg
, with short sections in the
Old Baden or through knightly estates.
Wildbad, Neuenbürg, Vaihingen, Bietigheim and
Besigheim were Old
Württemberg centres of administration. The current territory of the
counties of Rastatt and the
Pforzheim (parishes of
Brötzingen, Pforzheim, Eutingen and Niefern) belonged to Baden. In
Oberriexingen , sovereignty was divided between imperial knights and
ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMY
FLORA AND FAUNA
The lower reaches of the Enz, with their typical water meadow shore
structures, are an ideal habitat for many riparian plant and animal
species. Many of the oxbow lakes and riparian woodlands are protected
Enz itself and parts of the valley such as the nature
reserve near Vaihingen-Roßwag and the mouth of the
Unterriexingen are part of the Europe-wide protected network of nature
protection areas known as
Natura 2000 .
In the shallow waters up to 10,000 larvae - of mayflies , caddis
flies , dragonflies , beetles, snails and mussels - have been counted.
Western vairone , barbel , nase and bullhead have their spawning
From early summer, the
Enz is home to dense communities of river
water crowfoot and watermilfoil .
Some rare and endangered species live all year round on the Enz,
which is an important resting stop for many migratory birds. These
include, inter alia, kingfisher , sandpiper , goosander , grey wagtail
, moorhen and dipper . Other guests and residents of the coppiced
willows and the trees lining the banks of the river are white wagtail
Icterine warbler , spotted flycatcher , nightingale and golden
Railway viaduct over the
Until the early 20th century timber rafting was an important branch
of the economy in the Black Forest. Like its neighbouring rivers, the
Murg and Nagold, the
Enz was used for transporting tree trunks and,
especially, logs. Schwallungen (storage ponds that were drained for
rafting), such as the Poppelsee and Kaltenbachsee at Gompelscheuer,
recall this activity. In the
Black Forest section of the
today forest products and tourism dominate the economy.
In the muschelkalk area of the river, agriculture has a certain
significance, and viticulture is practised on steep, terraced
vineyards of the
Industry and service are concentrated in
Pforzheim (jewellery, precious metals, watches, commercial and
administration), but can also be found in smaller centres in the
catchment area of
Stuttgart (especially Bietigheim-Bissingen).
Since the 5th century; B.C. (the Early
La Tène period) iron ore
mining has been carried out in the
Enz region. The visitor mine of
Frischglück Pit is an example of an individual mine.
The upper reaches of the
Enz are mainly used by white water canoeists
. The most famous section is the challenging Kurparkstrecke in Bad
Water sports are restricted on some sections of the river in order to
protect the ecosystem:
* Enzkreis: traffic lights on the weir at Mühlhausen : no boating
on the mill's loop when there is a red light
* Ludwigsburg county: Enter from the riverbank and landing stages
only at the marked entry and exit points. Keep off pebble islands and
shoals; no camping, barbecues or fires on the waterfront, except at
signed and equipped places.
1 May to 30 September 30: Roßwag (river km 34.12) closed as far as
the Vaihingen Seemühle (km 29.94)
Same period, but to
Bietigheim-Bissingen Sawmill (km 13.16): at water
levels below 65 cm (Vaihingen Gauge) Boating only with trained guide;
prohibited at levels less than 45 cm.
* ^ Teilbearbeitungsgebiet 45
Nagold bis Mündung
* ^ Topographic Map 1:25.000
* ^ Topographical map of Baden-Württemberg, 1:50,000 series.
* ^ Friedruch Huttenlocher
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 240820064
* GND :