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Environmental pollution in Japan
Japan
has accompanied industrialization since the Meiji period. One of the earliest cases was the copper poisoning caused by drainage from the Ashio Copper Mine
Ashio Copper Mine
in Tochigi Prefecture, beginning as early as 1878. Repeated floods occurred in the Watarase River
Watarase River
basin, and 1,600 hectares of farmland and towns and villages in Tochigi and Gunma
Gunma
prefectures were damaged by the floodwater, which contained excessive inorganic copper compounds from the Ashio mine.[1] The local breeders led by Shōzō Tanaka, a member of the Lower House from Tochigi appealed to the prefecture and the government to call a halt to the mining operations. Although the mining company paid compensatory money and the government engaged in the embankment works of the Watarase river, no fundamental solution of the problem was achieved. Japan
Japan
is the world's leading importer of both exhaustible and renewable natural resources and one of the largest consumers of fossil fuels.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Environment deterioration in the 1960s 2 Current issues

2.1 Waste management 2.2 Global warming

2.2.1 Coral reef

2.3 Nuclear power 2.4 Fishery and whaling 2.5 Urban planning 2.6 Electronic waste management

3 Past issues 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Environment deterioration in the 1960s[edit] Main article: Four Big Pollution
Pollution
Diseases of Japan Current Japanese environmental policy and regulations were the consequence of a number of environmental disasters in 1950s and 1960s. Cadmium
Cadmium
poisoning from industrial waste in Toyama Prefecture
Toyama Prefecture
was discovered to be the cause of the extremely painful itai-itai disease (イタイイタイ病, Itai itai byō, "ouch ouch sickness"). People in Minamata City in Kumamoto Prefecture
Kumamoto Prefecture
were poisoned by methylmercury drained from the chemical factory, known as the Minamata disease. The number of casualties in Minamata is 6,500 as of November 2006. In Yokkaichi, a port in Mie Prefecture, air pollution caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions led to a rapid increase in the number of people suffering from asthma and bronchitis. In urban areas photochemical smog from automotive and industrial exhaust fumes also contributed to a rise in respiratory problems. In the early 1970s, chronic arsenic poisoning attributed to dust from arsenic mines occurred in Shimane and Miyazaki Prefectures. Consumers Union of Japan was founded in 1969 to deal with health problems and false claims by companies, as Japan's rampant industrial development was seen as causing problems for consumers and citizens. In the 1970s, Consumers Union of Japan led the opposition to nuclear power, calling for a nationwide Anti-Nuclear Power Week Campaign. In the 1990s, Japan's environmental legislation was further tightened. In 1993 the government reorganized the environment law system and legislated the Basic Environment Law (環境基本法) and related laws. The law includes restriction of industrial emissions, restriction of products, restriction of wastes, improvement of energy conservation, promotion of recycling, restriction of land utilization, arrangement of environmental pollution control programs, relief of victims and provision for sanctions. The Environment Agency was promoted to full-fledged Ministry of the Environment in 2001, to deal with the deteriorating international environmental problems. In 1984 the Environmental Agency had issued its first white paper. In the 1989 study, citizens thought environmental problems had improved compared with the past, nearly 1.7% thought things had improved, 31% thought that they had stayed the same, and nearly 21% thought that they had worsened. Some 75% of those surveyed expressed concern about endangered species, shrinkage of rain forests, expansion of deserts, destruction of the ozone layer, acid rain, and increased water and air pollution in developing countries. Most believed that Japan, alone or in cooperation with other industrialized countries, had the responsibility to solve environmental problems. In the 2007 opinion poll, 31.8% of the people answered environmental conservation activity leads to more economic development, 22.0% answered the environmental activity does not always obstruct the economic, 23.3% answered environmental conservation should be given preference even if it may obstruct the economic and 3.2% answered economic development should place priority than environmental conservation.[2] The OECD's first Environmental Performance Review of Japan
Japan
was published in 1994, which applauded the nation for decoupling its economic development from air pollution, as the nation's air quality improved while the economy thrived. However, it received poorer marks for water quality, as its rivers, lakes and coastal waters did not meet quality standards.[3] Another report in 2002 said that the mix of instruments used to implement environmental policy is highly effective and regulations are strict, well enforced and based on strong monitoring capacities.[4] In the 2006 environment annual report,[5] the Ministry of Environment reported that current major issues are global warming and preservation of the ozone layer, conservation of the atmospheric environment, water and soil, waste management and recycling, measures for chemical substances, conservation of the natural environment and the participation in the international cooperation. Current issues[edit] Waste management[edit] Japan
Japan
burns close to two thirds of its waste in municipal and industrial incinerators.[6] By some estimates, 70 percent of the world's waste incinerators are located in Japan.[7] As a result, Japan has higher levels of dioxin in its air than any other G20 nation.[8] In 2001, the US Department of Justice brought suit against Japan
Japan
for the deaths of U.S. service-members at Naval Air Facility Atsugi
Atsugi
caused by a nearby waste incinerator known as Jinkanpo Atsugi
Atsugi
Incinerator.[9] This has called into question the Japanese government line that the thousands of incinerators in Japan
Japan
are safe. Global warming[edit] Main article: Climate change
Climate change
in Japan As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, and host of the 1997 conference which created it, Japan
Japan
is under treaty obligations to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions level by 6% less than the level in 1990,[10] and to take other steps related to curbing climate change. Japan
Japan
is the world’s fifth biggest emission emitter [11] The Cool Biz campaign introduced under former Prime Minister of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
Junichiro Koizumi was targeted at reducing energy use through the reduction of air conditioning use in government offices. Coral reef[edit] In January 2017 the Japanese environment ministry said that 70% of the Sekisei lagoon in Okinawa, the Japan’s biggest coral reef, had been killed by a phenomenon known as bleaching.[12] Nuclear power[edit] See also: Nuclear power in Japan Japan
Japan
maintains one third of its electric production from nuclear power plants. While a majority of Japanese citizens generally supported the use of existing nuclear reactors, since the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant
on March 11, 2011, this support seems to have shifted to a majority wanting Japan to phase out nuclear power. Former Prime Minister Naoto Kan was the first leading politician to openly voice his opposition to Japan's dependence upon nuclear energy and suggested a phasing out of nuclear energy sources towards other sources of renewable energy.[13][14] Objections against the plan to construct further plants has grown as well since the March 11 earthquake and tsunami which triggered the nuclear melt down of three reactors at the Fukushima dai ichi plant in Eastern Japan.[15] The treatment of radioactive wastes also became a subject of discussion in Japan. New spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant was constructed in Rokkasho
Rokkasho
in 2008, the site of the underground nuclear-waste repository for the HLW and LLW has not yet been decided. Some local cities announced a plan to conduct an environmental study at the disposal site, but citizens' groups strongly oppose the plan. Fishery and whaling[edit] Main articles: Fishing industry in Japan
Fishing industry in Japan
and Whaling
Whaling
in Japan In the Japanese diets, fish and its products are more prominent than other types of meat. Because of the depletion of ocean stocks in the late 20th century, Japan's total annual fish catch has been diminishing rapidly. Japan, along with the United States and the European Union, occupies the large part of international fish trade.[16] Japanese fish catches were the third in the world in 2000, following China and Peru. The United States, Chile, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and India were other major countries.[17] By 2004, the number of adult Atlantic Bluefin Tuna capable of spawning had plummeted to roughly 19 percent of the 1975 level in the western half of the ocean. Japan
Japan
has a quarter of the world supply of the five big species: bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and albacore.[18] Whaling
Whaling
for research purposes continued even after the moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986. This whaling program has been criticized by environmental protection groups and anti-whaling countries, who say that the program is not for scientific research. Urban planning[edit]

Densely packed buildings in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo.

The massive nationwide rebuilding efforts in the aftermath of World War II, and the development of the following decades, led to even further urbanization and construction. The construction industry in Japan
Japan
is one of its largest, and while Japan
Japan
maintains a great many parks and other natural spaces, even in the hearts of its cities, there are few major restrictions on where and how construction can be undertaken. Alex Kerr, in his books "Lost Japan" and "Dogs & Demons",[19] is one of a number of authors who focuses heavily on the environmental problems related to Japan's construction industry, and the industry's lobbying power preventing the introduction of stricter zoning laws and other environmental issues. Electronic waste management[edit] Main article: Electronic waste in Japan Past issues[edit]

Pollution
Pollution
from the Ashio Copper Mine
Ashio Copper Mine
in the 1880s.

See also[edit]

List of environmental issues Environmental movement Winter storms of 2009–10 in East Asia

References[edit]

^ The Ashio Copper mine pollution case: The origins of environmental destruction, Yoshiro Hoshino et al., United Nations University, 1992 ^ 環境問題に関する世論調査 Archived 2008-02-08 at the Wayback Machine., 内閣府大臣官房政府広報室 ^ OECD asks how green is Japan?, Japan
Japan
Times, June 2, 2001 ^ Environmental Performance Review of Japan, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ^ Annual Report on the Environment in Japan
Japan
2006, Ministry of the Environment ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-28. Retrieved 2015-01-17.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-28. Retrieved 2015-01-17.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-28. Retrieved 2015-01-17.  ^ http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2010/02/28/environment/is-the-atsugi-tragedy-finally-drawing-to-a-close/ ^ Lindsay, James M. " Global warming
Global warming
heats up: uncertainties, both scientific and political, lie ahead." Brookings Review 19.4 (Fall 2001): 26(4). Gale. University of Washington. 9 Feb. 2009 ^ Makino, Catherine. "Climate Change - Japan: Looking to Play a Key Role in Bali Archived 2008-11-17 at the Wayback Machine.." IPS News. 3 Dec. 2007. 20 Oct. 2008 ^ Almost 75% of Japan's biggest coral reef has died from bleaching, says report Guardian 12 January 2017 ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/08/japan-nuclear-debate-idUSL3E7F70K320110408 ^ Global Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues and the IAEA Archived April 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., International Atomic Energy Agency ^ http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/breaking-news/japan-pm-naoto-kan-vows-nuclear-free-future/story-fn3dxity-1226109855727 ^ Fish and fishery products, Food and Agriculture Organization ^ World review of fisheries and aquaculture, Food and Agriculture Organization ^ "Unprecedented Summit in Japan
Japan
Aims to Tackle Overfishing of Dwindling Tuna Stock". Associated Press. 2007-01-24. Retrieved 2008-01-14.  ^ Lost Japan: ISBN 0-86442-370-5; Dogs & Demons: ISBN 0-14-101000-2

This article includes text from the public domain Library of Congress "Country Studies" at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Further reading[edit]

Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Penguin Books, 2005 and 2011 (ISBN 9780241958681). See chapter 9 entitled "Opposite Paths to Success".

External links[edit]

Energy Consergvation Center, Japan

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