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The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies. This index was developed from the Pilot Environmental Performance Index, first published in 2002, and designed to supplement the environmental targets set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.[1] The EPI was preceded by the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), published between 1999 and 2005. Both indexes were developed by Yale University (Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy) and Columbia University (Center for International Earth Science Information Network) in collaboration with the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The ESI was developed to evaluate environmental sustainability relative to the paths of other countries. Due to a shift in focus by the teams developing the ESI, the EPI uses outcome-oriented indicators, then working as a benchmark index that can be more easily used by policy makers, environmental scientists, advocates and the general public.[2] Other leading indices like the Global Green Economy Index (GGEI) [3] provide an integrated measure of the environmental, social and economic dynamics of national economies. The GGEI utilizes EPI data for the environmental dimension of the index while also providing a performance assessment of efficiency sectors (e.g. transport, buildings, energy), investment, green innovation and national leadership around climate change. In January 2012 four EPI reports have been released - the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index,[4] and the 2008, 2010, and 2012 Environmental Performance Index.[5][6] For the 2012 report, a new "Pilot Trend EPI" was developed to rank countries based on the environmental performance changes occurred during the last decade, allowing to establish which countries are improving and which are declining.[7] In the 2014 EPI ranking, the top five countries were Switzerland, Luxembourg, Australia, Singapore, and the Czech Republic. The bottom five countries in 2014 were Somalia, Mali, Haiti, Lesotho, and Afghanistan. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was ranked in 12th place, Japan
Japan
26th place, the United States
United States
33rd, Brazil
Brazil
77th, China
China
118th, and India came in 155th.[8] The top five countries based on their 2012 Pilot Trend EPI were Estonia, Kuwait, El Salvador, Namibia
Namibia
and Congo.[9]

Contents

1 Methodology

1.1 2018 variables 1.2 2016 variables [11] 1.3 2010 variables

2 EPI scores

2.1 2018 2.2 2016 2.3 2014 2.4 2012 2.5 2010 2.6 2008 2.7 2006

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Methodology[edit] EPI calculation variables change often as can be seen below. This should be taken into account when observing country performance through several reports, as it can lead to score and ranking changes founded just on methodology modification. 2018 variables[edit] Are largely similar to those from 2016, but have changed in details and some weights. Notably environmental Health is now weighted at 40% and Ecosystem Vitality at 60%. [10] 2016 variables [11][edit]

EPI Objective Issue Category Indicator

Environmental Performance Index (EPI) Environmental health
Environmental health
(50%) Health Impacts (23%) Environmental Risk Exposure (100%)

Air quality
Air quality
(33%) Household Air Quality (30%)

Air pollution
Air pollution
- Average Exposure to PM2.5 (30%)

Air pollution
Air pollution
- PM2.5 Exceedance (30%)

Air pollution
Air pollution
- Average Exposure to NO2 (10%)

Water
Water
and sanitation (33%) Unsafe Sanitation
Sanitation
(50%)

Drinking Water
Water
Quality (50%)

Ecosystem vitality (50%) Water
Water
resources (25%) Wastewater treatment
Wastewater treatment
(100%)

Agriculture (10%) Nitrogen use efficiency (75%)

Nitrogen balance (25%)

Forests (10%) Change in forest cover (100%)

Fisheries
Fisheries
(5%) Fish stocks (100%)

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
and habitat (25%) Terrestrial Protected Areas (National Biome
Biome
Weights) (20%)

Terrestrial protected areas (Global Biome
Biome
Weights) (20%)

Marine protected areas (20%)

Species protection (National) (20%)

Species protection (Global) (20%)

Climate and energy
Climate and energy
(25%) Trend in carbon intensity (75%)

Trend in CO2 emissions
CO2 emissions
per kWh (25%)

2010 variables[edit]

Extended content

EPI 2008: Objectives, policy categories and sub-categories, and indicators

OBJECTIVE

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

POLICY CATEGORIES

Environmental Burden of Disease

Water
Water
(effects on humans)

Air Pollution (effects on humans)

INDICATORS 1. Environmental Burden of Disease 2. Adequate Sanitation 4. Indoor Air Pollution

3. Drinking Water 5. Urban Particulates

6. Local Ozone

OBJECTIVE

ECOSYSTEM VITALITY

POLICY CATEGORIES

Air Pollution (effects on ecosystems)

Water

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
and Habitat

INDICATORS 7. Regional Ozone 9. Water
Water
Quality Index 11. Conservation Risk Index

8. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 10. Water
Water
Stress 12. Effective Conservation

13. Critical Habitat
Habitat
Protection

14. Marine Protected Areas

POLICY CATEGORIES

Productive Natural Resources

Productive Natural Resources

Productive Natural Resources

POLICY SUB-CATEGORY

Forestry

Fisheries

Agriculture

INDICATORS 15. Growing Stock 16. Marine Trophic Index 18. Irrigation Stress

17. Trawling Intensity 19. agricultural subsidies

20. Intensive Cropland

21. Burnt Land Area

22. Pesticide Regulation

POLICY CATEGORIES

Climate Change

INDICATORS 23. Emissions per capita

24. Emissions per electricity generated

25. Industrial carbon intensity

EPI scores[edit] 2018[edit] EPI 2018 full list is available online.

Rank Country EPI score Environmental Health (40% weight)

Ecosystem Vitality (60% weight)

1   Switzerland 87.42 93.57 83.32

2  France 83.95 95.71 76.11

3  Denmark 81.60 98.20 70.53

4  Malta 80.90 93.80 72.30

5  Sweden 80.51 94.41 71.24

6  United Kingdom 79.89 96.03 69.13

7  Luxembourg 79.12 95.07 68.48

8  Austria 78.97 86.38 74.03

9  Ireland 78.77 95.92 67.34

10  Finland 78.64 99.35 64.83

11  Iceland 78.57 98.41 65.34

12  Spain 78.39 94.21 67.85

13  Germany 78.37 88.68 71.50

14  Norway 77.49 97.86 63.91

15  Belgium 77.38 89.37 69.39

16  Italy 76.96 85.88 71.02

17  New Zealand 75.96 95.96 62.63

18  Netherlands 75.46 92.26 64.25

19  Israel 75.01 94.14 62.25

20  Japan 74.69 92.99 62.48

21  Australia 74.12 97.95 58.23

22  Greece 73.60 91.03 61.98

23  Taiwan 72.84 69.85 74.83

24  Cyprus 72.60 87.96 62.37

25  Canada 72.18 97.51 55.29

26  Portugal 71.91 90.47 59.53

27   United States
United States
of America 71.19 93.91 56.04

28  Slovakia 70.60 63.87 75.08

29  Lithuania 69.33 72.57 67.18

30  Costa Rica 67.85 76.44 62.13

2016[edit] On 23 January 2016, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index was released at the World Economic Forum, with 180 countries being ranked.[12] Top 30 countries and score

  Finland
Finland
90.88   Iceland
Iceland
90.51   Sweden
Sweden
90.43   Denmark
Denmark
89.21   Slovenia
Slovenia
88.98   Spain
Spain
88.91   Portugal
Portugal
88.63   Estonia
Estonia
88.59   Malta
Malta
88.48   France
France
88.20   New Zealand
New Zealand
88.00   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
87.38   Australia
Australia
87.22   Singapore
Singapore
87.04   Croatia
Croatia
86.98    Switzerland
Switzerland
86.93   Norway
Norway
86.90   Austria
Austria
86.64  Ireland 86.60   Luxembourg
Luxembourg
86.58   Greece
Greece
85.81   Latvia
Latvia
85.71   Lithuania
Lithuania
85.49   Slovakia
Slovakia
85.42   Canada
Canada
85.06   United States
United States
of America 84.72   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
84.67   Hungary
Hungary
84.60   Italy
Italy
84.48     Nepal
Nepal
84.25

2014[edit] On 25 January 2014 Yale University
Yale University
and Columbia University
Columbia University
released the 2014 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 178 countries.[8] Top 30 countries and score

   Switzerland
Switzerland
87.67   Luxembourg
Luxembourg
83.29   Australia
Australia
82.4   Singapore
Singapore
81.78   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
81.47   Germany
Germany
80.47   Spain
Spain
79.79   Austria
Austria
78.32   Sweden
Sweden
78.09   Norway
Norway
78.04   Netherlands
Netherlands
77.75   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
77.35   Denmark
Denmark
76.92   Iceland
Iceland
76.5   Slovenia
Slovenia
76.43   New Zealand
New Zealand
76.41   Portugal
Portugal
75.8   Finland
Finland
75.72  Ireland 74.67   Estonia
Estonia
74.66   Slovakia
Slovakia
74.45   Italy
Italy
74.36   Greece
Greece
73.28   Canada
Canada
73.14   United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
72.91   Japan
Japan
72.35   France
France
71.05   Hungary
Hungary
70.28   Chile
Chile
69.93   Poland
Poland
69.53

2012[edit] On 25 January 2012 Yale University
Yale University
and Columbia University
Columbia University
released the 2012 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 132 countries.[6] Top 30 countries and score[6]

   Switzerland
Switzerland
76.69   Latvia
Latvia
70.37   Norway
Norway
69.92   Luxembourg
Luxembourg
69.2   Costa Rica
Costa Rica
69.03   France
France
69   Austria
Austria
68.92   Italy
Italy
68.9   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
68.82   Sweden
Sweden
68.82   Germany
Germany
66.91   Slovakia
Slovakia
66.62   Iceland
Iceland
66.28   New Zealand
New Zealand
66.05   Albania
Albania
65.85   Netherlands
Netherlands
65.65   Lithuania
Lithuania
65.5   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
64.79   Finland
Finland
64.44   Croatia
Croatia
64.16   Denmark
Denmark
63.61   Poland
Poland
63.47   Japan
Japan
63.36   Belgium
Belgium
63.02   Malaysia
Malaysia
62.51   Brunei
Brunei
62.49   Colombia
Colombia
62.33   Slovenia
Slovenia
62.25   Taiwan
Taiwan
62.23   Brazil
Brazil
60.9

Top 10 countries by Trend EPI[6][7] The EPI rank is shown in parentheses.

  Latvia
Latvia
(2)   Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(111)   Romania
Romania
(88)   Albania
Albania
(15)   Egypt
Egypt
(60)   Angola
Angola
(90)   Slovakia
Slovakia
(12)  Ireland (36)   Belgium
Belgium
(24)   Thailand
Thailand
(34)

Worst 10 countries by Trend EPI[6][7] The EPI rank is shown in parentheses.

  Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(131)   South Africa
South Africa
(128)   Iraq
Iraq
(132)   Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(129)   Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(101)   Estonia
Estonia
(54)  Bosnia & Herzegovina (124)   Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(82)   Kuwait
Kuwait
(126)   Russia
Russia
(106)

2010[edit] On 28 January 2010 Yale University
Yale University
and Columbia University
Columbia University
released the 2010 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 163 countries.[5] The top performer for 2010 is Iceland
Iceland
due to its high scores on environmental public health, gets virtually all of its power from renewable sources (hydropower and geothermal energy), and its control of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States
United States
fell to the 61st position, as compared to 39th in the 2008 EPI, Brazil
Brazil
ranks 62nd, Russia
Russia
69th, China
China
121st, and India
India
ranks 123rd.[5][13] Top 30 countries and score[5]

  Iceland
Iceland
93.5    Switzerland
Switzerland
89.1   Costa Rica
Costa Rica
86.4   Sweden
Sweden
86.0   Norway
Norway
81.1   Mauritius
Mauritius
80.6   France
France
78.2   Austria
Austria
78.1   Cuba
Cuba
78.1   Colombia
Colombia
76.8   Malta
Malta
76.3   Finland
Finland
74.7   Slovakia
Slovakia
74.5   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
74.2   New Zealand
New Zealand
73.4   Chile
Chile
73.3   Germany
Germany
73.2   Italy
Italy
73.1   Portugal
Portugal
73.0   Japan
Japan
72.5   Latvia
Latvia
72.5   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
71.6   Albania
Albania
71.4   Panama
Panama
71.4   Spain
Spain
70.6   Belize
Belize
69.9   Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
69.8   Singapore
Singapore
69.6   Serbia
Serbia
69.4   Ecuador
Ecuador
69.3

2008[edit] On 23 January 2008 Yale University
Yale University
and Columbia University
Columbia University
released the 2008 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 149 countries. The environmental experts at both universities concluded that "analysis of the drivers underlying the 2008 rankings suggests that wealth is a major determinant of environmental success".[14] Top 30 countries and score[15]

   Switzerland
Switzerland
95.5   Norway
Norway
93.1   Sweden
Sweden
93.1   Finland
Finland
91.4   Costa Rica
Costa Rica
90.5   Austria
Austria
89.4   New Zealand
New Zealand
88.9   Latvia
Latvia
88.8   Colombia
Colombia
88.3   France
France
87.8   Iceland
Iceland
87.6   Canada
Canada
86.6   Germany
Germany
86.3   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
86.3   Slovenia
Slovenia
86.3   Lithuania
Lithuania
86.2   Slovakia
Slovakia
86.0   Portugal
Portugal
85.8   Estonia
Estonia
85.2   Croatia
Croatia
84.6   Japan
Japan
84.5   Ecuador
Ecuador
84.4   Hungary
Hungary
84.2   Italy
Italy
84.2   Albania
Albania
84.2   Denmark
Denmark
84.0   Malaysia
Malaysia
84.0   Russia
Russia
84.0   Chile
Chile
83.9   Spain
Spain
83.4

2006[edit] On 26 January 2006 Yale (YCELP) and Columbia University
Columbia University
(CIESIN) released the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 133 countries. It was done in collaboration with the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
and the Joint Research Centre
Joint Research Centre
of the European Commission. Top 30 countries and score[16]

  New Zealand
New Zealand
88.0   Sweden
Sweden
87.8   Finland
Finland
87.0   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
86.0   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
85.6   Austria
Austria
85.2   Denmark
Denmark
84.2   Canada
Canada
84.0   Malaysia
Malaysia
83.3  Ireland 83.3   Portugal
Portugal
82.9   France
France
82.5   Iceland
Iceland
82.1   Japan
Japan
81.9   Costa Rica
Costa Rica
81.6    Switzerland
Switzerland
81.4   Colombia
Colombia
80.4   Norway
Norway
80.2   Greece
Greece
80.2   Australia
Australia
80.1   Italy
Italy
79.8   Germany
Germany
79.4   Spain
Spain
79.2   Taiwan
Taiwan
79.1   Slovakia
Slovakia
79.1   Chile
Chile
78.9   Netherlands
Netherlands
78.7   United States
United States
78.5   Cyprus
Cyprus
78.4   Argentina
Argentina
77.7

See also[edit]

Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) Environmental Vulnerability Index
Environmental Vulnerability Index
(EVI) Green Stickered Energy Consumption Indexes

References[edit]

^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, and Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index". Retrieved 2008-03-16. [dead link] ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2008 Environmental Performance Index Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2008-03-18.  See Executive Summary, pp. 32-35 for a detailed comparison between the ESI 2005, the EPI 2006 and the EPI 2008. ^ "2016 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI)" (PDF).  ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index Main Report" (PDF). p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-01-05. Retrieved 2007-06-17.  ^ a b c d Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2012 Environmental Performance Index". Retrieved 2010-01-27.  See also official Press release ^ a b c d e Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "2010 EPI Rankings". Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2012-01-25.  ^ a b c Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "EPI 2012: Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). EPI Yales. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2012-01-27.  ^ a b "Country Rankings". Yale. 25 January 2014. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-29.  ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "EPI 2014: Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). EPI Yales. Retrieved 2014-12-02. [permanent dead link] ^ "EPI 2018 variables".  ^ "2016 EPI Raw Data". Yale University. 2016.  ^ "2016 EPI FULL REPORT" (PDF). Yale. Retrieved May 20, 2017.  ^ Elizabeth Rosenthal (2010-01-27). " Iceland
Iceland
Leads Environmental Index as U.S. Falls". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. " Switzerland
Switzerland
Tops 2008 Environmental Scorecard at World Economic Forum". Archived from the original on 2008-02-03. Retrieved 2008-01-26.  ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. " Environmental Performance Index 2008". Archived from the original on 2010-02-25. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index". Archived from the original on 2007-06-17. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 

External links[edit]

Yale University
Yale University
– EPI – A collaboration between Yale and Columbia Universities Yale University
Yale University
– YCELP – Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 Environmental Performance Index

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