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Entamoeba moshkovskii is part of the Entamoeba genus and is, according to the Center for Disease Control, a "free living amoeba".[1] It is found in areas with polluted water sources, and is prevalent in places such as Malaysia, India, and Bangladesh, but more recently has made its way to Turkey, Australia, and North America. This amoeba is said to rarely infect humans, but recently this has changed. It is in question as to whether it is pathogenic or not.[2] Some of the symptoms that often occur are diarrhea, weight loss, bloody stool, and abdominal pain. The first known human infection also known as the "Laredo strain" of Entamoebic mushkovskii was in Laredo, Texas in 1991.[2] It is known to affect people of all ages and genders.[3]

Characteristics

The exact characteristics of Entamoeba moshkovskii are "indistinguishable" from that of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar unless a polymerase chain reaction test is done. This is the only circumstance in which you can distinguish between the three of them.[1]

Transmission

Entamoeba moshkovskii is transmitted by contact or ingestion of any unclean water sources. It is known to be found in areas with polluted water such as brackish coastal pools, river line sediments, and originally sewage.[1]

Risk factors

Risk factors include the use or ingestion of polluted sources of water. Swimming in any areas with polluted water is also a risk. Most of the cases reported are in rural areas.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis with Entamoeba moshkovskii is difficult to do until symptoms appear. The amoeba will form cysts and trophozoites in the gastrointestinal tract. This can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea. Once symptoms start to occur, the standard means of diagnosing are a series of stool sample examinations and serological testing, and, if necessary, a colonoscopy or a biopsy of intestinal amebic legions or draining of liver abscesses (if present).[4] They are checking to see if there is any indication of the amoeba within the feces. In order to do this, several stool smears must be made and carefully observed under the microscope. At this point, if the tests are positive, it will usually come down to three choices for a diagnosis. The choices being Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba histolytica, or Entamoeba dispar. These three choices are, in the view of the microscope, "indistinguishable".[1] This is the point where a doctor makes the call for what is most common (Entamoeba histolytica) or something more rare (Entamoeba mushkovskii). If they choose to go with what is common, they will treat with "entamoebic chemotherapy".[1] This can be fatal if it is not Entamoeba histolytica, but this happens quite often. If the choice is to further examine the diagnosis, they will have to do a polymerase chain reaction.[4] This is the only way to differentiate between the three amoebas and effectively diagnose.

Treatment

Although treatments are still being researched, there are some ways to treat Entamoebic moshkovskii. Since this particular amoeba is resistant to emitin,[4] they typically treat using an anti-protozoan or antiamoebic therapy.[4] In tropical regions, anyone with cysts in their stool is treated with an anti-protozoan.

Prevention

Preventive methods are to only utilize clean water sources – whether it be for ingestion, cleaning, or recreation – and good hygiene such as hand-washing.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e CDC. "Entamoeba moshkovskii Infections in Children in Bangladesh". Center for Disease Control. 
  2. ^ a b CID. "Atlas Protozoa". 
  3. ^ CID. "Congress of International Disease". Archived from the original on 2014-07-27. 
  4. ^ a b c d CID (July 2007). "Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (3): 511–32, table of contents. doi:10.1128/CMR.00004-07. PMC 1932757Freely accessible. PMID 17630338.