ENRICO CARUSO (Italian pronunciation: ; 25 February 1873 – 2
August 1921) was an Italian operatic tenor. He sang to great acclaim
at the major opera houses of Europe and the Americas, appearing in a
wide variety of roles from the Italian and French repertoires that
ranged from the lyric to the dramatic. Caruso also made approximately
260 commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920. All of these
recordings, which span most of his stage career, remain available
today on CDs and as downloads and digital streams.
* 1 Early life
* 2 Early career
* 3 Metropolitan
* 4 Later career and personal life
* 5 Illness and death
* 6 Historical and musical significance
* 7 Honors
* 8 Repertoire
* 9 Recordings
* 10 Media
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
Enrico Caruso in the role of Dick Johnson, 1910/1911
Enrico Caruso came from a poor but not destitute background. Born in
Naples in the Via San Giovannello agli Ottocalli 7 on 25 February
1873, he was baptised the next day in the adjacent Church of San
Giovanni e Paolo. His parents originally came from Piedimonte d'Alife
Province of Benevento (now called
Piedimonte Matese ), in the
Province of Caserta in
Southern Italy . Called Errico in
accordance with the
Neapolitan language , he would later adopt the
formal Italian version of his given name, Enrico ("Henry" in English).
This change came at the suggestion of a singing teacher.
Caruso was the third of seven children and one of only three to
survive infancy. There is a story of Caruso's parents having had 21
children, 18 of whom died in infancy. However, on the basis of
genealogical research (amongst others conducted by Caruso family
friend Guido D'Onofrio), biographers Pierre Key, Francis Robinson,
Enrico Caruso Jr. and Andrew Farkas, have proven this to be an
urban legend. Caruso himself and his brother Giovanni may have been
the source of the exaggerated number. Caruso's widow Dorothy also
included the story in a memoir that she wrote about her husband. She
quotes the tenor, speaking of his mother, Anna Caruso (_née_
Baldini): "She had twenty-one children. Twenty boys and one girl –
too many. I am number nineteen boy."
Caruso's father, Marcellino, was a mechanic and foundry worker.
Initially, Marcellino thought his son should adopt the same trade, and
at the age of 11, the boy was apprenticed to a mechanical engineer who
constructed public water fountains. (Whenever visiting
future years, Caruso liked to point out a fountain that he had helped
to install.) Caruso later worked alongside his father at the
Meuricoffre factory in Naples. At his mother's insistence, he also
attended school for a time, receiving a basic education under the
tutelage of a local priest. He learned to write in a handsome script
and studied technical draftsmanship. During this period he sang in
his church choir, and his voice showed enough promise for him to
contemplate a possible career in music.
Caruso was encouraged in his early musical ambitions by his mother,
who died in 1888. To raise cash for his family, he found work as a
street singer in
Naples and performed at cafes and soirees. Aged 18,
he used the fees he had earned by singing at an Italian resort to buy
his first pair of new shoes. His progress as a paid entertainer was
interrupted, however, by 45 days of compulsory military service. He
completed this in 1894, resuming his voice lessons upon discharge from
On 15 March 1895 at the age of 22, Caruso made his professional stage
debut at the Teatro Nuovo in
Naples in the now-forgotten opera,
_L'Amico Francesco_, by the amateur composer Mario Morelli. A string
of further engagements in provincial opera houses followed, and he
received instruction from the conductor and voice teacher Vincenzo
Lombardi that improved his high notes and polished his style. Three
other prominent Neapolitan singers taught by Lombardi were the
Antonio Scotti and
Pasquale Amato , both of whom would go on
to partner Caruso at the Met, and the tenor
Fernando De Lucia , who
would also appear at the Met and later sing at Caruso's funeral.
Money continued to be in short supply for the young Caruso. One of
his first publicity photographs, taken on a visit to Sicily in 1896,
depicts him wearing a bedspread draped like a toga since his sole
dress shirt was away being laundered. At a notorious early performance
in Naples, he was booed by a section of the audience because he failed
to pay a claque to cheer for him. This incident hurt Caruso's pride.
He never appeared again on stage in his native city, stating later
that he would return "only to eat spaghetti".
During the final few years of the 19th century, Caruso performed at a
succession of theaters throughout Italy until in 1900 he was rewarded
with a contract to sing at La Scala. His
La Scala debut occurred on 26
December of that year in the part of Rodolfo in Giacomo Puccini's _La
bohème _ with
Arturo Toscanini conducting. Audiences in Monte Carlo,
Buenos Aires also heard Caruso sing during this pivotal
phase of his career and, in 1899–1900, he appeared before the tsar
and the Russian aristocracy at the
Mariinsky Theatre in Saint
Petersburg and the
Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow as part of a touring
company of first-class Italian singers.
The first major operatic role that Caruso was given the
responsibility of creating was Loris in
Umberto Giordano 's _Fedora _
at the Teatro Lirico, Milan, on 17 November 1898. At that same theater
on 6 November 1902, he created the role of Maurizio in Francesco Cilea
Adriana Lecouvreur _. (Puccini considered casting the young Caruso
in the role of Cavaradossi in _
Tosca _ at its premiere in 1900, but
ultimately chose the older, more established Emilio De Marchi
The medal that
Enrico Caruso gave to
Pasquale Simonelli , his New
York City impresario
OBVERSE: Caruso facing left. Lower right: Salanto, medal maker's
REVERSE: Muse of music with lyre over PER RICORDO (memento). Around
TIFFANY & Co. 24 CARAT GOLD Y (27 mm).
Caruso took part in a grand concert at
La Scala in February 1901 that
Toscanini organised to mark the recent death of
Giuseppe Verdi . Among
those appearing with him at the concert were two other leading Italian
tenors of the day,
Francesco Tamagno (the creator of the protagonist's
role in Verdi's _
Otello _) and
Giuseppe Borgatti (the creator of the
protagonist's role in Giordano's _
Andrea Chénier _). He embarked on
his last series of
La Scala performances in March 1902, creating along
the way the principal tenor part in _Germania _ by Alberto Franchetti
A month later, on 11 April, he was engaged by the Gramophone &
Typewriter Company to make his first group of acoustic recordings in a
Milan hotel room for a fee of 100 pounds sterling. These ten discs
swiftly became best-sellers. Among other things, they helped spread
29-year-old Caruso's fame throughout the English-speaking world. The
management of London's Royal
Opera House, Covent Garden, signed him
for a season of appearances in eight different operas ranging from
Aida _ to Mozart's _
Don Giovanni _. His successful debut at
Covent Garden occurred on 14 May 1902, as the Duke of Mantua in
Verdi's _Rigoletto_. Covent Garden's highest-paid diva, the Australian
Nellie Melba , partnered him as Gilda. They would sing
together often during the early 1900s. In her memoirs, Melba praised
Caruso's voice but considered him to be a less sophisticated musician
and interpretive artist than
Jean de Reszke —the Met's biggest tenor
drawcard prior to Caruso.
In 1903, Caruso made his debut with the Metropolitan
Opera in New
York City. The gap between his London and New York engagements had
been filled by a series of performances in Italy, Portugal and South
America. Caruso's contract had been negotiated by his agent, the
banker and impresario
Pasquale Simonelli . Caruso's debut was in a new
production of _Rigoletto_ on 23 November 1903. This time, Marcella
Sembrich sang opposite him as Gilda. A few months later, he began his
life long association with the
Victor Talking Machine Company . He
made his first American records on 1 February 1904, having signed a
lucrative financial deal with Victor. Thereafter, his recording career
ran in tandem with his Met career, both bolstering each other, until
his death in 1921.
Caruso purchased the Villa Bellosguardo , a palatial country house
Florence , in 1904. The villa became his retreat away from the
pressures of the operatic stage and the grind of travel. Caruso's
preferred address in New York City was a suite at
Knickerbocker Hotel . Caruso commissioned the New York jewelers
Tiffany "> Caruso's body lying in state in the Vesuvio Hotel in
Naples, 3 August 1921
On 16 September 1920, Caruso concluded three days of recording
sessions at Victor's Trinity Church studio in
Camden, New Jersey . He
recorded several discs including the _Domine Deus_ and _Crucifixus_
from the _
Petite messe solennelle _ by Rossini . These recordings were
to be his last.
Dorothy Caruso noted that her husband's health began a distinct
downward spiral in late 1920 after he returned from a lengthy North
American concert tour. In his biography, Enrico Caruso, Jr. points to
an on-stage injury suffered by Caruso as the possible trigger of his
fatal illness. A falling pillar in _Samson and Delilah_ on 3 December
had hit him on the back, over the left kidney (and not on the chest as
popularly reported). A few days before a performance of _Pagliacci_
at the Met (Pierre Key says it was 4 December, the day after the
_Samson and Delilah_ injury) he suffered a chill and developed a cough
and a "dull pain in his side". It appeared to be a severe episode of
bronchitis . Caruso's physician, Philip Horowitz, who usually treated
him for migraine headaches with a kind of primitive
TENS unit ,
diagnosed "intercostal neuralgia" and pronounced him fit to appear on
stage, although the pain continued to hinder his voice production and
During a performance of _L\'elisir d\'amore _ by Donizetti at the
Brooklyn Academy of Music
Brooklyn Academy of Music on December 11, 1920, he suffered a throat
haemorrhage and the performance was canceled at the end of Act 1.
Following this incident, a clearly unwell Caruso gave only three more
performances at the Met, the final one being as Eléazar in Halévy\'s
La Juive _, on 24 December 1920. By Christmas Day, the pain in his
side was so excruciating that he was screaming. Dorothy summoned the
hotel physician, who gave Caruso some morphine and codeine and called
in another doctor, Evan M. Evans. Evans brought in three other doctors
and Caruso finally received a correct diagnosis: purulent pleurisy and
Caruso's health deteriorated further during the new year. He
experienced episodes of intense pain because of the infection and
underwent seven surgical procedures to drain fluid from his chest and
lungs. He returned to
Naples to recuperate from the most serious of
the operations, during which part of a rib had been removed. According
to Dorothy Caruso, he seemed to be recovering, but allowed himself to
be examined by an unhygienic local doctor and his condition worsened
dramatically after that. The Bastianelli brothers, eminent medical
practitioners with a clinic in Rome, recommended that his left kidney
be removed. He was on his way to Rome to see them but, while staying
overnight in the Vesuvio Hotel in Naples, he took an alarming turn for
the worse and was given morphine to help him sleep.
Caruso died at the hotel shortly after 9:00 a.m. local time, on 2
August 1921. He was 48. The Bastianellis attributed the likely cause
of death to peritonitis arising from a burst subphrenic abscess .
King of Italy
King of Italy , Victor Emmanuel III , opened the Royal Basilica of
the Church of San Francesco di Paola for Caruso's funeral, which was
attended by thousands of people. His embalmed body was preserved in a
glass sarcophagus at Del Pianto Cemetery in
Naples for mourners to
view. In 1929,
Dorothy Caruso had his remains sealed permanently in
an ornate stone tomb.
HISTORICAL AND MUSICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Caruso's 25-year career, stretching from 1895 to 1920, included 863
appearances at the New York Metropolitan
Opera before he died at the
age of 48. Thanks in part to his tremendously popular phonograph
records, Caruso was one of the most famous personalities of his day
and his fame has endured to the present. He was one of the first
examples of a global media celebrity. Beyond records, Caruso's name
became familiar to millions through newspapers, books, magazines, and
the new media technology of the 20th century: cinema, the telephone
and telegraph .
Caruso toured widely both with the Metropolitan
Opera touring company
and on his own, giving hundreds of performances throughout Europe, and
North and South America. He was a client of the noted promoter Edward
Bernays , during the latter's tenure as a press agent in the United
Beverly Sills noted in an interview: "I was able to do it with
television and radio and media and all kinds of assists. The
popularity that Caruso enjoyed without any of this technological
assistance is astonishing."
Caruso biographers Pierre Key, Bruno Zirato and Stanley Jackson
attribute Caruso's fame not only to his voice and musicianship but
also to a keen business sense and an enthusiastic embrace of
commercial sound recording , then in its infancy. Many opera singers
of Caruso's time rejected the phonograph (or gramophone) owing to the
low fidelity of early discs. Others, including
Adelina Patti ,
Francesco Tamagno and
Nellie Melba , exploited the new technology once
they became aware of the financial returns that Caruso was reaping
from his initial recording sessions.
Caruso made more than 260 extant recordings in America for the Victor
Talking Machine Company (later
RCA Victor ) from 1904 to 1920, and he
and his heirs earned millions of dollars in royalties from the retail
sales of these records. He was also heard live from the stage of the
Opera House in 1910, when he participated in the first
public radio broadcast to be transmitted in the United States.
Caruso also appeared in two motion pictures. In 1918, he played a
dual role in the American silent film _
My Cousin _ for Paramount
Pictures . This film included a sequence depicting him on stage
performing the aria _
Vesti la giubba _ from Leoncavallo 's opera
Pagliacci _. The following year Caruso played a character called
Cosimo in another film, _
The Splendid Romance _. Producer Jesse Lasky
paid Caruso $100,000 each to appear in these two efforts but _My
Cousin_ flopped at the box office and _The Splendid Romance_ was
apparently never released. Brief candid glimpses of Caruso offstage
have been preserved in contemporary newsreel footage.
While Caruso sang at such venues as
La Scala in
Milan , the Royal
Opera House ,
Covent Garden , in London, the
Mariinsky Theatre in
Saint Petersburg, and the
Teatro Colón in
Buenos Aires , he appeared
most often at the Metropolitan
Opera in New York City where he was the
leading tenor for 18 consecutive seasons. It was at the Met, in 1910,
that he created the role of Dick Johnson in
Giacomo Puccini 's _La
fanciulla del West _.
Caruso's voice extended up to high D-flat in its prime and grew in
power and weight as he grew older. At times, his voice took on a dark,
almost baritonal coloration. He sang a broad spectrum of roles,
ranging from lyric , to spinto , to dramatic parts, in the Italian and
French repertoires. In the German repertoire, Caruso sang only two
roles, Assad (in
Karl Goldmark 's _The Queen of Sheba _) and Richard
Lohengrin , both of which he performed in Italian in Buenos
Aires in 1899 and 1901, respectively.
During his lifetime, Caruso received many orders, decorations,
testimonials and other kinds of honors from monarchs, governments and
miscellaneous cultural bodies of the various nations in which he sang.
He was also the recipient of Italian knighthoods. In 1917, he was
elected an honorary member of the
Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia , the national
fraternity for men involved in music, by the fraternity's Alpha
chapter of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston. One
unusual award bestowed on him was that of "Honorary Captain of the New
York Police Force". In 1960, for his contribution to the recording
industry, Caruso received a star located at 6625 Hollywood Boulevard
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame . Caruso was posthumously awarded a
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987. On 27 February of that same
United States Postal Service issued a 22-cent postage stamp
in his honor. He was voted into
Gramophone Magazine 's Hall of Fame
Caruso's operatic repertoire consisted primarily of Italian works
along with a few roles in French. He also performed two German operas,
Lohengrin _ and Goldmark's _
Die Königin von Saba _, singing
in Italian, early in his career. Below are the first performances by
Caruso, in chronological order, of each of the operas that he
undertook on the stage. World premieres are indicated with **. _
Caruso signing his autograph; he was obliging with fans
* L'amico Francesco_ (Morelli) – Teatro Nuovo, Napoli, 15 March
* _Faust _ – Caserta, 28 March 1895
Cavalleria rusticana _ – Caserta, April 1895
* _Camoens_ (Musoni) – Caserta, May 1895
Rigoletto _ – Napoli, 21 July 1895
La traviata _ – Napoli, 25 August 1895
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor _ – Cairo, 30 October 1895
* _La Gioconda _ – Cairo, 9 November 1895
Manon Lescaut _ – Cairo, 15 November 1895
I Capuleti e i Montecchi _ – Napoli, 7 December 1895
* _Malia_ (
Francesco Paolo Frontini ) – Trapani, 21 March 1896
La sonnambula _ – Trapani, 25 March 1896
* _Mariedda_ (Bucceri ) – Napoli, 23 June 1896
I puritani _ – Salerno, 10 September 1896
* _La Favorita _ – Salerno, 22 November 1896
* _A San Francisco_ (Sebastiani) – Salerno, 23 November 1896
Carmen _ – Salerno, 6 December 1896
* _Un Dramma in vendemmia_ (Fornari) – Napoli, 1 February 1897
* _Celeste_ (Marengo) – Napoli, 6 March 1897**
* _Il Profeta Velato_ (Napolitano) – Salerno, 8 April 1897
La bohème _ – Livorno, 14 August 1897
* _La Navarrese _ – Milano, 3 November 1897
* _Il Voto_ (Giordano) – Milano, 10 November 1897**
* _L\'arlesiana _ – Milano, 27 November 1897**
Pagliacci _ – Milano, 31 December 1897
La bohème _ (Leoncavallo) – Genova, 20 January 1898
* _The Pearl Fishers _ – Genova, 3 February 1898
* _Hedda_ (Leborne) – Milano, 2 April 1898**
Mefistofele _ – Fiume, 4 March 1898
* _Sapho _ (Massenet) – Trento, 3 June (?) 1898
* _Fedora _ – Milano, 17 November 1898**
* _Iris _ – Buenos Aires, 22 June 1899
* _La regina di Saba _ (Goldmark) – Buenos Aires, 4 July 1899
* _Yupanki_ (Berutti)– Buenos Aires, 25 July 1899**
Aida _ – St. Petersburg, 3 January 1900
Un ballo in maschera
Un ballo in maschera _ – St. Petersburg, 11 January 1900
Maria di Rohan _ – St. Petersburg, 2 March 1900
Manon _ – Buenos Aires, 28 July 1900
Tosca _ – Treviso, 23 October 1900
Le maschere _ (Mascagni) – Milano, 17 January 1901**
* _L\'elisir d\'amore _ – Milano, 17 February 1901
_ Caruso's sketch of himself as Don José in
Carmen _, 1904
Lohengrin _ – Buenos Aires, 7 July 1901
* _Germania _ – Milano, 11 March 1902**
Don Giovanni _ – London, 19 July 1902
Adriana Lecouvreur _ – Milano, 6!November 1902**
* _Lucrezia Borgia _ – Lisboa, 10 March 1903
Les Huguenots _ – New York, 3 February 1905
* _Martha _ – New York, 9 February 1906
Madama Butterfly _ – London, 26 May 1906
* _L\'Africana _ – New York, 11 January 1907
Andrea Chénier _ – London, 20 July 1907
Il trovatore _ – New York, 26 February 1908
* _Armide _ – New York, 14 November 1910
La fanciulla del West
La fanciulla del West _ – New York, 10 December 1910**
* _Julien _ – New York, 26 December 1914
* _Samson et Dalila _ – New York, 24 November 1916
Lodoletta _ – Buenos Aires, 29 July 1917
Le prophète _ – New York, 7 February 1918
* _L\'amore dei tre re _ – New York, 14 March 1918
La forza del destino _ – New York, 15 November 1918
La Juive _ – New York, 22 November 1919
Caruso also had a repertory of more than 500 songs. They ranged from
classical compositions to traditional Italian melodies and popular
tunes of the day, including a few English-language titles such as
George M. Cohan 's "
Over There ",
Henry Geehl 's "For You Alone" and
Arthur Sullivan 's
The Lost Chord .
Enrico Caruso as Lionel in Martha_ Main article: Enrico
Caruso discography See also:
Enrico Caruso compact disc discography
Caruso possessed a phonogenic voice which was "manly and powerful,
yet sweet and lyrical", to quote the singer/author John Potter (see
bibliography, below). He became one of the first major classical
vocalists to make numerous recordings. Caruso and the disc phonograph
, known in the United Kingdom as the gramophone, did much to promote
each other in the first two decades of the 20th century. Many of
Caruso's recordings have remained continuously available since their
original issue around a century ago, and every one of his surviving
discs (including unissued takes) has been re-mastered and re-released
several times over the years.
Caruso's first recordings were arranged by recording pioneer Fred
Gaisberg and cut on disc in three separate sessions in
April, November and December 1902. They were made with piano
EMI 's forerunner, the Gramophone ">_
Caruso alongside his piano
* O soave fanciulla "O soave fanciulla" from Giacomo Puccini
La bohème _, sung by
Enrico Caruso and
Nellie Melba in 1907.
"Recondita armonia" A 1908 recording of "
Recondita armonia " from
Giacomo Puccini 's _
Tosca _ O Mimì, tu più non torni A 1907
Enrico Caruso as Rodolfo and
Antonio Scotti as Marcello
of "O Mimì, tu più non torni" from Act IV of
Giacomo Puccini 's _La
bohème _. Vesti La Giubba 17 March 1907, recording of 'Vesti
La Giubba' from
La donna è mobile
La donna è mobile from Verdi's
Rigoletto , 1908
_Faust_: "O merveille! ... A moi les plaisirs" The Act I finale
Charles Gounod 's _Faust _ (1859), sung by
Enrico Caruso and Marcel
Journet in 1910. "Una furtiva lagrima" "
Una furtiva lagrima "
Gaetano Donizetti 's _L\'elisir d\'amore _ Sung in 1911 for the
Victor Talking Machine Company . Manon! avez-vous peur ... On
Manon 1912 recording of
Enrico Caruso and Geraldine
Farrar performing a scene from Act II of
Jules Massenet 's _
Ave Maria Caruso sings _Ave Maria_ by Percival Benedict Kahn ,
Mischa Elman on violin (1913) "Sì, pel ciel marmoreo giuro!"
The 1914 recording by Titta Ruffo and
Enrico Caruso of Giuseppe Verdi
Otello _ "È scherzo od è follia" Enrico Caruso, Frieda
Hempel , Maria Duchêne,
Andrés De Segurola and Léon Rothier
performing "È scherzo od è Follia" from
Giuseppe Verdi 's _Un ballo
in maschera _ in 1914 O souverain, O juge, O père! 1916
recording of Rodrigue's Act III aria in
Jules Massenet 's _Le Cid _
(1885). "Ombra mai fu" "
Ombra mai fu " (and the introductory
recitative ) from
George Frideric Handel 's _
Serse _, recorded in
1920. No Pagliaccio non son Recording of 'No Pagliaccio non
Pagliacci (1910). La Partida (1914)
* _Problems listening to the files? See media help ._
Birth of public radio broadcasting
The Young Caruso _
The Great Caruso _
* ^ Key, Pierre, _Enrico Caruso: A Biography_, Vienna House, 1972.
* ^ Robinson, Francis, _Caruso: His Life in Pictures_, Brahmhall,
* ^ Caruso, Enrico Jr. & Farkas, Andrew, _Enrico Caruso: My Father
and My Family_, Amadeus Press, 1990, p.20.
* ^ Caruso, Enrico Jr. & Farkas, Andrew, _Enrico Caruso, My Father
and My Family_, Amadeus Press, 1990.
* ^ Dorothy Caruso, _Enrico Caruso, His Life and Death_, p. 257.
* ^ Key and Zirato, p. 16.
* ^ Simonelli, Pasquale (2012),
Enrico Caruso Unedited Notes,
Charleston, SC.: S.E.A.O. Inc. http://amzn.com/0615714900
* ^ "
Enrico Caruso in Scotland".
Opera Scotland. 1909-09-03.
* ^ Bronson, William, "The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned," p. 50
* ^ William Bronson, _The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned_
* ^ An account of the earthquake by Caruso's lifelong friend, the
Antonio Scotti , including Scotti's observations of Caruso's
behavior, is found in Pierre Key's biography of Caruso, _Enrico
Caruso: A Biography_ free online at Internet Archive, pp. 228–29.
* ^ David Suisman, "Welcome to the Monkey House:
Enrico Caruso and
the First Celebrity Trial of the Twentieth Century". In _The
Believer_, June 2004, webpage accessed 2009-05-14.
* ^ Scott 1991 , p. 181.
* ^ Scott 1991 , p. 168.
* ^ Caruso Love Letters Reveal Passion Behind a Life of Epic
Operatic Drama 2005 article describing the discovery of voluminous
correspondence between Caruso and Giachetti.
* ^ Orlando Barone, Caruso Mysteries, article written for the
Opera-L discussion list 1996-02-21, page found 2010-10-29.
* ^ Caruso Jr., p. 338.
* ^ Wah Keung Chan, The Voice of Caruso from _La Scena Musicale_
Vol. 7, No. 7 online, page found 2010-11-06.
* ^ Caruso Jr. covers his father's relationship with Giachetti in
great detail. Jackson (1973) and Scott (1988) also contain extensive
information about the liaison.
* ^ Gloria Caruso Murray, 79, Artist and Tenor\'s Daughter, William
H. Honan, _
The New York Times _, December 18, 1999
* ^ Dorothy Caruso, _Enrico Caruso: His Life and Death_. Simon and
Schuster, New York, 1945. Mrs, Caruso enumerated these facts partly to
satisfy public curiosity and partly to dispel myths and rumors about
* ^ Pierre Key, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_ written with Caruso's
personal assistant Bruno Zirato . Little, Brown and Co, Boston, 1922.
* ^ Stanley Jackson, _Caruso_. Stein see also
* ^ John Potter, Almost as Good as Presley: Caruso the Pop Idol. In
_Public Domain Review_, online magazine, 2012-02-13, page found
* ^ _Enrico Caruso: The Voice of the Century_ (A & E Biography,
* ^ Key, Pierre and Bruno Zirato, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_.
Little Brown and Co., 1922.
* ^ Stanley Jackson, _Caruso_. Stein and Day, 1973.
* ^ A.J. Millard, _America On Record_ (Cambridge University Press,
2005), pp. 59–60.
* ^ "
Enrico Caruso (tenor)". Gramophone. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
* ^ Key, Pierre and Bruno Zirato, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_.
Little Brown and Co., 1922. p. 145
Scott catalog # 2250.
* ^ "
Enrico Caruso (tenor)". Gramophone. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
* Caruso, Dorothy, and Goddard, Torrance _Wings of Song: The Story
of Caruso_, (Milton, Balch & Company, New York, 1928).
* Caruso, Dorothy, _Enrico Caruso: His Life and Death_, with a
discography by Jack Caidin (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1945).
* Caruso, Enrico, Jr., and Farkas, Andrew, _Enrico Caruso: My Father
and My Family_, with a discography by William Moran and a chronology
by Tom Kaufman (Amadeus Press, Portland, 1990).
* Jackson, Stanley, _Caruso_ (Stein and Day, New York, 1972).
* Key, P.V.R. and Zirato, B, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_ (Little,
Brown and Co, Boston, 1922).
* Scott, Michael, _The Great Caruso_ (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1988).
* Scott, Michael (1991), _The Great Caruso_, Random House, ISBN
* Douglas, Nigel, _Legendary Voices_ (Andre Deutsch, London, 1992).
* Gargano, Pietro and Cesarini, Gianni, _Caruso, Vita e arte di un
grande cantante_ (Longanesi, 1990).
* Gargano, Pietro, _Una vita una leggenda_ (Editoriale Giorgio
* Griffith, Hugh, CD liner notes for _The Complete Recordings of
Enrico Caruso_, volumes 1 che portò Caruso, negli US, sezione B –
supplemento illustrato della domenica, New York, 27 luglio 1986.
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Caruso in Concert" (in "Étude" n°46,
"Hommage à Marguerite-Marie Dubois",
January–February–March–April 2010, pp. 12–37, Journal of
Association internationale de chant lyrique "Titta Ruffo", Marseilles,
France, edited by Professor Jean-Pierre Mouchon, M.A., PhD, Mus.D.,
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Chronologie de la carrière artistique du
ténor Enrico Caruso" (Académie Régionale de Chant Lyrique,
Marseilles, France, 1992, 423 p., ill.).
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. 1873–1921. Sa vie et sa
voix. Étude psycho-physiologique, physique, phonétique et
esthétique", foreword by Dr.Édouard-Jean Garde (Académie régionale
de chant lyrique, Marseille, France, 1966, 106 p. ill.).
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. Deuxième partie. (La voix
et l'art, les enregistrements). Étude physique, phonétique,
linguistique et esthétique." Volume III (Association internationale
de chant lyrique TITTA RUFFO, 2012, 433 pp. ill. ISBN 2-909366-18-9 ).
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. His Life and Voice"
(Éditions Ophrys, Gap, France, 1974, 77 p. ill.).
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. L'homme et l'artiste", two
volumes (Terra Beata, Société littéraire et historique), 45, bd.
Notre-Dame, 13006—Marseille, France, 2011, 1359 pp., ill.
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. L'homme et l'artiste, 4
vol.: Première partie. L'homme (Étude psycho-physiologique et
historique), pp. 1–653 bis, ill.; deuxième partie. L'artiste
(étude physique, phonétique, linguistique et esthétique), pp.
654–975 bis, bibliographie critique, index des représentations
Enrico Caruso entre 1895 et 1920, index de ses concerts
et récitals, pp. 976–1605 (Paris-Sorbonne 1978, published by
Atelier national de reproduction des thèses , Université de Lille
III, 9, rue Auguste Angellier, 59046 Lille, France in three volumes,
and by Didier-Érudition, Paris, in microfiches).
* Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Particularités physiques et phonétiques
de la voix enregistrée de Caruso", foreword by Prof.André Appaix (in
Le Sud Médical et Chirurgical, 99e année, n°2509,Marseille, France,
31 octobre 1964, pp. 11812–11829).
* Pleasants, Henry, _The Great Singers_ (Macmillan Publishing,
* Potter, John, _Tenor: History of a Voice_ (Yale University Press,
New Haven a biography (1922) complete text
* Recordings of Caruso Part 1, Part 2 Audio files at Internet
* Video of Caruso at 1908 opening of Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires
Enrico Caruso at
Find a Grave
* Simonelli, Pasquale (2012),
Enrico Caruso Unedited Notes,
Charleston, SC.: S.E.A.O. Inc. http://amzn.com/0615714900
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 2558169
* LCCN : n50034771
* ISNI : 0000 0000 8082 0236
* GND : 118667335
* SELIBR : 208790
* SUDOC : 028663640
* BNF : cb124060028 (data)
* ULAN : 500069585
MusicBrainz : e4d389bb-fe8f-472d-8ffd-c2cb02a7b2b7
* NLA : 35026364
* NDL : 00620464
* NKC : jn20000601146
* ICCU : ITICCUPALV9434
* BNE : XX871137
* IATH : w6sx6bd2
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