The Info List - Enrico Caruso

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ENRICO CARUSO (Italian pronunciation: ; 25 February 1873 – 2 August 1921) was an Italian operatic tenor. He sang to great acclaim at the major opera houses of Europe and the Americas, appearing in a wide variety of roles from the Italian and French repertoires that ranged from the lyric to the dramatic. Caruso also made approximately 260 commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920. All of these recordings, which span most of his stage career, remain available today on CDs and as downloads and digital streams.


* 1 Early life * 2 Early career * 3 Metropolitan Opera
* 4 Later career and personal life * 5 Illness and death * 6 Historical and musical significance * 7 Honors * 8 Repertoire * 9 Recordings * 10 Media * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links


Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
in the role of Dick Johnson, 1910/1911

Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
came from a poor but not destitute background. Born in Naples
in the Via San Giovannello agli Ottocalli 7 on 25 February 1873, he was baptised the next day in the adjacent Church of San Giovanni e Paolo. His parents originally came from Piedimonte d'Alife in the Province of Benevento (now called Piedimonte Matese ), in the Province of Caserta in Campania
, Southern Italy . Called Errico in accordance with the Neapolitan language , he would later adopt the formal Italian version of his given name, Enrico ("Henry" in English). This change came at the suggestion of a singing teacher.

Caruso was the third of seven children and one of only three to survive infancy. There is a story of Caruso's parents having had 21 children, 18 of whom died in infancy. However, on the basis of genealogical research (amongst others conducted by Caruso family friend Guido D'Onofrio), biographers Pierre Key, Francis Robinson, and Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
Jr. and Andrew Farkas, have proven this to be an urban legend. Caruso himself and his brother Giovanni may have been the source of the exaggerated number. Caruso's widow Dorothy also included the story in a memoir that she wrote about her husband. She quotes the tenor, speaking of his mother, Anna Caruso (_née_ Baldini): "She had twenty-one children. Twenty boys and one girl – too many. I am number nineteen boy."

Caruso's father, Marcellino, was a mechanic and foundry worker. Initially, Marcellino thought his son should adopt the same trade, and at the age of 11, the boy was apprenticed to a mechanical engineer who constructed public water fountains. (Whenever visiting Naples
in future years, Caruso liked to point out a fountain that he had helped to install.) Caruso later worked alongside his father at the Meuricoffre factory in Naples. At his mother's insistence, he also attended school for a time, receiving a basic education under the tutelage of a local priest. He learned to write in a handsome script and studied technical draftsmanship. During this period he sang in his church choir, and his voice showed enough promise for him to contemplate a possible career in music.

Caruso was encouraged in his early musical ambitions by his mother, who died in 1888. To raise cash for his family, he found work as a street singer in Naples
and performed at cafes and soirees. Aged 18, he used the fees he had earned by singing at an Italian resort to buy his first pair of new shoes. His progress as a paid entertainer was interrupted, however, by 45 days of compulsory military service. He completed this in 1894, resuming his voice lessons upon discharge from the army.


On 15 March 1895 at the age of 22, Caruso made his professional stage debut at the Teatro Nuovo in Naples
in the now-forgotten opera, _L'Amico Francesco_, by the amateur composer Mario Morelli. A string of further engagements in provincial opera houses followed, and he received instruction from the conductor and voice teacher Vincenzo Lombardi that improved his high notes and polished his style. Three other prominent Neapolitan singers taught by Lombardi were the baritones Antonio Scotti and Pasquale Amato , both of whom would go on to partner Caruso at the Met, and the tenor Fernando De Lucia , who would also appear at the Met and later sing at Caruso's funeral.

Money continued to be in short supply for the young Caruso. One of his first publicity photographs, taken on a visit to Sicily in 1896, depicts him wearing a bedspread draped like a toga since his sole dress shirt was away being laundered. At a notorious early performance in Naples, he was booed by a section of the audience because he failed to pay a claque to cheer for him. This incident hurt Caruso's pride. He never appeared again on stage in his native city, stating later that he would return "only to eat spaghetti".

During the final few years of the 19th century, Caruso performed at a succession of theaters throughout Italy until in 1900 he was rewarded with a contract to sing at La Scala. His La Scala
La Scala
debut occurred on 26 December of that year in the part of Rodolfo in Giacomo Puccini's _La bohème _ with Arturo Toscanini conducting. Audiences in Monte Carlo, Warsaw and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
also heard Caruso sing during this pivotal phase of his career and, in 1899–1900, he appeared before the tsar and the Russian aristocracy at the Mariinsky Theatre
Mariinsky Theatre
in Saint Petersburg and the Bolshoi Theatre
Bolshoi Theatre
in Moscow as part of a touring company of first-class Italian singers.

The first major operatic role that Caruso was given the responsibility of creating was Loris in Umberto Giordano 's _Fedora _ at the Teatro Lirico, Milan, on 17 November 1898. At that same theater on 6 November 1902, he created the role of Maurizio in Francesco Cilea 's _ Adriana Lecouvreur _. (Puccini considered casting the young Caruso in the role of Cavaradossi in _ Tosca _ at its premiere in 1900, but ultimately chose the older, more established Emilio De Marchi instead.)


The medal that Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
gave to Pasquale Simonelli , his New York City impresario OBVERSE: Caruso facing left. Lower right: Salanto, medal maker's signature. *

REVERSE: Muse of music with lyre over PER RICORDO (memento). Around the rim: TIFFANY & Co. 24 CARAT GOLD Y (27 mm).

Caruso took part in a grand concert at La Scala
La Scala
in February 1901 that Toscanini organised to mark the recent death of Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
. Among those appearing with him at the concert were two other leading Italian tenors of the day, Francesco Tamagno (the creator of the protagonist's role in Verdi's _ Otello _) and Giuseppe Borgatti (the creator of the protagonist's role in Giordano's _ Andrea Chénier _). He embarked on his last series of La Scala
La Scala
performances in March 1902, creating along the way the principal tenor part in _Germania _ by Alberto Franchetti .

A month later, on 11 April, he was engaged by the Gramophone & Typewriter Company to make his first group of acoustic recordings in a Milan
hotel room for a fee of 100 pounds sterling. These ten discs swiftly became best-sellers. Among other things, they helped spread 29-year-old Caruso's fame throughout the English-speaking world. The management of London's Royal Opera
House, Covent Garden, signed him for a season of appearances in eight different operas ranging from Verdi's _ Aida
_ to Mozart's _ Don Giovanni _. His successful debut at Covent Garden occurred on 14 May 1902, as the Duke of Mantua in Verdi's _Rigoletto_. Covent Garden's highest-paid diva, the Australian soprano Nellie Melba , partnered him as Gilda. They would sing together often during the early 1900s. In her memoirs, Melba praised Caruso's voice but considered him to be a less sophisticated musician and interpretive artist than Jean de Reszke —the Met's biggest tenor drawcard prior to Caruso.


In 1903, Caruso made his debut with the Metropolitan Opera
in New York City. The gap between his London and New York engagements had been filled by a series of performances in Italy, Portugal and South America. Caruso's contract had been negotiated by his agent, the banker and impresario Pasquale Simonelli . Caruso's debut was in a new production of _Rigoletto_ on 23 November 1903. This time, Marcella Sembrich sang opposite him as Gilda. A few months later, he began his life long association with the Victor Talking Machine Company . He made his first American records on 1 February 1904, having signed a lucrative financial deal with Victor. Thereafter, his recording career ran in tandem with his Met career, both bolstering each other, until his death in 1921.

Caruso purchased the Villa Bellosguardo , a palatial country house near Florence
, in 1904. The villa became his retreat away from the pressures of the operatic stage and the grind of travel. Caruso's preferred address in New York City was a suite at Manhattan
's Knickerbocker Hotel . Caruso commissioned the New York jewelers Tiffany "> Caruso's body lying in state in the Vesuvio Hotel in Naples, 3 August 1921

On 16 September 1920, Caruso concluded three days of recording sessions at Victor's Trinity Church studio in Camden, New Jersey . He recorded several discs including the _Domine Deus_ and _Crucifixus_ from the _ Petite messe solennelle _ by Rossini . These recordings were to be his last.

Dorothy Caruso noted that her husband's health began a distinct downward spiral in late 1920 after he returned from a lengthy North American concert tour. In his biography, Enrico Caruso, Jr. points to an on-stage injury suffered by Caruso as the possible trigger of his fatal illness. A falling pillar in _Samson and Delilah_ on 3 December had hit him on the back, over the left kidney (and not on the chest as popularly reported). A few days before a performance of _Pagliacci_ at the Met (Pierre Key says it was 4 December, the day after the _Samson and Delilah_ injury) he suffered a chill and developed a cough and a "dull pain in his side". It appeared to be a severe episode of bronchitis . Caruso's physician, Philip Horowitz, who usually treated him for migraine headaches with a kind of primitive TENS unit , diagnosed "intercostal neuralgia" and pronounced him fit to appear on stage, although the pain continued to hinder his voice production and movements.

During a performance of _L\'elisir d\'amore _ by Donizetti at the Brooklyn Academy of Music
Brooklyn Academy of Music
on December 11, 1920, he suffered a throat haemorrhage and the performance was canceled at the end of Act 1. Following this incident, a clearly unwell Caruso gave only three more performances at the Met, the final one being as Eléazar in Halévy\'s _ La Juive
La Juive
_, on 24 December 1920. By Christmas Day, the pain in his side was so excruciating that he was screaming. Dorothy summoned the hotel physician, who gave Caruso some morphine and codeine and called in another doctor, Evan M. Evans. Evans brought in three other doctors and Caruso finally received a correct diagnosis: purulent pleurisy and empyema .

Caruso's health deteriorated further during the new year. He experienced episodes of intense pain because of the infection and underwent seven surgical procedures to drain fluid from his chest and lungs. He returned to Naples
to recuperate from the most serious of the operations, during which part of a rib had been removed. According to Dorothy Caruso, he seemed to be recovering, but allowed himself to be examined by an unhygienic local doctor and his condition worsened dramatically after that. The Bastianelli brothers, eminent medical practitioners with a clinic in Rome, recommended that his left kidney be removed. He was on his way to Rome to see them but, while staying overnight in the Vesuvio Hotel in Naples, he took an alarming turn for the worse and was given morphine to help him sleep.

Caruso died at the hotel shortly after 9:00 a.m. local time, on 2 August 1921. He was 48. The Bastianellis attributed the likely cause of death to peritonitis arising from a burst subphrenic abscess . The King of Italy
King of Italy
, Victor Emmanuel III , opened the Royal Basilica of the Church of San Francesco di Paola for Caruso's funeral, which was attended by thousands of people. His embalmed body was preserved in a glass sarcophagus at Del Pianto Cemetery in Naples
for mourners to view. In 1929, Dorothy Caruso had his remains sealed permanently in an ornate stone tomb.


Caruso's 25-year career, stretching from 1895 to 1920, included 863 appearances at the New York Metropolitan Opera
before he died at the age of 48. Thanks in part to his tremendously popular phonograph records, Caruso was one of the most famous personalities of his day and his fame has endured to the present. He was one of the first examples of a global media celebrity. Beyond records, Caruso's name became familiar to millions through newspapers, books, magazines, and the new media technology of the 20th century: cinema, the telephone and telegraph .

Caruso toured widely both with the Metropolitan Opera
touring company and on his own, giving hundreds of performances throughout Europe, and North and South America. He was a client of the noted promoter Edward Bernays , during the latter's tenure as a press agent in the United States. Beverly Sills noted in an interview: "I was able to do it with television and radio and media and all kinds of assists. The popularity that Caruso enjoyed without any of this technological assistance is astonishing."

Caruso biographers Pierre Key, Bruno Zirato and Stanley Jackson attribute Caruso's fame not only to his voice and musicianship but also to a keen business sense and an enthusiastic embrace of commercial sound recording , then in its infancy. Many opera singers of Caruso's time rejected the phonograph (or gramophone) owing to the low fidelity of early discs. Others, including Adelina Patti , Francesco Tamagno and Nellie Melba , exploited the new technology once they became aware of the financial returns that Caruso was reaping from his initial recording sessions.

Caruso made more than 260 extant recordings in America for the Victor Talking Machine Company (later RCA Victor ) from 1904 to 1920, and he and his heirs earned millions of dollars in royalties from the retail sales of these records. He was also heard live from the stage of the Metropolitan Opera
House in 1910, when he participated in the first public radio broadcast to be transmitted in the United States.

Caruso also appeared in two motion pictures. In 1918, he played a dual role in the American silent film _ My Cousin _ for Paramount Pictures . This film included a sequence depicting him on stage performing the aria _ Vesti la giubba _ from Leoncavallo 's opera _ Pagliacci _. The following year Caruso played a character called Cosimo in another film, _ The Splendid Romance _. Producer Jesse Lasky paid Caruso $100,000 each to appear in these two efforts but _My Cousin_ flopped at the box office and _The Splendid Romance_ was apparently never released. Brief candid glimpses of Caruso offstage have been preserved in contemporary newsreel footage.

While Caruso sang at such venues as La Scala
La Scala
in Milan
, the Royal Opera
House , Covent Garden , in London, the Mariinsky Theatre
Mariinsky Theatre
in Saint Petersburg, and the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, he appeared most often at the Metropolitan Opera
in New York City where he was the leading tenor for 18 consecutive seasons. It was at the Met, in 1910, that he created the role of Dick Johnson in Giacomo Puccini 's _La fanciulla del West _.

Caruso's voice extended up to high D-flat in its prime and grew in power and weight as he grew older. At times, his voice took on a dark, almost baritonal coloration. He sang a broad spectrum of roles, ranging from lyric , to spinto , to dramatic parts, in the Italian and French repertoires. In the German repertoire, Caruso sang only two roles, Assad (in Karl Goldmark 's _The Queen of Sheba _) and Richard Wagner 's Lohengrin , both of which he performed in Italian in Buenos Aires in 1899 and 1901, respectively.


During his lifetime, Caruso received many orders, decorations, testimonials and other kinds of honors from monarchs, governments and miscellaneous cultural bodies of the various nations in which he sang. He was also the recipient of Italian knighthoods. In 1917, he was elected an honorary member of the Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia , the national fraternity for men involved in music, by the fraternity's Alpha chapter of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston. One unusual award bestowed on him was that of "Honorary Captain of the New York Police Force". In 1960, for his contribution to the recording industry, Caruso received a star located at 6625 Hollywood Boulevard on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
. Caruso was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987. On 27 February of that same year, the United States Postal Service issued a 22-cent postage stamp in his honor. He was voted into Gramophone Magazine 's Hall of Fame in 2012.


Caruso's operatic repertoire consisted primarily of Italian works along with a few roles in French. He also performed two German operas, Wagner's _ Lohengrin _ and Goldmark's _ Die Königin von Saba _, singing in Italian, early in his career. Below are the first performances by Caruso, in chronological order, of each of the operas that he undertook on the stage. World premieres are indicated with **. _ Caruso signing his autograph; he was obliging with fans

* L'amico Francesco_ (Morelli) – Teatro Nuovo, Napoli, 15 March 1895 (debut)** * _Faust _ – Caserta, 28 March 1895 * _ Cavalleria rusticana _ – Caserta, April 1895 * _Camoens_ (Musoni) – Caserta, May 1895 * _ Rigoletto _ – Napoli, 21 July 1895 * _ La traviata _ – Napoli, 25 August 1895 * _ Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor
_ – Cairo, 30 October 1895 * _La Gioconda _ – Cairo, 9 November 1895 * _ Manon Lescaut _ – Cairo, 15 November 1895 * _ I Capuleti e i Montecchi _ – Napoli, 7 December 1895 * _Malia_ ( Francesco Paolo Frontini ) – Trapani, 21 March 1896 * _ La sonnambula _ – Trapani, 25 March 1896 * _Mariedda_ (Bucceri ) – Napoli, 23 June 1896 * _ I puritani
I puritani
_ – Salerno, 10 September 1896 * _La Favorita _ – Salerno, 22 November 1896 * _A San Francisco_ (Sebastiani) – Salerno, 23 November 1896 * _ Carmen
_ – Salerno, 6 December 1896 * _Un Dramma in vendemmia_ (Fornari) – Napoli, 1 February 1897 * _Celeste_ (Marengo) – Napoli, 6 March 1897** * _Il Profeta Velato_ (Napolitano) – Salerno, 8 April 1897 * _ La bohème _ – Livorno, 14 August 1897 * _La Navarrese _ – Milano, 3 November 1897 * _Il Voto_ (Giordano) – Milano, 10 November 1897** * _L\'arlesiana _ – Milano, 27 November 1897** * _ Pagliacci _ – Milano, 31 December 1897 * _ La bohème _ (Leoncavallo) – Genova, 20 January 1898 * _The Pearl Fishers _ – Genova, 3 February 1898 * _Hedda_ (Leborne) – Milano, 2 April 1898** * _ Mefistofele _ – Fiume, 4 March 1898 * _Sapho _ (Massenet) – Trento, 3 June (?) 1898 * _Fedora _ – Milano, 17 November 1898** * _Iris _ – Buenos Aires, 22 June 1899 * _La regina di Saba _ (Goldmark) – Buenos Aires, 4 July 1899 * _Yupanki_ (Berutti)– Buenos Aires, 25 July 1899** * _ Aida
_ – St. Petersburg, 3 January 1900 * _ Un ballo in maschera
Un ballo in maschera
_ – St. Petersburg, 11 January 1900 * _ Maria di Rohan _ – St. Petersburg, 2 March 1900 * _ Manon _ – Buenos Aires, 28 July 1900 * _ Tosca _ – Treviso, 23 October 1900 * _ Le maschere _ (Mascagni) – Milano, 17 January 1901** * _L\'elisir d\'amore _ – Milano, 17 February 1901

_ Caruso's sketch of himself as Don José in Carmen
_, 1904

* _ Lohengrin _ – Buenos Aires, 7 July 1901 * _Germania _ – Milano, 11 March 1902** * _ Don Giovanni _ – London, 19 July 1902 * _ Adriana Lecouvreur _ – Milano, 6!November 1902** * _Lucrezia Borgia _ – Lisboa, 10 March 1903 * _ Les Huguenots
Les Huguenots
_ – New York, 3 February 1905 * _Martha _ – New York, 9 February 1906 * _ Madama Butterfly _ – London, 26 May 1906 * _L\'Africana _ – New York, 11 January 1907 * _ Andrea Chénier _ – London, 20 July 1907 * _ Il trovatore _ – New York, 26 February 1908 * _Armide _ – New York, 14 November 1910 * _ La fanciulla del West
La fanciulla del West
_ – New York, 10 December 1910** * _Julien _ – New York, 26 December 1914 * _Samson et Dalila _ – New York, 24 November 1916 * _ Lodoletta _ – Buenos Aires, 29 July 1917 * _ Le prophète _ – New York, 7 February 1918 * _L\'amore dei tre re _ – New York, 14 March 1918 * _ La forza del destino _ – New York, 15 November 1918 * _ La Juive
La Juive
_ – New York, 22 November 1919

Caruso also had a repertory of more than 500 songs. They ranged from classical compositions to traditional Italian melodies and popular tunes of the day, including a few English-language titles such as George M. Cohan 's " Over There ", Henry Geehl 's "For You Alone" and Arthur Sullivan 's The Lost Chord .


_ Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
as Lionel in Martha_ Main article: Enrico Caruso discography See also: Enrico Caruso compact disc discography

Caruso possessed a phonogenic voice which was "manly and powerful, yet sweet and lyrical", to quote the singer/author John Potter (see bibliography, below). He became one of the first major classical vocalists to make numerous recordings. Caruso and the disc phonograph , known in the United Kingdom as the gramophone, did much to promote each other in the first two decades of the 20th century. Many of Caruso's recordings have remained continuously available since their original issue around a century ago, and every one of his surviving discs (including unissued takes) has been re-mastered and re-released several times over the years.

Caruso's first recordings were arranged by recording pioneer Fred Gaisberg and cut on disc in three separate sessions in Milan
during April, November and December 1902. They were made with piano accompaniments for HMV
's forerunner, the Gramophone ">_ Caruso alongside his piano

* O soave fanciulla "O soave fanciulla" from Giacomo Puccini 's La bohème _, sung by Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
and Nellie Melba in 1907. "Recondita armonia" A 1908 recording of " Recondita armonia " from Giacomo Puccini 's _ Tosca _ O Mimì, tu più non torni A 1907 recording with Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
as Rodolfo and Antonio Scotti as Marcello of "O Mimì, tu più non torni" from Act IV of Giacomo Puccini 's _La bohème _. Vesti La Giubba 17 March 1907, recording of 'Vesti La Giubba' from Pagliacci La donna è mobile Caruso sings La donna è mobile from Verdi's Rigoletto , 1908 _Faust_: "O merveille! ... A moi les plaisirs" The Act I finale of Charles Gounod 's _Faust _ (1859), sung by Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
and Marcel Journet in 1910. "Una furtiva lagrima" " Una furtiva lagrima " from Gaetano Donizetti 's _L\'elisir d\'amore _ Sung in 1911 for the Victor Talking Machine Company . Manon! avez-vous peur ... On l\'appelle Manon 1912 recording of Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
and Geraldine Farrar performing a scene from Act II of Jules Massenet 's _ Manon _. Ave Maria Caruso sings _Ave Maria_ by Percival Benedict Kahn , Mischa Elman on violin (1913) "Sì, pel ciel marmoreo giuro!" The 1914 recording by Titta Ruffo and Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
of Giuseppe Verdi 's _ Otello _ "È scherzo od è follia" Enrico Caruso, Frieda Hempel , Maria Duchêne, Andrés De Segurola and Léon Rothier performing "È scherzo od è Follia" from Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
's _Un ballo in maschera _ in 1914 O souverain, O juge, O père! 1916 recording of Rodrigue's Act III aria in Jules Massenet 's _Le Cid _ (1885). "Ombra mai fu" " Ombra mai fu " (and the introductory recitative ) from George Frideric Handel 's _ Serse _, recorded in 1920. No Pagliaccio non son Recording of 'No Pagliaccio non son' from Pagliacci (1910). La Partida (1914) * _Problems listening to the files? See media help ._


* Birth of public radio broadcasting * Caruso Sauce * _ The Young Caruso _ * _ The Great Caruso _


* ^ Key, Pierre, _Enrico Caruso: A Biography_, Vienna House, 1972. * ^ Robinson, Francis, _Caruso: His Life in Pictures_, Brahmhall, 1957. * ^ Caruso, Enrico Jr. & Farkas, Andrew, _Enrico Caruso: My Father and My Family_, Amadeus Press, 1990, p.20. * ^ Caruso, Enrico Jr. & Farkas, Andrew, _Enrico Caruso, My Father and My Family_, Amadeus Press, 1990. * ^ Dorothy Caruso, _Enrico Caruso, His Life and Death_, p. 257. * ^ Key and Zirato, p. 16. * ^ Simonelli, Pasquale (2012), Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
Unedited Notes, Charleston, SC.: S.E.A.O. Inc. http://amzn.com/0615714900 * ^ " Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
in Scotland". Opera
Scotland. 1909-09-03. Retrieved 2012-04-04. * ^ Bronson, William, "The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned," p. 50 * ^ William Bronson, _The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned_ * ^ An account of the earthquake by Caruso's lifelong friend, the baritone Antonio Scotti , including Scotti's observations of Caruso's behavior, is found in Pierre Key's biography of Caruso, _Enrico Caruso: A Biography_ free online at Internet Archive, pp. 228–29. * ^ David Suisman, "Welcome to the Monkey House: Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
and the First Celebrity Trial of the Twentieth Century". In _The Believer_, June 2004, webpage accessed 2009-05-14. * ^ Scott 1991 , p. 181. * ^ Scott 1991 , p. 168. * ^ Caruso Love Letters Reveal Passion Behind a Life of Epic Operatic Drama 2005 article describing the discovery of voluminous correspondence between Caruso and Giachetti. * ^ Orlando Barone, Caruso Mysteries, article written for the Opera-L discussion list 1996-02-21, page found 2010-10-29. * ^ Caruso Jr., p. 338. * ^ Wah Keung Chan, The Voice of Caruso from _La Scena Musicale_ Vol. 7, No. 7 online, page found 2010-11-06. * ^ Caruso Jr. covers his father's relationship with Giachetti in great detail. Jackson (1973) and Scott (1988) also contain extensive information about the liaison. * ^ Gloria Caruso Murray, 79, Artist and Tenor\'s Daughter, William H. Honan, _ The New York Times _, December 18, 1999 * ^ Dorothy Caruso, _Enrico Caruso: His Life and Death_. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1945. Mrs, Caruso enumerated these facts partly to satisfy public curiosity and partly to dispel myths and rumors about her husband. * ^ Pierre Key, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_ written with Caruso's personal assistant Bruno Zirato . Little, Brown and Co, Boston, 1922. * ^ Stanley Jackson, _Caruso_. Stein see also http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,728911,00.html * ^ John Potter, Almost as Good as Presley: Caruso the Pop Idol. In _Public Domain Review_, online magazine, 2012-02-13, page found 2012-10-18. * ^ _Enrico Caruso: The Voice of the Century_ (A & E Biography, 1998). * ^ Key, Pierre and Bruno Zirato, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_. Little Brown and Co., 1922. * ^ Stanley Jackson, _Caruso_. Stein and Day, 1973. * ^ A.J. Millard, _America On Record_ (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 59–60. * ^ " Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
(tenor)". Gramophone. Retrieved 11 April 2012. * ^ Key, Pierre and Bruno Zirato, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_. Little Brown and Co., 1922. p. 145 * ^ Scott catalog # 2250. * ^ " Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
(tenor)". Gramophone. Retrieved 11 April 2012.


* Caruso, Dorothy, and Goddard, Torrance _Wings of Song: The Story of Caruso_, (Milton, Balch & Company, New York, 1928). * Caruso, Dorothy, _Enrico Caruso: His Life and Death_, with a discography by Jack Caidin (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1945). * Caruso, Enrico, Jr., and Farkas, Andrew, _Enrico Caruso: My Father and My Family_, with a discography by William Moran and a chronology by Tom Kaufman (Amadeus Press, Portland, 1990). * Jackson, Stanley, _Caruso_ (Stein and Day, New York, 1972). * Key, P.V.R. and Zirato, B, _Enrico Caruso, a Biography_ (Little, Brown and Co, Boston, 1922).

* Scott, Michael, _The Great Caruso_ (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1988).

* Scott, Michael (1991), _The Great Caruso_, Random House, ISBN 978-0-517-06766-6


* Douglas, Nigel, _Legendary Voices_ (Andre Deutsch, London, 1992). * Gargano, Pietro and Cesarini, Gianni, _Caruso, Vita e arte di un grande cantante_ (Longanesi, 1990). * Gargano, Pietro, _Una vita una leggenda_ (Editoriale Giorgio Mondadori, 1997). * Griffith, Hugh, CD liner notes for _The Complete Recordings of Enrico Caruso_, volumes 1 che portò Caruso, negli US, sezione B – supplemento illustrato della domenica, New York, 27 luglio 1986. * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Caruso in Concert" (in "Étude" n°46, "Hommage à Marguerite-Marie Dubois", January–February–March–April 2010, pp. 12–37, Journal of Association internationale de chant lyrique "Titta Ruffo", Marseilles, France, edited by Professor Jean-Pierre Mouchon, M.A., PhD, Mus.D., D.Li). * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Chronologie de la carrière artistique du ténor Enrico Caruso" (Académie Régionale de Chant Lyrique, Marseilles, France, 1992, 423 p., ill.). * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. 1873–1921. Sa vie et sa voix. Étude psycho-physiologique, physique, phonétique et esthétique", foreword by Dr.Édouard-Jean Garde (Académie régionale de chant lyrique, Marseille, France, 1966, 106 p. ill.). * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. Deuxième partie. (La voix et l'art, les enregistrements). Étude physique, phonétique, linguistique et esthétique." Volume III (Association internationale de chant lyrique TITTA RUFFO, 2012, 433 pp. ill. ISBN 2-909366-18-9 ). * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. His Life and Voice" (Éditions Ophrys, Gap, France, 1974, 77 p. ill.). * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. L'homme et l'artiste", two volumes (Terra Beata, Société littéraire et historique), 45, bd. Notre-Dame, 13006—Marseille, France, 2011, 1359 pp., ill. http://web.archive.org/web/20130515231250/http://enrico-caruso.dyndns.org * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Enrico Caruso. L'homme et l'artiste, 4 vol.: Première partie. L'homme (Étude psycho-physiologique et historique), pp. 1–653 bis, ill.; deuxième partie. L'artiste (étude physique, phonétique, linguistique et esthétique), pp. 654–975 bis, bibliographie critique, index des représentations données par Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
entre 1895 et 1920, index de ses concerts et récitals, pp. 976–1605 (Paris-Sorbonne 1978, published by Atelier national de reproduction des thèses , Université de Lille III, 9, rue Auguste Angellier, 59046 Lille, France in three volumes, and by Didier-Érudition, Paris, in microfiches). * Mouchon, Jean-Pierre, "Particularités physiques et phonétiques de la voix enregistrée de Caruso", foreword by Prof.André Appaix (in Le Sud Médical et Chirurgical, 99e année, n°2509,Marseille, France, 31 octobre 1964, pp. 11812–11829). * Pleasants, Henry, _The Great Singers_ (Macmillan Publishing, London, 1983). * Potter, John, _Tenor: History of a Voice_ (Yale University Press, New Haven a biography (1922) complete text * Recordings of Caruso Part 1, Part 2 Audio files at Internet Archive * Video of Caruso at 1908 opening of Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires * Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
at Find a Grave * Simonelli, Pasquale (2012), Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
Unedited Notes, Charleston, SC.: S.E.A.O. Inc. http://amzn.com/0615714900


* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 2558169 * LCCN : n50034771 * ISNI : 0000 0000 8082 0236 * GND : 118667335 * SELIBR : 208790 * SUDOC : 028663640 * BNF : cb124060028 (data) * ULAN : 500069585 * MusicBrainz
: e4d389bb-fe8f-472d-8ffd-c2cb02a7b2b7 * NLA : 35026364 * NDL : 00620464 * NKC : jn20000601146 * ICCU : ITICCUPALV9434 * BNE : XX871137 * IATH : w6sx6bd2

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