The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to
speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval
origin, when they were known in
Old English as the Angelcynn ("family
of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the
Germanic peoples who migrated to
Great Britain around the 5th century
England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the
majority of people living there are British citizens.
Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples
— the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes
that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans,
including Angles, Saxons,
Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as
the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become
England (from the
Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes,
other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of
succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English
customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British
customs and identity in general.
English people have recent forebears from other parts of
the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent
immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth.
English people are the source of the English language, the
Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports
such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis.
These and other English cultural characteristics have spread
worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
1 English nationality
1.1 Relationship to Britishness
1.2 Historical origins and identity
2 History of English people
2.1 Early Middle Ages
Vikings and the Danelaw
2.3 English unification
2.4 Norman and Angevin rule
2.5 In the United Kingdom
2.6 Immigration and assimilation
2.7 Current national and political identity
3 English diaspora
3.1 United States
3.4 Other communities
5 See also
8 External links
The concept of an 'English nation' (as opposed to a British one) has
become increasingly popular after the devolution process in Scotland,
Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having
semi-independent political and legal systems. Although
has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English
self-consciousness. This is linked to the expressions of national
self-awareness of the other British nations of
Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new
devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom –
and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing
distance between the end of the
British Empire and the
Many recent immigrants to
England have assumed a solely British
identity, while others have developed dual or mixed
identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from
ethnic minorities in
England is complicated by most non-white people
England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004
Annual Population Survey, the
Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics compared
the ethnic identities of
British people with their perceived national
identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England
described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of
non-white people called themselves "British".
Relationship to Britishness
It is unclear how many
British people consider themselves English. In
the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity,
but while there were tick boxes for 'Irish' and for 'Scottish', there
were none for 'English', or 'Welsh', who were subsumed into the
general heading 'White British'. Following complaints about this,
the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their
English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other
identity." Another complication in defining the English is a
common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used
interchangeably, especially overseas. In his study of English
Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which
people say "English, I mean British". He notes that this slip is
normally made only by the English themselves and by foreigners:
"Non-English members of the
United Kingdom rarely say 'British' when
they mean 'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a
sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is also
"problematic for the English [...] when it comes to conceiving of
their national identity. It tells of the difficulty that most English
people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from
the other inhabitants of the British Isles".
In 1965, the historian
A. J. P. Taylor
A. J. P. Taylor wrote,
"When the Oxford History of
England was launched a generation ago,
"England" was still an all-embracing word. It meant indiscriminately
England and Wales; Great Britain; the United Kingdom; and even the
British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a
Great Power and
indeed continue to do so. Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was
not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" [...]
Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a
geographic area brings protests, especially from the Scotch."
However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out,
in his book The Isles (1999),
Norman Davies lists numerous examples in
history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice
In December 2010,
Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use
of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than
growing, had existed all along but has recently been unmasked from
behind a veneer of Britishness.
Historical origins and identity
Main article: Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
There is a debate between historians, geneticists and others about the
extent to which historical changes in the culture of the British Isles
corresponds to historical migration events of Germanic tribes, and to
the extent of these migrations. The traditional view of historians,
based on contemporary accounts and linguistic evidence, was that the
English are primarily descended from the Anglo-Saxons, the term used
to describe the various
Germanic tribes that migrated to the island of
Great Britain following the end of the Roman occupation of Britain,
with assimilation of later migrants such as the Norse
This belief is now regarded by many historians as incorrect, on the
basis of more recent genetic and archaeological research. Based on a
re-estimation of the number of settlers, some have taken the view that
it is highly unlikely that the British Celtic-speaking population was
substantially displaced by the Anglo-
Saxons and that instead a process
of acculturation took place, with an Anglo-Saxon ruling elite imposing
their culture on the local populations. Research into the
genetic history of the British Isles, conducted by Stephen Oppenheimer
in 2007 appears to support this theory, not showing a clear dividing
line between the English and their 'Celtic' neighbours but a gradual
clinal change from west coast Britain to east coast Britain,
originating from upper palaeolithic and Mesolithic era variations in a
pre-Indo-European population, which Oppenheimer argues form the basis
of the modern population of the
British Isles rather than Germanic
tribes or Celts. More recent genetic studies of ancient
British DNA have refuted the hypothesis that the Anglo-Saxon invaders
formed an elite class largely separate from the indigenous population,
finding that samples from culturally Anglo-Saxon graveyards contained
individuals who were more Celtic, suggesting a high level of
intermingling between the Anglo-
Saxons and the native Britons.
The 2016 study authored by Stephan Schiffels et al. found the
Saxons to have significantly impacted the genetic composition of
the British Isles, so that on average the contemporary East English
population derives 38 percent of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon
migrations, with this proportion varying in other parts of Britain
that saw less of the migration or the migration of different Germanic
tribes. The remaining portion of English DNA is primarily French,
introduced in a migration after the end of the Ice Age.[citation
The theory that the
English people are primarily descended from
Saxons is based largely on the dramatic cultural changes in
Britain following their migration. The Celtic language was almost
totally displaced by Anglo-Saxon and there was a complete shift
towards North-West German farming methods and pottery styles. The
Brythonic languages such as Cornish, Cumbric and Welsh, held on for
several centuries in parts of western
England such as Cornwall, Devon,
Cumbria and a part of Lancashire.
Many historians, while making allowance for the limited survival of
the Britons in England, hold to the view that there was significant
displacement of the indigenous population after the Germanic
History of English people
Main article: History of England
Early Middle Ages
Further information: Anglo-Saxons, Roman Britain, Sub-Roman Britain,
Ancient Britons, Romano-Britons
"The Arrival of the First Ancestors of Englishmen out of
Britain": a fanciful image of the Anglo-Saxon migration, an event
central to the English national myth. From A Restitution of Decayed
Richard Verstegan (1605)
The first people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, a group
of closely related
Germanic tribes that began migrating to eastern and
southern Great Britain, from southern
Denmark and northern Germany, in
the 5th century AD, after the
Romans had withdrawn from Britain. The
Saxons gave their name to
England (Engla land, meaning "Land of
the Angles") and to the English.
A reconstruction of an Anglo-Saxon burial chamber at Sutton Hoo, East
Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by
people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British'—the descendants
of the native Brythonic-speaking population that lived in the area of
Britain under Roman rule during the 1st–5th centuries AD. The
multi-ethnic nature of the
Roman Empire meant that small numbers of
other peoples may have also been present in
England before the
Saxons arrived. There is archaeological evidence, for example,
of an early North African presence in a Roman garrison at Aballava,
now Burgh-by-Sands, in Cumbria: a 4th-century inscription says that
the Roman military unit Numerus Maurorum Aurelianorum ("unit of
Aurelian Moors") from Mauretania (Morocco) was stationed there.
Roman Empire incorporated peoples from far and wide,
genetic studies suggest the
Romans did not significantly mix into the
The exact nature of the arrival of the Anglo-
Saxons and their
relationship with the
Romano-British is a matter of debate.
Traditionally, it was believed that a mass invasion by various
Anglo-Saxon tribes largely displaced the indigenous British population
in southern and eastern
Great Britain (modern-day
England with the
exception of Cornwall). This was supported by the writings of Gildas,
the only contemporary historical account of the period, describing
slaughter and starvation of native Britons by invading tribes
(aduentus Saxonum). Furthermore, the
English language contains no
more than a handful of words borrowed from Brythonic sources.
However, this view has been re-evaluated by some archaeologists and
historians since the 1960s; and more recently supported by genetic
studies, which see only minimal evidence for mass displacement.
Francis Pryor has stated that he "can't see any evidence
for bona fide mass migrations after the Neolithic."
While the historian
Malcolm Todd writes "It is much more likely that a
large proportion of the British population remained in place and was
progressively dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases
marrying into it and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very
dubious, early lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. But how we identify the
surviving Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement,
either archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest
problems of early English history."
In a survey of the genes of British and Irish men, even those British
regions that were most genetically similar to (Germanic speaking)
continental regions were still more genetically British than
continental: "When included in the PC analysis, the
Frisians were more
'Continental' than any of the British samples, although they were
somewhat closer to the British ones than the North German/Denmark
sample. For example, the part of mainland Britain that has the most
Continental input is Central England, but even here the AMH+1
frequency, not below 44% (Southwell), is higher than the 35% observed
in the Frisians. These results demonstrate that even with the choice
Frisians as a source for the Anglo-Saxons, there is a clear
indication of a continuing indigenous component in the English
paternal genetic makeup."
In 2016, through the investigation of burials using ancient DNA
techniques, researchers found evidence of intermarriage in the
earliest phase of Anglo-Saxon settlement. By studying rare mutations
and employing whole genome sequencing, it was claimed that the
continental and insular origins of the ancient remains could be
discriminated, and it was calculated that 25–40% of the ancestry of
the modern English is attributable to continental 'Anglo-Saxon'
Vikings and the Danelaw
Vikings and Danelaw
From about 800 AD waves of Danish Viking assaults on the coastlines of
British Isles were gradually followed by a succession of Danish
settlers in England. At first, the
Vikings were very much considered a
separate people from the English. This separation was enshrined when
Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great signed the
Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum
Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum to establish
the Danelaw, a division of
England between English and Danish rule,
with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England.
However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories
against the Danes, incorporating much of the
Danelaw into the nascent
kingdom of England. Danish invasions continued into the 11th century,
and there were both English and Danish kings in the period following
the unification of
England (for example, Æthelred II (978–1013 and
1014–1016) was English but Cnut (1016–1035) was Danish).
Gradually, the Danes in
England came to be seen as 'English'. They had
a noticeable impact on the English language: many English words, such
as anger, ball, egg, got, knife, take, and they, are of Old Norse
origin, and place names that end in -thwaite and -by are
Scandinavian in origin.
Treaty of Wedmore
Treaty of Wedmore and Treaty of Alfred and
Great Britain in AD 600 after the Anglo-Saxon settlement,
showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.
The English population was not politically unified until the 10th
century. Before then, it consisted of a number of petty kingdoms which
gradually coalesced into a
Heptarchy of seven powerful states, the
most powerful of which were
Mercia and Wessex. The English nation
state began to form when the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against
Danish Viking invasions, which began around 800 AD. Over the following
century and a half
England was for the most part a politically unified
entity, and remained permanently so after 959.
The nation of
England was formed in 937 by
the Battle of Brunanburh, as
Wessex grew from a relatively
small kingdom in the South West to become the founder of the Kingdom
of the English, incorporating all Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and the
Norman and Angevin rule
Further information: Normans
King Harold II
King Harold II of
England (right) at the Norman court, from the Bayeux
The Norman conquest of
England during 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and
Danish rule of
England to an end, as the new French speaking Norman
elite almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and
church leaders. After the conquest, "English" normally included all
natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian or
Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders, who
were regarded as "Norman" even if born in England, for a generation or
two after the Conquest. The Norman dynasty ruled
England for 87
years until the death of King Stephen in 1154, when the succession
passed to Henry II,
House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet (based in France), and
England became part of the
Angevin Empire until 1399.
Various contemporary sources suggest that within 50 years of the
invasion most of the
Normans outside the royal court had switched to
English, with Anglo-Norman remaining the prestige language of
government and law largely out of social inertia. For example, Orderic
Vitalis, a historian born in 1075 and the son of a Norman knight, said
that he learned French only as a second language. Anglo-Norman
continued to be used by the Plantagenet kings until Edward I came to
the throne. Over time the
English language became more important
even in the court, and the
Normans were gradually assimilated, until,
by the 14th century, both rulers and subjects regarded themselves as
English and spoke the English language.
Despite the assimilation of the Normans, the distinction between
'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it
had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase
Presentment of Englishry (a rule by which a hundred had to prove an
unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an
Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine).
This law was abolished in 1340.
In the United Kingdom
Main article: History of the formation of the United Kingdom
St George's Cross
St Andrew's Cross
St Patrick's Cross
Since the 18th century,
England has been one part of a wider political
entity covering all or part of the British Isles, which today is
called the United Kingdom.
Wales was annexed by
England by the Laws in
Wales Acts 1535–1542, which incorporated
Wales into the English
state. A new British identity was subsequently developed when
James VI of
Scotland became James I of
England as well, and expressed
the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain.
England formed a union with
Scotland by passing an Act of
Union in March 1707 that ratified the Treaty of Union. The Parliament
Scotland had previously passed its own Act of Union, so the Kingdom
Great Britain was born on 1 May 1707. In 1801, another Act of Union
formed a union between the Kingdom of
Great Britain and the Kingdom of
Ireland, creating the
United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland. In
1922, about two-thirds of the Irish population (those who lived in 26
of the 32 counties of Ireland), left the
United Kingdom to form the
Irish Free State. The remainder became the
United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland, although this name was not introduced
until 1927, after some years in which the term "United Kingdom" had
been little used.
Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in
population and in political weight. As a consequence, notions of
'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. At the same
time, after the Union of 1707, the English, along with the other
peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of
themselves as British rather than to identify themselves with the
Immigration and assimilation
See also: Historical immigration to
Great Britain and Immigration to
United Kingdom (1922-present day)
England has been the destination of varied numbers of migrants at
different periods from the 17th century onwards. While some members of
these groups seek to practise a form of pluralism, attempting to
maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated and
intermarried with the English. Since Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of
Jews in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish immigration from
Russia in the 19th century and from
Germany in the 20th.
After the French king Louis XIV declared
Protestantism illegal in 1685
in the Edict of Fontainebleau, an estimated 50,000 Protestant
Huguenots fled to England. Due to sustained and sometimes mass
emigration of the Irish, current estimates indicate that around 6
million people in the UK have at least one grandparent born in the
Republic of Ireland.
There has been a black presence in
England since the 16th century due
to the slave trade, and an Indian presence since at least the 17th
century because of the East India Company and British Raj.
Black and Asian populations have grown throughout the UK generally, as
immigration from the
British Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of
Nations was encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war
rebuilding. However, these groups are often still considered to be
ethnic minorities and research has shown that black and Asian people
in the UK are more likely to identify as British rather than with one
of the state's four constituent nations, including England.
Current national and political identity
The 1990s witnessed a resurgence of English national identity.
Survey data shows a rise in the number of people in
their national identity as English and a fall in the number describing
themselves as British. Today, black and minority ethnic people of
England still generally identify as British rather than English to a
greater extent than their white counterparts; however, groups such
Campaign for an English Parliament (CEP) suggest the emergence
of a broader civic and multi-ethnic English nationhood.[citation
needed] Scholars and journalists have noted a rise in English
self-consciousness, with increased use of the English flag,
particularly at football matches where the
Union flag was previously
more commonly flown by fans.
This perceived rise in English self-consciousness has generally been
attributed to the devolution in the late 1990s of some powers to the
Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. In policy
areas for which the devolved administrations in Scotland,
Northern Ireland have responsibility, the UK Parliament votes on laws
that consequently only apply to England. Because the Westminster
Parliament is composed of MPs from throughout the United Kingdom, this
has given rise to the "West Lothian question", a reference to the
situation in which MPs representing constituencies outside
vote on matters affecting only England, but MPs cannot vote on the
same matters in relation to the other parts of the UK.
Consequently, groups such as the CEP have called for the creation of a
devolved English Parliament, claiming that there is now a
discriminatory democratic deficit against the English. The
establishment of an English parliament has also been backed by a
number of Scottish and Welsh nationalists. Writer Paul Johnson
has suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only
demonstrated interest in their ethnic self-definition when they were
John Curtice argues that "In the early years of devolution...there was
little sign" of an English backlash against devolution for Scotland
and Wales, but that more recently survey data shows tentative signs of
"a form of English nationalism...beginning to emerge among the general
public". Michael Kenny,
Richard English and Richard Hayton,
meanwhile, argue that the resurgence in
English nationalism predates
devolution, being observable in the early 1990s, but that this
resurgence does not necessarily have negative implications for the
perception of the UK as a political union. Others question whether
devolution has led to a rise in
English national identity at all,
arguing that survey data fails to portray the complex nature of
national identities, with many people considering themselves both
English and British.
Recent surveys of public opinion on the establishment of an English
parliament have given widely varying conclusions. In the first five
years of devolution for
Scotland and Wales, support in
England for the
establishment of an English parliament was low at between 16 and 19%,
according to successive British Social Attitudes Surveys. A
report, also based on the British Social Attitudes Survey, published
in December 2010 suggests that only 29% of people in
the establishment of an English parliament, though this figure had
risen from 17% in 2007. One 2007 poll carried out for BBC
Newsnight, however, found that 61 per cent would support such a
parliament being established.
Krishan Kumar notes that support for
measures to ensure that only English MPs can vote on legislation that
applies only to
England is generally higher than that for the
establishment of an English parliament, although support for both
varies depending on the timing of the opinion poll and the wording of
the question. Electoral support for English nationalist parties is
also low, even though there is public support for many of the policies
they espouse. The
English Democrats gained just 64,826 votes in
the 2010 UK general election, accounting for 0.3 per cent of all votes
cast in England. Kumar argued in 2010 that "despite devolution and
occasional bursts of
English nationalism – more an expression of
exasperation with the Scots or Northern Irish – the English remain
on the whole satisfied with current constitutional arrangements".
Number of the English diaspora
% of the local population
United States ACS
Further information: English diaspora
From the earliest times
English people have left
England to settle in
other parts of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but it is not
possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have
historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as
English. However, the census does record place of birth, revealing
that 8.08% of Scotland's population, 3.66% of the population of
Northern Ireland and 20% of the Welsh population were born in
England. Similarly, the census of the
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland does not
collect information on ethnicity, but it does record that there are
over 200,000 people living in
Ireland who were born in
English ethnic descent and emigrant communities are found primarily in
the Western World, and in some places, settled in significant numbers.
Substantial populations descended from English colonists and
immigrants exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa
and New Zealand.
George Washington, the first president of the United States, had
Main article: English American
In the 2013 American Community Survey, English
Americans were (7.7%)
of the total
United States population behind the German
(14.6%) and Irish
Americans at (10.5%). However, demographers
regard this as a serious undercount, as the index of inconsistency is
high, and many, if not most, people from English stock have a tendency
(since the introduction of a new 'American' category in the 2000
census) to identify as simply Americans or if of mixed
European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated
In the 2000
United States Census, 24,509,692
Americans described their
ancestry as wholly or partly English. In addition, 1,035,133 recorded
In the 1980
United States Census, over 49 million (49,598,035)
Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the
total population and largest reported group which, even today, would
make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. Six
out of the ten most common surnames in the
United States are of
English origin,[not in citation given] the other four are of Welsh and
Spanish origin. Scots-Irish
Americans are descendants of Lowland
Scots and Northern English (specifically: County Durham, Cumberland,
Northumberland and Westmorland) settlers who colonised
Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.
Americans of English heritage are often seen, and identify, as simply
"American" due to the many historic cultural ties between
the U.S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to
ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early
establishment of English settlements; as well as to non-English groups
having emigrated in order to establish significant communities.
Main article: English Canadian
In the 2006 Canadian Census, 'English' was the most common ethnic
origin (ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural group(s) to
which the respondent's ancestors belong) recorded by respondents;
6,570,015 people described themselves as wholly or partly English, 16%
of the population. On the other hand, people identifying as
Canadian but not English may have previously identified as English
before the option of identifying as Canadian was available.
Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin, 1st and 2nd Prime Minister of
Australia both had English parents.
Main article: English Australian
From the beginning of the colonial era until the mid-20th century, the
vast majority of settlers to
Australia were from the British Isles,
with the English being the dominant group, followed by the Irish and
Scottish. Among the leading ancestries, increases in Australian, Irish
and German ancestries and decreases in English, Scottish and Welsh
ancestries appear to reflect such shifts in perception or reporting.
These reporting shifts at least partly resulted from changes in the
design of the census question, in particular the introduction of a
tick box format in 2001.
Until 1859, 2.2 million (73%) of the free settlers who immigrated were
Australians of English descent, are both the single largest ethnic
Australia and the largest 'ancestry' identity in the
Australian Census. In the 2011 census, 7.2 million or 36.1% of
respondents identified as "English" or a combination including
English, such as English-Australian. The census also documented
910,000 residents of
Australia as being born in England.
Australians have more often come from the south than the north
Since the 1980s there have been increasingly large numbers of English
people, estimated at over 3 million, permanently or semi-permanently
living in Spain and France, drawn there by the climate and cheaper
house prices.[not in citation given]
Significant numbers of people with at least some English ancestry also
live in New Zealand,
South Africa and South America.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September
Main article: Culture of England
The culture of
England is sometimes difficult to separate clearly from
the culture of the United Kingdom, so influential has English
culture been on the cultures of the
British Isles and, on the other
hand, given the extent to which other cultures have influenced life in
List of English people
Old English (Ireland)
Culture of England
Genetic history of Europe
European ethnic groups
Immigration to the
United Kingdom (1922-present day)
England (historical estimates)
100% English (
Channel 4 TV programme, 2006)
Social history of the
United Kingdom (1945–present)
Early Modern English
British diaspora in Africa
New Zealand European
^ The 2011
Wales census reports that in
England and Wales
32.4 million people associated themselves with an English identity
alone and 37.6 million identified themselves with an English identity
either on its own or combined with other identities, being 57.7% and
67.1% respectively of the population of
England and Wales.
^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results".
Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
^ (Ancestry) The 2011 Australian Census reports 7,238,500 people of
^ (Ethnic origin) The
2006 Canadian Census gives 1,367,125 respondents
stating their ethnic origin as English as a single response, and
5,202,890 including multiple responses, giving a combined total of
^ Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South
Africa. 2012. p. 26. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from
the original on 13 May 2015. The number of people who described
themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their
first language as English in South Africa's 2011 Census was 1,603,575.
The total white population with a first language specified was
4,461,409 and the total population was 51,770,560.
^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006
New Zealand census Archived 19 February
2008 at the Wayback Machine. reports 44,202 people (based on
pre-assigned ethnic categories) stating they belong to the English
ethnic group. The 1996 census used a different question Archived 19
February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. to both the 1991 and the 2001
censuses, which had "a tendency for respondents to answer the 1996
question on the basis of ancestry (or descent) rather than 'ethnicity'
(or cultural affiliation)" and reported 281,895 people with English
origins; See also the figures for '
New Zealand European'.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 8 July
^ "Act of Union 1707". parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 21
September 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
^ Association, The Football. "The website for the English football
association, the Emirates FA Cup and the
England football team".
^ Kumar 2003, pp. 262–290
^ Kumar 2003, pp. 1–18.
English nationalism 'threat to UK', BBC, Sunday, 9 January 2000
^ The English question Handle with care, the Economist 1 November 2007
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Making of English Identity by Krishnan Kumar
Expert Links: English Family History and Genealogy Useful for tracking