English indefinite article
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The articles in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
are the definite article ''
the ''The'' () is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers. It is the definite article in English. ''The'' is the m ...

the
'' and the indefinite articles ''a'' and ''an''. The definite article is used when the speaker believes that the listener knows the identity of the noun's
referent A referent () is a person or thing to which a name – a linguistics, linguistic Phrase, expression or other symbol – reference, refers. For example, in the sentence ''Mary saw me'', the referent of the word ''Mary'' is the particular person calle ...
(because it is obvious, because it is common knowledge, or because it was mentioned in the same sentence or an earlier sentence). The indefinite article is used when the speaker believes that the listener does not have to be told the identity of the referent. No article is used in some
noun phrase A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase In everyday speech, a phrase is any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is synonymous with expression. In Linguistics#Analysis, linguistic analysis, a phrase i ...
s.
English grammar English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ev ...
requires that, in most cases, a
singular Singular may refer to: * Singular, the grammatical number In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verb agreement (linguistics), agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", ...
, countable
noun A noun () is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Example nouns for: * Organism, Living creatures (including people, alive, de ...

noun
phrase start with a
determiner A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practic ...
. For example, ''I have a box'' is OK, but *''I have box'' is not. The most common determiners are the articles ''the'' and ''a''(''n''), which specify the presence or absence of
definiteness In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
of the noun. Other possible determiners include words like ''this'', ''my'', ''each'' and ''many''. There are also cases where no determiner is required, as in the sentence ''John likes fast cars'', where neither ''John'' nor ''fast cars'' includes a determiner. The definite article ''the'' is used when the referent of the noun phrase is assumed to be unique or known from the context. For example, In the sentence ''The boy with glasses was looking at the moon'', it is assumed that in the context the reference can only be to one boy and one moon. However, the definite article is ''not'' used: *with generic nouns (
plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phr ...

plural
or
uncountable In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
): ''cars have accelerators'', ''happiness is contagious'', referring to cars in general and happiness in general (compare ''the happiness I felt yesterday'', specifying particular happiness); *with most
proper name A proper noun is a noun A noun (from Latin ''nōmen'', literally ''name'') is a word that functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Exampl ...
s: ''John'', ''France'', ''London'', etc. The indefinite article ''a'' (before a
consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of th ...
sound) or ''an'' (before a
vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel ...

vowel
sound) is used only with
singular Singular may refer to: * Singular, the grammatical number In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verb agreement (linguistics), agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", ...
,
countable In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
nouns. It indicates that the referent of the noun phrase is one unspecified member of a class. For example, the sentence ''An ugly man was smoking a pipe'' does not specify the identity of the ugly man or pipe. When referring to a particular date, the definite article ''the'' is typically used. *''He was born on the 10th of May.'' However, when referring to a day of the week, the indefinite article 'a' is used. *''He was born on a Thursday.'' No article is used with plural or uncountable nouns when the referent is indefinite (just as in the generic definite case described above). However, in such situations, the determiner ''some'' is often added (or ''any'' in negative contexts and in many questions). For example: *''There are apples in the kitchen'' or ''There are some apples in the kitchen''; *''We do not have information'' or ''We do not have any information''; *''Would you like tea?'' or ''Would you like some tea?'' and ''Would you like any tea?'' or ''Would you like some good tea?'' Additionally, articles are not normally used: * in noun phrases that contain other determiners (''my house'', ''this cat'', ''America's history''), although one can combine articles with certain other determiners, as in ''the many issues'', ''such a child'' (see ). * with pronouns (''he'', ''nobody''), although again certain combinations are possible (as ''the one'', ''the many'', ''the few''). * preceding noun phrases consisting of a
clause In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the ...
or
infinitive phraseInfinitive ( abbreviated ) is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of li ...
(''what you've done is very good'', ''to surrender is to die''). If it is required to be concise, e.g. in
headline The headline or heading is the text indicating the nature of the article below it. The large type ''front page headline'' did not come into use until the late 19th century when increased competition between newspapers led to the use of attention-g ...

headline
s, signs, labels, and notes, articles are often omitted along with certain other
function word In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ph ...
s. For example, rather than ''The mayor was attacked'', a newspaper headline might say just ''Mayor attacked''. For more information on article usage, see the sections and below. For more cases where no article is used, see
Zero article in EnglishZero-marking in English is the indication of a particular grammatical function by the absence of any morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. A morpheme is not necessarily the same as a word. The main difference between ...
.


Word order

In most cases, the article is the first word of its noun phrase, preceding all other adjectives and modifiers. * 'The little old red bag''''held'' 'a very big surprise'' There are a few exceptions, however: *Certain determiners, such as ''all'', ''both'', ''half'', ''double'', precede the definite article when used in combination (''all the team'', ''both the girls'', ''half the time'', ''double the amount''). *The determiner ''such'' and exclamative ''what'' precede the indefinite article (''such an idiot'', ''what a day!''). *Adjectives qualified by ''too'', ''so'', ''as'' and ''how'' generally precede the indefinite article: ''too great a loss'', ''so hard a problem'', ''as delicious an apple as I have ever tasted'', ''I know how pretty a girl she is''. *When adjectives are qualified by ''quite'' (particularly when it means "fairly"), the word ''quite'' (but not the adjective itself) often precedes the indefinite article: ''quite a long letter''. See also and Determiners and adjectives.


Definite article

The only
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of speech In traditional grammar, a part of spee ...
in English is the word ''
the ''The'' () is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers. It is the definite article in English. ''The'' is the m ...

the
'', denoting person(s) or thing(s) already mentioned, under discussion, implied, or otherwise presumed familiar to the listener or reader. ''The'' is the most commonly used word in the English language, accounting for 7% of all words used. "The" can be used with both singular and plural nouns, with nouns of any gender, and with nouns that start with any letter. This is different from many other languages which have different articles for different genders and/or numbers.


Abbreviations for "the" and "that"

Since "the" is one of the most frequently used words in English, at various times short abbreviations for it have been found: *Barred
thorn Thorne or Thorns may refer to: Botany * Thorns, spines, and prickles, sharp structures on plants * Thorn, quickthorn or common hawthorn (''Crataegus monogyna'') Places * Thorn, Netherlands * Thorn, German name of Toruń, Poland * Thorn, Bedfor ...
: the earliest abbreviation, it is used in manuscripts in the
Old English language Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has event ...
. It is the letter þ, with a bold horizontal stroke through the ascender, and it represents the word ''þæt'', meaning "the" or "that" (neuter nom. / acc.) *þͤ and þͭ (þ with a superscript ''e'' or ''t'') appear in
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent distinct variations and developments following ...
manuscripts for "þe" and "þat" respectively. *yͤ and yͭ are developed from ''þͤ'' and ''þͭ'' and appear in Early Modern manuscripts and in print (see ''Ye'' form below). Occasional proposals have been made by individuals for an abbreviation. In 1916, Legros & Grant included in their classic printers' handbook ''Typographical Printing-Surfaces'', a proposal for a letter similar to Ħ to represent "Th", thus abbreviating "the" to ħe. Why they did not propose reintroducing to the English language "''þ''", for which blocks were already available for use in Icelandic texts, or the ''yͤ'' form is unknown.


''Ye'' form

In Middle English, ''the'' (þe) was frequently abbreviated as a ''þ'' with a small ''e'' above it, similar to the abbreviation for ''that'', which was a ''þ'' with a small ''t'' above it. During the latter Middle English and
Early Modern English Early Modern English or Early New English (sometimes abbreviated EModE, EMnE, or EME) is the stage of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early ...
periods, the letter
thorn Thorne or Thorns may refer to: Botany * Thorns, spines, and prickles, sharp structures on plants * Thorn, quickthorn or common hawthorn (''Crataegus monogyna'') Places * Thorn, Netherlands * Thorn, German name of Toruń, Poland * Thorn, Bedfor ...
(þ) in its common script, or
cursive Cursive (also known as script, among other names) is any style of penmanship Penmanship is the technique of writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writin ...

cursive
, form came to resemble a ''y'' shape. As a result, the use of a ''y'' with an ''e'' above it () as an abbreviation became common. It can still be seen in reprints of the 1611 edition of the
King James Version of the Bible The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB), sometimes as the English version of 1611, or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβ ...
in places such as Romans 15:29 or in the
Mayflower Compact The Mayflower Compact, originally titled Agreement Between the Settlers of New Plymouth, was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from ...
. Historically, the article was never pronounced with a ''y'' sound even when it was so written.


Indefinite article

The
indefinite article Indefinite may refer to: * the opposite of definite in grammar ** indefinite article ** indefinite pronoun An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the ...
of English takes the two forms: ''a'' and ''an''. Semantically, they can be regarded as meaning "one", usually without emphasis. They can be used only with singular countable nouns; for the possible use of ''some'' (or ''any'') as an equivalent with plural and uncountable nouns, see Use of ''some'' below.


Distinction between ''a'' and ''an''

The form ''an'' is used before words starting with a vowel sound, regardless of whether the word begins with a vowel
letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
.How to Use Articles (a/an/the) – The OWL at Purdue
/ref> This avoids the (momentary silent pause) that would otherwise be required between ''a'' and a following vowel sound. Where the next word begins with a consonant sound, ''a'' is used. Examples: ''a box''; ''an apple''; ''an SSO'' (pronounced "es-es-oh"); an
MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital a ...
(pronounced "em-pee-three"); ''a
HEPA HEPA (, high-efficiency particulate air) filter, also known as high-efficiency particulate absorbing filter and high-efficiency particulate arrestance filter, is an efficiency Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting mat ...
filter'' (here, HEPA is an acronym, a series of letters pronounced as a word rather than as individual letters); ''an hour'' (the ''h'' is silent); ''a one-armed bandit'' (pronounced "won..."); ''an heir'' (pronounced "air"); ''an herb'' in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
(where the ''h'' is silent), but ''a herb'' in British English; "a unionized worker" but "an ionized particle". Before words beginning with /ju/, ''an'' was formerly widespread, e.g. ''an unicorn'', ''an eulogy'', but has largely been superseded by ''a'' since the 19th century. In older loan words of Latin or Greek provenance, initial ''h'' used to be silent in general, thus the use of ''an'' before such words was common and has survived to some extent to recent times even when the ''h'' has been restored in pronunciation. Some speakers and writers use ''an'' before a word beginning with the sound in an
unstressed In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
syllable: ''an historical novel'', ''an hotel''. However, this usage is now less common. Some dialects, particularly in England (such as
Cockney A Cockney is a certain type of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at ...
), silence many or all initial ''h'' sounds (
h-dropping H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound", . The phenomenon is common in many dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , " ...

h-dropping
), and so employ ''an'' in situations where it would not be used in the standard language, like ''an 'elmet'' (standard English: ''a helmet''). There used to be a distinction analogous to that between ''a'' and ''an'' for the possessive determiners ''my'' and ''thy'', which became ''mine'' and ''thine'' before a vowel, as in ''mine eyes''.


In other languages

Other more or less analogous cases in different languages include the
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic language historically spoken by Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciatio ...
articles "a" () and "an" () (used in essentially the same manner as the English ones), the
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
articles ''a'' and ''az'' (used the same way, except that they are definite articles; juncture loss, as described below, has occurred in that language too), and the privative ''a-'' and ''an-'' prefixes, meaning "not" or "without", in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
and
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
.


Pronunciation

Both ''a'' and ''an'' are usually pronounced with a
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis inc ...
: , . However, when stressed (which is rare in ordinary speech), they are normally pronounced respectively as (to rhyme with ''day'') and (to rhyme with ''pan''). See
Weak and strong forms in English Stress is a prominent feature of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leadi ...
.


Etymology

''An'' is the older form (related to ''one'', cognate to
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
''ein''; etc.).


Usage

The principles for use of the indefinite article are given above under . In addition to serving as an article, ''a'' and ''an'' are also used to express a proportional relationship, such as "a dollar a day" or "$150 an ounce" or "A sweet a day helps you work, rest and play", although historically this use of "a" and "an" does not come from the same word as the articles.


Juncture loss

In a process called
juncture loss Rebracketing (also known as resegmentation or metanalysis) is a process in historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of histor ...
, the ''n'' has wandered back and forth between the indefinite article and words beginning with vowels over the history of the language, where for example what was once ''a nuncle'' is now ''an uncle''. The
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive res ...
gives such examples as ''smot hym on the hede with a nege tool'' from 1448 for ''smote him on the head with an edge tool'', as well as ''a nox'' for ''an ox'' and ''a napple'' for ''an apple''. Sometimes the change has been permanent. For example, ''a
newt A newt is a salamander Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard Lizards are a widespread group of Squamata, squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, ...

newt
'' was once ''an ewt'' (earlier ''euft'' and ''eft''), ''a nickname'' was once ''an eke-name'', where ''eke'' means "extra" (as in ''eke out'' meaning "add to"), and in the other direction, ''a napron'' (meaning a little tablecloth, related to the word ''napkin'') became ''an apron'', and ''a naddre'' became ''an adder''. The initial ''n'' in
orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
was also dropped through juncture loss, but this happened before the word was borrowed into English.


Use of ''some''

The existential determinative (or
determiner A determiner, also called determinative ( abbreviated ), is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practic ...
) ''some'' is sometimes used as a functional equivalent of ''a(n)'' with plural and
uncountable noun In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
s (also called a
partitiveIn linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include pho ...
). For example, ''Give me some apples'', ''Give me some water'' (equivalent to the singular countable forms ''an apple'' and ''a glass of water''). Grammatically this ''some'' is not required; it is also possible to use zero article: ''Give me apples'', ''Give me water''. The use of ''some'' in such cases implies some limited quantity. (Compare the forms ''unos/unas'' in
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, which are the plural of the indefinite article ''un/una''.) Like the articles, ''some'' belongs to the class of "central determiners", which are mutually exclusive (so "the some boys" is ungrammatical). The contrasting use of ''any'' in negative clauses proves that ''some'' is polarity-sensitive, and occurs in positive
clauses In language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the ...
: "I have ''some'' objections to make", vs. "I don't have ''any'' objections to make; "I have ''any'' objections to make" and "I don't have ''some'' objections to make" are ungrammatical. ''Some'' can also have a more emphatic meaning: "some but not others" or "some but not many". For example, ''some people like football, while others prefer rugby'', or ''I've got some money, but not enough to lend you any''. It can also be used as an
indefinite pronoun An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun which does not have a specific familiar referent. Indefinite pronouns are in contrast to definiteness, definite pronouns. Indefinite pronouns can represent either count nouns or noncount nouns. They often have r ...
, not qualifying a noun at all (''Give me some!'') or followed by a prepositional phrase (''I want some of your vodka''); the same applies to ''any''. ''Some'' can also be used with singular countable nouns, as in ''There is some person on the porch'', which implies that the identity of the person is unknown to the speaker (which is not necessarily the case when ''a(n)'' is used). This usage is fairly informal, although singular countable ''some'' can also be found in formal contexts: ''We seek some value of x such that...'' When ''some'' is used just as an indefinite article, it is normally pronounced weakly, as . In other meanings, it is pronounced .


Effect on alphabetical order

In sorting titles and phrases alphabetically, articles are usually excluded from consideration, since being so common makes them more of a hindrance than a help in finding the desired item. For example, ''The Comedy of Errors'' is alphabetized before ''A Midsummer Night's Dream'', because ''the'' and ''a'' are ignored and ''comedy'' alphabetizes before ''midsummer''. In an index, the former work might be written "Comedy of Errors, The", with the article moved to the end.


In West Country English

Speakers of
West Country English West Country English is a group of English Language, English language variety, language varieties and Accent (dialect), accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area sometimes popularly known as the West Count ...
may use articles in certain environments where speakers of
Standard English In an English-speaking country This article is intended to provide details and data regarding the geographical distribution of all English speakers, regardless of the legislative status of the countries where it's spoken. The English language is o ...
would like not to use articles. Non-standard uses occur for example with diseases (''the chicken pox'', ''the arthritis''), quantifying expressions (''the both'', ''the most''), holidays (''the Christmas''), geographical units and institutions (''the church'', ''the county Devon''), etc. The indefinite article, on the other hand, often occurs as ''a'' also before vowels.


See also

*
False title A false, coined, fake, bogus or pseudo-title, also called a ''Time''-style adjective and an anarthrous nominal premodifier, is a kind of appositive Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrasesA noun phras ...


References


External links


Vietnamese learners mastering english articles"The Definite Article: Acknowledging 'The' in Index Entries"
Glenda Browne, The Indexer, vol. 22, no. 3 April 2001, pp. 119–22.
Low MH 2005: "The Phenomenon of the Word THE in English — discourse functions and distribution patterns"
— a dissertation that surveys the use of the word 'the' in English text.
When Do You Use Articles: A, An, The

articles web training tool
{{in lang, en
Etymology of the word ''the'' on the Online Etymology Dictionary

Mastering A, An, The: English Articles Solved

Exercise to practice ''a'', ''an'' and ''the'' on texts taken from the corpus of English novels
Articles