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In the kingdom of England, a feudal barony or barony by tenure was the highest degree of feudal land tenure, namely per baroniam (Latin for "by barony") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament. If the estate-in-land held by barony contained a significant castle as its caput baroniae[a] and if it was especially large – consisting of more than about 20 knight's fees (each loosely equivalent to a manor) – then it was termed an "honour". This type of barony must be distinguished from a barony, also feudal, which existed within a county palatine, such as the barony of Halton within the Palatinate of Chester.[1]

Contents

1 Creation 2 Servitium debitum

2.1 Under- and over- enfeoffment 2.2 Cartae Baronum

3 Summons to parliament 4 Deemed feudal barons 5 Baronial relief 6 Abolition and surviving vestiges

6.1 Geographical survivals

7 Lists

7.1 Certain baronies 7.2 Probable baronies

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 Further reading

Creation[edit] William the Conqueror established his favoured followers as barons by enfeoffing them as tenants-in-chief with great fiefdoms to be held per baroniam, a largely standard feudal contract of tenure, common to all his barons. Such barons were not necessarily always from the greater Norman nobles, but were selected often on account of their personal abilities and usefulness. Thus for example Turstin FitzRolf, the relatively humble and obscure knight who had stepped in at the last minute to accept the position of Duke William's standard-bearer at the Battle of Hastings, was granted a barony which comprised well over twenty manors.[2] Lands forming a barony were often located in several different counties, not necessarily adjoining. The name of such a barony is generally deemed to be the name of the chief manor within it, known as the Caput, Latin for "head", generally assumed to have been the seat or chief residence of the first baron. So, for instance, the barony of Turstin FitzRolf
Turstin FitzRolf
became known as the barony of North Cadbury, Somerset.[2] The exact date of creation of most feudal baronies cannot be determined, as their founding charters have been lost. Many of them are first recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
survey of 1086. Servitium debitum[edit] The feudal obligation imposed by the grant of a barony was termed in Latin the servitium debitum or "service owed" and was set as a quota of knights to be provided for the king's service. It bore no constant relation to the amount of land comprised by the barony, but was fixed by a bargain between the king and the baron.[3] It was at the discretion of the baron as to how these knights were found. The commonest method was for him to split his barony into several fiefs of between a few hundred acres possibly up to a thousand acres each, into each of which he would sub-enfeoff one knight, by the tenure of knight-service. This tenure gave the knight use of the fief and all its revenues, on condition that he should provide to the baron, now his overlord, 40 days of military service, complete with retinue of esquires, horses and armour. The fief so allotted is known as a knight's fee. Alternatively the baron could keep the entire barony, or a part of it, in demesne, that is to say "in-hand" or under his own management, using the revenues it produced to buy the services of mercenary knights known as "stipendiary knights". A barony which could support more than the number of knights required by the servitium debitum had clearly been obtained from the king on favourable terms. Under- and over- enfeoffment[edit] Where a baron had sub-enfeoffed fewer knights than required by the servitium debitum, the barony was said to be "under-enfeoffed", and the balance of knights owing had to be produced super dominium, that is "on the demesne". This does not mean they were resident within the baron's demesne, but that they had to be hired with the revenue arising from it. Conversely, a barony was "over-enfeoffed" where more knights had been enfeoffed than was required by the servitium debitum, and this indicated that the barony had been obtained on overly-favourable terms. Cartae Baronum[edit] The Cartae Baronum ("Charters of the Barons") was a survey commissioned by the Treasury in 1166. It required each baron[b] to declare how many knights he had enfeoffed and how many were super dominium, with the names of all. It appears that the survey was designed to identify baronies from which a greater servitium debitum could in future be obtained by the king. An example is given from the return of Lambert of Etocquigny:[4]

To his reverend lord, Henry, king of the English, Lambert of Etocquigny, greeting. Know that I hold from you by your favour 16 carucates of land and 2 bovates by the service of 10 knights. In these 10 carucates of land I have 5 knights enfeoffed by the old enfeoffment:

Richard de Haia holds 1 knight's fee; and he withheld the service which he owes to you and to me from the day of your coronation up to now, except that he paid me 2 marks. Odo de Cranesbi holds 1 knight's fee. Thomas, son of William, holds 1 knight's fee. Roger de Millers holds 2 knight's fees.

And from my demesne I provide the balance of the service I owe you, to wit, that of 5 knights. And from that demesne I have given Robert de Portemort 3/4 of 1 knight's fee. Therefore I pray you that you will send me your judgement concerning Richard de Haia who holds back the service of his fee, because I cannot obtain that service except by your order. This is the total service in the aforesaid 16 carucates of land. Farewell.

Summons to parliament[edit] The privilege which balanced the burden of the servitium debitum was the baron's right to attend the king's council. Originally all barons who held per baroniam received individual writs of summons to attend parliament. This was a practical measure because the early kings almost continually travelled around the kingdom, taking their court (i.e. administration) with them. A king only called a parliament, or council, when the need arose either for advice or funding. This lack of a parliamentary schedule meant that the barons needed to be informed when and where to attend. As baronies became fragmented over time due to failure of male heirs and descent via co-heiresses (see below), many of those who held per baroniam became holders of relatively small fiefdoms. Eventually the king refused to summon such minor nobles to parliament by personal writ, sending instead a general writ of summons to the sheriff of each shire, who was to summon only representatives of these so-called lesser barons. The greater barons, who retained sufficient power to insist upon it, continued to receive personal summonses. The king came to realise, from the complacency of the lesser barons with this new procedure, that in practice it was not tenure per baroniam which determined attendance at parliament, but receipt of a writ of summons originated by himself. The next logical development was that the king started issuing writs to persons who did not hold per baroniam and who were not therefore feudal barons, but "barons by writ". The reason for summoning by writ was based on personal characteristics, for example the man summoned might be one of exceptional judgement or have valuable military skills. The arbitrary summons by personal writ signalled the start of the decline of feudalism, eventually evolving into summons by public proclamation in the form of letters patent. Deemed feudal barons[edit] The higher prelates such as archbishops and bishops were deemed to hold per baroniam, and were thus members of the baronage entitled to attend parliament, indeed they formed the greatest grouping of all. Marcher lords in Wales
Wales
often held their lordships by right of conquest and appear to have been deemed feudal barons. The Barons of the Cinque Ports were also deemed feudal barons by virtue of their military service at sea,[5] and were thus entitled to attend parliament. Baronial relief[edit] Baronial relief was payable by an heir so that he might lawfully take possession of his inheritance.[6] It was a form of one-off taxation, or more accurately a variety of "feudal incident", levyable by the King on his tenants-in-chief for a variety of reasons. A prospective heir to a barony generally paid £100 in baronial relief for his inheritance.[6] The term "relief" implies "elevation", both words being derived from the Latin levo, to raise up, into a position of honour. Where a barony was split into two, for example on the death of a baron leaving two co-heiresses, each daughter's husband would become a baron in respect of his moiety (mediaeval French for "half"), paying half of the full baronial relief. A tenant-in-chief could be the lord of fractions of several different baronies, if he or his ancestors had married co-heiresses. The tenure of even the smallest fraction of a barony conferred baronial status on the lord of these lands.[6] This natural fragmentation of the baronies led to great difficulties within the royal administration as the king relied on an ever-increasing number of men responsible for supplying soldiers for the royal army, and the records of the identities of these fractional barons became more complex and unreliable. The early English jurist Henry de Bracton (died 1268) was one of the first writers to examine the concept of the feudal barony. Abolition and surviving vestiges[edit]

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The power of the feudal barons to control their landholding was considerably weakened in 1290 by the statute of Quia Emptores. This prohibited land from being the subject of a feudal grant, and allowed its transfer without the feudal lord's permission. Feudal baronies became perhaps obsolete (but not extinct) on the abolition of feudal tenure during the Civil War, as confirmed by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660
Tenures Abolition Act 1660
passed under the Restoration which took away Knights service and other legal rights. Under the Tenures Abolition Act 1660, many baronies by tenure were converted into baronies by writ. The rest ceased to exist as feudal baronies by tenure, becoming baronies in free socage, that is to say under a "free" (hereditable) contract requiring payment of monetary rents. Thus baronies could no longer be held by military service. Parliamentary titles of honour had been limited since the 15th century by the Modus Tenenda Parliamenta act, and could thenceforth only be created by writ of summons or letters patent. Tenure by knight-service was abolished and discharged and the lands covered by such tenures, including once-feudal baronies, were henceforth held by socage (i.e. in exchange for monetary rents). The English Fitzwalter Case in 1670 ruled that barony by tenure had been discontinued for many years and any claims to a peerage on such basis, meaning a right to sit in the House of Lords, were not to be revived, nor any right of succession based on them.[7] In the Berkeley Case in 1861, an attempt was made to claim a seat in the House of Lords
House of Lords
by right of a barony by tenure, but the House of Lords
House of Lords
ruled that whatever might have been the case in the past, baronies by tenure no longer existed, meaning that a barony could not be held "by tenure", and confirmed the Tenures Abolition Act 1660.[8] Three Redesdale Committee Reports in the early 19th century reached the same conclusion. There has been at least one legal opinion which asserts the continuing legal existence of the feudal barony in England and Wales, namely that from 1996 of A W & C Barsby, Barristers of Grays's Inn.[9] Geographical survivals[edit] Survivals of feudal baronies, in their geographical form, are the Barony of Westmorland, the Barony of Kendal, the Barony of Arundel and the Barony of Abergavenny.[10] These terms now describe areas of the modern county of Westmorland, in the same way that the word "county" itself has lost its feudal meaning of a land area under the control of a count or earl. Lists[edit] Ivor J. Sanders searched the archives, for example Exchequer
Exchequer
documents such as fine rolls and pipe rolls, for entries recording the payment of baronial relief and published his results in English Baronies, a Study of their Origin and Descent 1086–1327 (Oxford, 1960). He identified 132 certain baronies where evidence was found of payment of baronial relief, and a further 72 which he termed "probable baronies" where the evidence was less clear. Where he could not identify a Caput Sanders named the barony after the name of the baron, for example the "Barony of Miles of Gloucester". The following lists include all of Sanders' certain and probable baronies. Certain baronies[edit]

Name of barony County of caput First known tenant Earliest record

Aldington Kent William FitzHelte 1073

Arundel Sussex Roger de Montgomery pre 1087

Ashby Lincolnshire Gilbert de Neville 1162

Ashfield Suffolk Robert Blund 1086

Aveley Essex John FitzWaleran 1086

Bampton Devon Walter de Douai 1086

Biset – Manasser Biset (d.1177) pre 1177

Gloucester (baronial court at Bristol[11]) Gloucestershire Robert FitzHamon(d.1107) pre 1107

Miles of Gloucester/Brecon Brecon Miles de Gloucester 1125

Basing Hampshire Hugh de Port 1086

Beckley Oxfordshire Roger d'Ivry 1086

Bedford Bedfordshire Hugh de Beauchamp 1086

Belvoir Leicestershire Robert de Todeni 1086

Benington Hertfordshire Peter I de Valoynes 1086

Berkeley Gloucestershire Robert FitzHarding tempore H II, pre 1166

Berkhampstead Hertfordshire Robert, count of Mortain 1086

Beverstone Gloucestershire Robert de Gurney 1235

Blagdon Somerset Serlo de Burci 1086

Blankney Lincolnshire Walter I de Aincourt 1086

Blythborough Suffolk William FitzWalter 1157

Bolham Northumberland James de Newcastle 1154

Bolingbroke Lincolnshire Ivo de Taillebois 1086

Bourn Cambridgeshire Picot 1086

Bradninch Devon William Capra 1086

Bulwick Northamptonshire Richard FitzUrse 1130

Burgh-by-Sands Cumbria Robert de Trevers tempus H I(1100–1135)

Burstwick/"Holderness"[12] Yorkshire Drogo de Brevere 1086

Bywell Northumberland Guy de Balliol tempus W II(1087–1100)

Cainhoe Bedfordshire Nigel d'Aubigny 1086

Castle Cary Somerset Walter de Douai 1086

Castle Combe[13] Wiltshire Humphrey de Insula 1086

Castle Holgate Shropshire "Helgot" 1086

Cause Shropshire Roger FitzCorbet 11th century

Cavendish Suffolk Ralph I de Limesy 1086

Caxton Cambridgeshire Hardwin de Scales 1086

Chatham Kent Robert le Latin (held under Odo Bp. of Bayeux) 1086

Chester Cheshire Gerbod the Fleming 1070

Chipping Warden Northamptonshire Guy de Reinbuedcurt 1086

Chiselborough[c] Somerset Alured "Pincerna" 1086

Clare Suffolk Richard fitz Gilbert c. 1090

Clifford Hereford Ralph de Tony 1086

Cogges Oxfordshire "Wadard" (held under Odo Bp. of Bayeux) 1086

Cottingham Yorkshire Hugh FitzBaldric 1086

Crick Derbyshire Ralph FitzHubert 1086 I.J.Sanders Page 37 & 84.

Curry Malet Somerset Roger de Courcelles 1086

Eaton Bray Bedfordshire William I de Cantilupe 1205

Eaton Socon Bedfordshire Eudo Dapifer 1086

Ellingham Northumberland Nicholas de Grenville tempus H I

Embleton Northumberland John FitzOdard tempus H I

Erlestoke Wiltshire Roger I de Mandeville tempus H I

Ewyas Harold Herefordshire Alfred of Marlborough 1086

Eye Suffolk Robert Malet 1086

Field Dalling/St.Hilary Norfolk Hasculf de St James 1138

Flockthorpe in Hardingham Norfolk Ralph de Camoys 1236

Folkestone Kent William de Arques (held under Odo Bp. of Bayeux) c. 1090

Folkingham Lincolnshire Gilbert I de Ghent 1086

Framlingham Suffolk Roger I Bigod 1086/tempus H I

Freiston Lincolnshire Guy de Craon 1086

Great Bealings Suffolk Hervey de Bourges 1086

Great Torrington Devon Odo FitzGamelin 1086

Great Weldon Northamptonshire Robert de Buci 1086

Greystoke Cumberland Forne son of Sigulf 1086

Hanslope Buckinghamshire Winemar the Fleming 1086

Hatch Beauchamp[14] Somerset Robert FitzIvo (under Count
Count
of Mortain) 1086

Headington Oxfordshire Thomas Basset 1203

Headingham Essex Aubry I de Vere 1086

Helmsley Yorkshire Walter Espec temp.H I

Hockering Norfolk Ralph de Belfou 1086

Holderness (see caput:Burstwick)

Hook Norton Oxfordshire Robert d'Oilly 1086

Hooton Pagnell Yorkshire Richard de Surdeval (under Count
Count
of Mortain) (part) Ralph Pagnell (under King) (part) 1086

Hunsingore Yorkshire Erneis de Burun 1086

Kendal Westmorland Ivo de Taillebois tempus W II

Kington Herefordshire Adam de Port c. 1121

Kirklinton Cumberland Adam I de Boivill(?) post temp. H I

Knaresborough Yorkshire William de Stuteville c. 1175

Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion Merionethshire Gruffydd ab Iorwerth ab Owain Brogyntyn 1284

Launceston Cornwall Descent as Earl
Earl
of Cornwall 1086

Leicester Leicestershire Hugh de Grandmesnil 1086

Long Crendon Buckinghamshire Walter I Giffard 1086

Marshwood Dorset Geoffrey I de Mandeville temp. Henry I

Monmouth Monmouthshire Wethenoc of Monmouth c. 1066

Morpeth Northumberland William I de Merlay temp. Henry I

Much Marcle Herefordshire William FitzBaderon 1086

Mulgrave Yorkshire Nigel Fossard 1086

Nether Stowey Somerset Alfred de Hispania 1086

Nocton Lincolnshire Norman I de Darcy 1086

North Cadbury Somerset Turstin FitzRolf 1086

Odell Bedfordshire Walter le Fleming 1086

Okehampton Devon Baldwin FitzGilbert 1086

Old Buckenham Norfolk William d'Aubigny Pincerna temp. Henry I

Oswestry Shropshire Warin the Bold (held from Roger of Montgomery) temp. William II

Pleshy Essex Geoffrey I de Mandeville 1086

Poorstock Dorset Roger I Arundel 1086

Prudhoe Northumberland Robert I de Umfraville temp. William I

Pulverbatch Shropshire Roger I Venator (held from Roger of Montgomery) 1086

Redbourne Lincolnshire Jocelin FitzLambert 1086

Richard's Castle Herefordshire Osbern I FitzScrob 1086

Salwarpe Worcestershire Urse d'Abitot held from Roger of Montgomery) 1086

Shelford Nottinghamshire Geoffrey de Alselin 1086

Skelton Yorkshire Robert de Brus temp. Henry I

Skirpenbeck Yorkshire Odo the Crossbowman 1086

Snodhill Herefordshire Hugh the Ass 1086

Sotby Lincolnshire William I Kyme (held from Walden the Engineer) 1086

Southoe Huntingdonshire Eustace Sheriff of Huntingdonshire 1086

Stafford Staffordshire Robert I de Stafford 1086

Stainton le Vale Lincolnshire Ralph de Criol temp. Henry I

Stansted Mountfitchet Essex Robert Gernon 1086

Staveley Derbyshire Hascuil I Musard 1086

Stoke Trister Somerset Bretel St Clair 1086

Styford Northumberland Walter I de Bolbec temp. Henry I

Sudeley Gloucestershire Harold de Sudeley 1066

Tarrington Herefordshire Ansfrid de Cormeilles 1086

Tattershall Lincolnshire Eudo son of Spirewic 1086

Thoresway Lincolnshire Alfred of Lincoln 1086

Totnes Devon Juhel de Totnes 1086

Trematon Cornwall Reginald I de Vautort (held from Count
Count
of Mortain) 1086

Trowbridge Wiltshire Brictric 1086

Walkern Hertfordshire Derman temp. Wm I

Wallingford Berkshire Milo Crispin 1086

Warwick Warwickshire Robert de Beaumont, Count
Count
of Meulan 1086

Weedon Pinkeny/Lois Northamptonshire Ghilo I de Pinkeny 1086

Wem Shropshire William Pantulf (held from Roger, Earl
Earl
of Montgomery) temp. Wm II

Weobley Herefordshire Walter de Lacy temp. Wm I

West Dean Wiltshire Waleran the Huntsman 1086

West Greenwich Kent Gilbert de Maminot, Bishop of Lisieux (held from Odo Bishop of Bayeux) 1086

Whitchurch Buckinghamshire Hugh I de Bolbec 1086

Wigmore Herefordshire William FitzOsbern temp. Wm I

Winterbourne St Martin Dorset widow of Hugh FitzGrip 1086

Wolverton Buckinghamshire Manno le Breton 1086

Wormegay Norfolk Hermer de Ferrers 1086

Writtle Essex Isabel, sister & co-heir of John the Scot, Earl
Earl
of Chester 1241

Source: Sanders (1960) Probable baronies[edit]

Name of barony County of caput First known tenant Earliest record

Alnwick Northumberland Ivo de Vesci 11th century

Appleby Westmorland Robert I de Vipont 1203/4

Asthall Oxfordshire Roger d'Ivery 1086

Barnstaple Devon Geoffrey de Mowbray 1086

Barony of Port Kent Hugh de Port 1086

Barony de Ros Kent Geoffrey I de Ros 1086

Beanley Northumberland Gospatric, Earl
Earl
of Dunbar temp. Henry I(1100–1135)

Berry Pomeroy[15] Devon Ralph de Pomeroy 1086

Bothal Northumberland Richard I Bertram pre.1162

Bourne Lincolnshire William de Rollos 1100–1130

Bramber Sussex William I de Braose 1086

Brattleby Lincolnshire Colswain 1086

Callerton Northumberland Hubert de la Val 11th century

Cardinham Cornwall Richard FitzTurold temp. William I(1066–1087)

Chepstow Monmouthshire William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl
Earl
of Hereford pre.1070

Chilham Kent Fulbert I de Dover 1086[16]

Chitterne Wiltshire Edward of Salisbury 1086

Christchurch Hampshire Richard de Reviers 1100–1107

Clun Shropshire Robert "Picot de Say" 1086

Dudley Worcestershire William FitzAnsculf 1086

Dunster Somerset William I de Mohun 1086

Dursley Gloucestershire Roger I de Berkeley 1086

Egremont Cumberland William Meschin temp. Henry I(1100–1135)

Elston-in-Orcheston St George Wiltshire Osbern Giffard 1086

Eton Buckinghamshire[d] Walter FitzOther 1086

Flamstead Hertfordshire Ralph I de Tony 1086

Fotheringay Northamptonshire Waltheof son of Siward, Earl
Earl
of Huntingdon and Northampton pre-1086

Hadstone Northumberland Aschantinus de Worcester temp. Henry I(1100–1135)

Hastings Sussex William II, Count
Count
of Eu 1086

Hatfield Peverel Essex Ranulph Peverel 1086

Haughley Suffolk Hugh de Montfort 1086

Helions Bumpstead Essex Tihel 1086

Hepple Northumberland Waltheof pre.1161

Horsley Derbyshire Ralph de Burun 1086

Irthington Cumberland Ranulph le Meschin c. 1100

Keevil Wiltshire Ernulph de Hesding pre.1091

Kempsford Gloucestershire Ernulf I de Hesding 11th/12th centuries

Kentwell Suffolk Frodo 1086

Lancaster Lancashire Roger the Poitevin temp. W I

Langley Northumberland Adam I de Tindale 1165

Lavendon Buckinghamshire Bishop of Coutances 1086

Lewes Sussex William I de Warenne 1086

Liddel Strength Cumberland Ranulph le Meschin pre. 1121

Little Dunmow Essex Ralph Bayard 1086

Little Easton Essex Walter the Deacon 1086

Manchester[17] Lancashire Albert de Gresle temp. William II

Mitford Northumberland John pre temp. Henry I

Odcombe[e] Somerset Ansgar I Brito 1086

Old Wardon Bedfordshire William Espec 1086

Papcastle Cumberland Waldeve temp. Henry I

Patricksbourne[f] Kent Richard FitzWilliam 1086

Peak William I Peverel 1086

Pevensey Sussex Gilbert I de l'Aigle 1106–1114

Plympton Devon Richard I de Reviers 1087–1107

Pontefract Yorkshire Ilbert I de Lacy 1086

Rayleigh Essex Swain of Essex 1086

Rayne Essex Roger de Raimes 1086

Richmond Yorkshire Alan I, Count
Count
of Brittany 1086

Rothersthorpe Northamptonshire Gunfrid de Cioches 1086

Skipton Yorkshire Robert de Rumilly temp. William II

Stogursey
Stogursey
(Stoke Courcy) Somerset William de Falaise 1086

Swanscombe Kent Helte[g] 1086

Tamworth Nottinghamshire Robert Dispensator 1086

Tarrant Keynston Dorset Ralph de Kaines Temp. Henry I

Thirsk Yorkshire Robert de Mowbray pre-1095

Tickhill Yorkshire Roger de Busli 1086

Topcliffe Yorkshire William I de Percy 1086

Tutbury Staffordshire Henry de Ferrers 1086

Wark Northumberland Walter Espec temp. Henry I (1100–1135)

Warter Yorkshire Geoffrey FitzPain c. 1101

Whalton Northumberland Walter FitzWilliam pre-1161

Witham Essex Eustace II, Count
Count
of Boulogne 1086

Wrinstead[h] Kent William Peverel post 1088

Source, unless otherwise stated: Sanders (1960), pp. 103–151 See also[edit]

Barony (country subdivision) Feudalism List of baronies in the peerages of the British Isles Scottish feudal barony Scottish feudal lordship Irish feudal barony Barony (Ireland) List of baronies of Ireland List of Marcher lordships Tenures Abolition Act 1660 Land tenure Land tenure in England Honour (feudal land tenure) Feudal baronies in Devonshire

Notes[edit]

^ The term 'caput baroniae' is often shortened to 'caput' ^ The survey in fact covered all the king's tenants-in-chief, not just those who held per baroniam, which adds much uncertainty as to the exact meaning of the term "baron".[citation needed] ^ Chiselborough held from Robert Count
Count
of Mortain ^ Now in Berkshire ^ Odcombe
Odcombe
held from Count
Count
of Mortain 1086 ^ Patricksbourne held from Odo of Bayeux 1086 ^ Held from the Bishop of Bayeux ^ Wrinstead: now represented by Wrinstead Court, c. 11 miles NW of Ashford, Kent

References[edit]

^ Sanders (1960), p.138, refers to the "Lord" of Halton being the hereditary constable of the County Palatine of Chester, and omits Halton from both his lists. ^ a b Sanders (1960), p.68 ^ Passage on servitium debitum based on Douglas (1959), p.894 ^ Douglas (1959), p.915 ^ Roskell, J.S. History of Parliament, House of Commons 1386–1421, Stroud, 1992, vol.1, p.751, Constituencies, Cinque Ports ^ a b c Sanders (1960), preface, v. ^ Collins's Peerage Claims, P287"the nature of a Barony by tenure being discoursed, it was found to have been discontinued for many ages, and not in being, and not fit to be revived, or to admit any pretence of right of succession thereupon: And that the pretence of a barony by tenure being declared for weighty reasons not to be one to be insisted upon" ^ (1861) 8 H.L.C. 21 at 74 ^ Manorial Law, A W & C Barsby 1996 ^ Sanders (1960), p.56-7 Barony of Kendal; p.103-4 probable Barony of Appleby (Westmorland) ^ The caput of this Barony of Gloucester is uncertain (Sanders, p.6) ^ English, B., The Lords of Holderness, 1086–1260: A Study in Feudal Society, Oxford, 1979 ^ Poulett, Scrope G., The History of the Manor
Manor
and Ancient Barony of Castle Combe in the County of Wiltshire, privately printed, 1852 ^ Batten, J. The Barony of Beauchamp of Somerset, in: Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 36(1891), pp.20–59 ^ Powley, E.B. The House of De La Pomerai, Liverpool, 1944 ^ Hasted, Edward (1798). "Parishes". The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent. Institute of Historical Research. 6: 386–393. Retrieved 28 February 2014.  ^ Manchester
Manchester
was held of the Honour of Lancaster, per Sanders (1960), p.130, note 8, therefore possibly more properly a barony within a County Palatine

Sources[edit]

Sanders, I.J. English Baronies, a Study of their Origin and Descent 1086–1327, Oxford, 1960. Douglas, David C. & Greenaway, George W., (eds.), English Historical Documents 1042–1189, London, 1959. Part IV, Land & People, C, Anglo-Norman Feudalism, pp. 895–944 Bayeux Tapestry

Further reading[edit]

Painter, Sidney. Studies in the History of the English Feudal Barony, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1943 Madox, Thomas, Baronia Anglica, 1736. 94 vols. History and records of feudal barons. Sanders, I.J.(ed.), Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion 1258–67, Selected by R.F. Dugdale, Oxford, 1973 Dugdale, W. The Baronage
Baronage
of England, 2 vols., 1675-6 Nicolas, Nicholas Harris, Synopsis of the Peerage of England, London, 1825, Vol.1, pp.3–12,

.