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An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language for which English was the lexifier, meaning that at the time of its formation the vocabulary of English served as the basis for the majority of the creole's lexicon.[1] Most English creoles were formed in British colonies, following the great expansion of British naval military power and trade in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The main categories of English-based creoles are Atlantic (the Americas and Africa) and Pacific (Asia and Oceania).

Over 76.5 million people estimated globally speak some form of English-based creole. Malaysia, Nigeria, Ghana, Jamaica, and Singapore have the largest concentrations of creole speakers.

Origin

It is disputed to what extent the various English-based creoles of the world share a common origin. The monogenesis hypothesis[2][3] posits that a single language, commonly called proto–Pidgin English, spoken along the West African coast in the early sixteenth century, was ancestral to most or all of the Atlantic creoles (the English creoles of both West Africa and the Americas).

Table of creole languages

Name Country Number of speakers[4] Notes

Atlantic

Western Caribbean

Bahamian Creole  Bahamas 309,000 (2014)
Turks and Caicos Creole English  Turks and Caicos 10,700 (1995)
Jamaican Patois  Jamaica 2,670,000 (2001)~3,035,000
Belizean Creole  Belize L1 Users: 170,000 (2014) L2 Users: 300,000 (2014)
Miskito Coast Creole  Nicaragua 18,400 Dialect: Rama Cay Creole
Limonese Creole  Costa Rica 55,100 (1986)
Bocas del Toro Creole  Panama 268,000 (2000)
San Andrés–Providencia Creole  Colombia 33,000 (1995)

Eastern Caribbean

Virgin Islands Creole  US Virgin Islands

 British Virgin Islands

Over 76.5 million people estimated globally speak some form of English-based creole. Malaysia, Nigeria, Ghana, Jamaica, and Singapore have the largest concentrations of creole speakers.

It is disputed to what extent the various English-based creoles of the world share a common origin. The monogenesis hypothesis[2][3] posits that a single language, commonly called proto–Pidgin English, spoken along the West African coast in the early sixteenth century, was ancestral to most or all of the Atlantic creoles (the English creoles of both West Africa and the Americas).

Table of creole languages

Name Country Number of speakers[4] Notes

Atlantic

Western Caribbean

Bahamian Creole  Bahamas 309,000 (2014)
Turks and Caicos Creole English  British Virgin Islands

 Sint Maarten

 Saint-Martin

 Sint Eustatius

 Saba

52,300 (1980)~76,500
Anguillan Creole  Anguilla 11,500 (2001)
Antiguan Creole  Antigua and Barbuda 67,000 (2001)~147,520
Saint Kitts Creole  Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,000 (1998)
Montserrat Creole  Montserrat 3,820 (2011)
Vincentian Creole  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 138,000 (1989)
Grenadian Creole  Grenada 89,200 (2001)
Tobagonian Creole  Trinidad and Tobago 300,000 (2011)
Trinidadian Creole   Sint Maarten

 Saint-Martin

 Sint Eustatius

 Saba

 Norfolk Island

430 (2011)~532 Almost no L2 users
Australian Kriol  Australia 4,200 (2006) L2 users: 10,000 (1991)
Torres Strait Creole  Australia 6,040 (2006)
Singlish  Singapore 2,000,000–3,000,000
Manglish  Malaysia 25,000,000–30,000,000
Fijian Creole  Fiji 25–50
Tongan Creole  Tonga >25

Marginal

Other

Not strictly creoles, but sometimes called thus:

External links

See also

References

  1. ^ Velupillai, Viveka (2015). Pidgins, Creoles and Mixed Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 519. ISBN 978 90 272 5272 2.
  2. ^ Hancock, I. F. (1969). "A provisional comparison of the English-based Atlantic creoles". African Language Review. 8: 7–72.
  3. ^ Gilman, Charles (1978). "A Comparison of Jamaican Creole and Cameroon Pidgin English". English Studies. 59: 57–65. doi:10.1080/00138387808597871.
  4. ^ Simons, Gary F; Fennig, Charles D, eds. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (20th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.

Further reading