ENGLAND IN THE MIDDLE AGES concerns the history of
England during the
medieval period , from the end of the 5th century through to the start
of the Early Modern period in 1485. When
England emerged from the
collapse of the
Roman Empire , the economy was in tatters and many of
the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration,
new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into predatory
kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished
Anglo-Saxons , producing epic poems such as
sophisticated metalwork . The
Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity
in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built
across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries
England faced fierce
Viking attacks, and the fighting lasted for many decades, eventually
Wessex as the most powerful kingdom and promoting the
growth of an English identity. Despite repeated crises of succession
and a Danish seizure of power at the start of the 11th century, by the
England was a powerful, centralised state with a strong military
and successful economy.
Norman invasion of England in 1066 led to the defeat and
replacement of the Anglo-
Saxon elite with Norman and French nobles and
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror and his successors took over
the existing state system, repressing local revolts and controlling
the population through a network of castles . The new rulers
introduced a feudal approach to governing England, eradicating the
practice of slavery but creating a much wider body of unfree labourers
called serfs . The position of women in society changed as laws
regarding land and lordship shifted. England\'s population more than
doubled during the 12th and 13th centuries, fuelling an expansion of
the towns, cities and trade, helped by warmer temperatures across
Northern Europe. A new wave of monasteries and friaries were
established, while ecclesiastical reforms led to tensions between
successive kings and archbishops . Despite developments in England's
governance and legal system , infighting between the Anglo-Norman
elite resulted in multiple civil wars and the loss of Normandy .
The 14th century in
England saw the Great Famine and the Black Death
, catastrophic events that killed around half of England's population,
throwing the economy into chaos and undermining the old political
order. Social unrest followed, resulting in the Peasants\' Revolt of
1381, while the changes in the economy resulted in the emergence of a
new class of gentry , and the nobility began to exercise power through
a system termed bastard feudalism . Nearly 1,500 villages were
deserted by their inhabitants and many men and women sought new
opportunities in the towns and cities. New technologies were
England produced some of the great medieval
philosophers and natural scientists . English kings in the 14th and
15th centuries laid claim to the French throne , resulting in the
Hundred Years\' War . At times
England enjoyed huge military success,
with the economy buoyed by profits from the international wool and
cloth trade, but by 1450 the country was in crisis, facing military
failure in France and an ongoing recession. More social unrest broke
out, followed by the
Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses , fought between rival factions
of the English nobility. Henry VII 's victory in 1485 conventionally
marks the end of the
Middle Ages in
England and the start of the Early
* 1 Political history
* 1.1 Early
Middle Ages (600–1066)
* 1.2 High
Middle Ages (1066–1272)
* 1.3 Late
Middle Ages (1272–1485)
* 2 Government and society
* 2.1 Governance and social structures
* 2.1.1 Early
Middle Ages (600–1066)
* 2.1.2 High
Middle Ages (1066–1272)
* 2.1.3 Late
Middle Ages (1272–1485)
* 2.2 Women in society
* 2.3 Identity
* 2.4 Jews
* 3 Religion
* 3.1 Rise of
* 3.2 Religious institutions
* 3.3 Church, state and heresy
* 3.4 Pilgrimages and
* 4 Economy and technology
* 4.1 Geography
* 4.2 Economy and demographics
* 4.3 Technology and science
* 5 Warfare
* 5.1 Armies
* 5.2 Navies
* 5.3 Fortifications
* 6 Arts
* 6.1 Art
* 6.2 Literature, drama and music
* 6.3 Architecture
* 7 Legacy
* 7.1 Historiography
* 7.2 Popular representations
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 10.1 Surveys
* 10.2 Kings
* 10.3 Architecture, castles, churches, landscape
* 10.4 Specialized studies
* 10.5 Historiography
EARLY MIDDLE AGES (600–1066)
History of Anglo-Saxon England
At the start of the Middle Ages,
England was a part of Britannia , a
former province of the
Roman Empire . The English economy had once
been dominated by imperial Roman spending on a large military
establishment, which in turn helped to support a complex network of
towns, roads, and villas . At the end of the 4th century, however,
Roman forces had been largely withdrawn, and the English economy
collapsed. Germanic immigrants began to arrive in increasing numbers
during the 5th century, initially peacefully, establishing small farms
and settlements. New political and social identities emerged,
including an Anglian culture in the east of
England and a Saxon
culture in the south, with local groups establishing regiones, small
polities ruled over by powerful families and individuals. By the 7th
century, some rulers, including those of
East Anglia , Essex
, and Kent , had begun to term themselves kings, living in villae
regales, royal centres, and collecting tribute from the surrounding
regiones; these kingdoms are often referred to as the
Saxon helmet from the
Sutton Hoo burial, 7th century
In the 7th century, the kingdom of Mercia rose to prominence under
the leadership of King Penda . Mercia invaded neighbouring lands
until it loosely controlled around 50 regiones covering much of
England. Mercia and the remaining kingdoms, led by their warrior
elites, continued to compete for territory throughout the 8th century.
Massive earthworks, such as the defensive dyke built by Offa of
Mercia , helped to defend key frontiers and towns. In 789, however,
the first Scandinavian raids on
England began; these
grew in number and scale until in 865 the Danish micel here or Great
Army, invaded England, captured
York and defeated the kingdom of East
Anglia. Mercia and Northumbria fell in 875 and 876, and Alfred of
Wessex was driven into internal exile in 878.
However, in the same year Alfred won a decisive victory against the
Danes at the
Battle of Edington , and he exploited the fear of the
Viking threat to raise large numbers of men and using a network of
defended towns called burhs to defend his territory and mobilise royal
resources. Suppressing internal opposition to his rule, Alfred
contained the invaders within a region known as the
Danelaw . Under
Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder , and his grandson,
Æthelstan , Wessex
expanded further north into Mercia and the Danelaw, and by the 950s
and the reigns of
Eadred and Edgar ,
York was finally permanently
retaken from the Vikings. The West
Saxon rulers were now kings of the
Angelcynn, that is of the whole English folk.
With the death of Edgar, however, the royal succession became
problematic. Æthelred took power in 978 following the murder of his
brother Edward , but
England was then invaded by
Sweyn Forkbeard , the
son of a Danish king. Attempts to bribe Sweyn not to attack using
danegeld payments failed, and he took the throne in 1013. Swein's
son, Cnut , liquidated many of the older English families following
his seizure of power in 1016. Æthelred's son,
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor ,
had survived in exile in Normandy and returned to claim the throne in
1042. Edward was childless, and the succession again became a
England became dominated by the Godwin family, who had taken
advantage of the Danish killings to acquire huge wealth. When Edward
died in 1066,
Harold Godwinson claimed the throne, defeating his rival
Harald Hardrada , at the battle of Stamford Bridge
HIGH MIDDLE AGES (1066–1272)
England in the High Middle Ages and Anglo-Norman
England Section of the
Bayeux Tapestry showing the final stages
of the battle of Hastings
In 1066, William , the
Duke of Normandy
Duke of Normandy , took advantage of the
English succession crisis to invade . With an army of Norman
followers and mercenaries, he defeated Harold at the battle of
Hastings and rapidly occupied the south of England. William used a
network of castles to control the major centres of power, granting
extensive lands to his main Norman followers and co-opting or
eliminating the former Anglo-
Saxon elite. Major revolts followed,
which William suppressed before intervening in the north-east of
England, establishing Norman control of
York and devastating the
region . Some Norman lords used
England as a launching point for
attacks into South and
North Wales , spreading up the valleys to
create new Marcher territories. By the time of William's death in
England formed the largest part of an Anglo-Norman empire, ruled
over by a network of nobles with landholdings across England,
Normandy, and Wales. England's growing wealth was critical in
allowing the Norman kings to project power across the region,
including funding campaigns along the frontiers of Normandy.
Norman rule, however, proved unstable; successions to the throne were
contested, leading to violent conflicts between the claimants and
their noble supporters. William II inherited the throne but faced
revolts attempting to replace him with his older brother Robert or his
Stephen of Aumale . In 1100, William II died while hunting.
Despite Robert's rival claims, his younger brother Henry I immediately
seized power. War broke out, ending in Robert's defeat at Tinchebrai
and his subsequent life imprisonment. Robert's son Clito remained
free, however, and formed the focus for fresh revolts until his death
in 1128. Henry's only legitimate son, William , died aboard the White
Ship disaster of 1120, sparking a fresh succession crisis: Henry's
nephew, Stephen of Blois , claimed the throne in 1135, but this was
disputed by the
Empress Matilda , Henry's daughter. Civil war broke
England and Normandy, resulting in a long period of warfare
later termed the Anarchy . Matilda's son, Henry , finally agreed to a
peace settlement at Winchester and succeeded as king in 1154.
Henry II was the first of the Angevin rulers of England, so-called
because he was also the Count of Anjou in Northern France. Henry had
also acquired the huge duchy of Aquitaine by marriage, and England
became a key part of a loose-knit assemblage of lands spread across
Western Europe, later termed the
Angevin Empire . Henry reasserted
royal authority and rebuilt the royal finances, intervening to claim
power in Ireland and promoting the Anglo-Norman colonisation of the
country. Henry strengthened England's borders with Wales and
Scotland, and used the country's wealth to fund a long-running war
with his rivals in France, but arrangements for his succession once
again proved problematic. Several revolts broke out, led by Henry's
children who were eager to acquire power and lands, sometimes backed
by France, Scotland and the Welsh princes. After a final confrontation
with Henry, his son Richard I succeeded to the throne in 1189.
Richard spent his reign focused on protecting his possessions in
France and fighting in the
Third Crusade ; his brother, John ,
England in 1199 but lost Normandy and most of Aquitaine
after several years of war with France. John fought successive,
increasingly expensive, campaigns in a bid to regain these
possessions. John's efforts to raise revenues, combined with his
fractious relationships with many of the English barons, led to
confrontation in 1215, an attempt to restore peace through the signing
Magna Carta , and finally the outbreak of the First Barons\'
War . John died having fought the rebel barons and their French
backers to a stalemate, and royal power was re-established by barons
loyal to the young Henry III . England's power structures remained
unstable and the outbreak of the Second Barons\' War in 1264 resulted
in the king's capture by Simon de Montfort . Henry's son, Edward ,
defeated the rebel factions between 1265 and 1267, restoring his
father to power.
LATE MIDDLE AGES (1272–1485)
England in the Late Middle Ages
England in the Late Middle Ages Richard II meets
the rebels calling for economic and political reform during the
Peasants\' Revolt of 1381
On becoming king, Edward I rebuilt the status of the monarchy,
restoring and extending key castles that had fallen into disrepair.
Uprisings by the princes of
North Wales led to Edward mobilising a
huge army, defeating the native Welsh and undertaking a programme of
English colonisation and castle building across the region. Further
wars were conducted in
Flanders and Aquitaine. Edward also fought
campaigns in Scotland , but was unable to achieve strategic victory,
and the costs created tensions that nearly led to civil war. Edward
II inherited the war with Scotland and faced growing opposition to his
rule as a result of his royal favourites and military failures. The
Despenser War of 1321–22 was followed by instability and the
subsequent overthrow, and possible murder, of Edward in 1327 at the
hands of his French wife, Isabella , and a rebel baron, Roger Mortimer
. Isabella and Mortimer's regime lasted only a few years before
falling to a coup, led by Isabella's son Edward III , in 1330.
Like his grandfather, Edward III took steps to restore royal power,
but during the 1340s the
Black Death arrived in England. The losses
from the epidemic, and the recurring plagues that followed it,
significantly affected events in
England for many years to come.
Meanwhile, Edward, under pressure from France in Aquitaine, made a
challenge for the French throne. Over the next century, English
forces fought many campaigns in a long-running conflict that became
known as the Hundred Years\' War . Despite the challenges involved in
raising the revenues to pay for the war, Edward's military successes
brought an influx of plundered wealth to many parts of
enabled substantial building work by the king. Many members of the
English elite, including Edward's son the Black Prince , were heavily
involved in campaigning in France and administering the new
Edward's grandson, the young Richard II , faced political and
economic problems, many resulting from the Black Death, including the
Peasants\' Revolt that broke out across the south of
England in 1381.
Over the coming decades, Richard and groups of nobles vied for power
and control of policy towards France until Henry of Bolingbroke seized
the throne with the support of parliament in 1399. Ruling as Henry
IV, he exercised power through a royal council and parliament, while
attempting to enforce political and religious conformity. His son,
Henry V , reinvigorated the war with France and came close to
achieving strategic success shortly before his death in 1422. Henry
VI became king at the age of only nine months and both the English
political system and the military situation in France began to
A sequence of bloody civil wars, later termed the
Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses ,
finally broke out in 1455, spurred on by an economic crisis and a
widespread perception of poor government. Edward IV , leading a
faction known as the Yorkists , removed Henry from power in 1461 but
by 1469 fighting recommenced as Edward, Henry, and Edward's brother
George , backed by leading nobles and powerful French supporters, vied
for power. By 1471 Edward was triumphant and most of his rivals were
dead. On his death, power passed to his brother Richard of Gloucester
, who initially ruled on behalf of the young Edward V before seizing
the throne himself as Richard III. The future Henry VII , aided by
French and Scottish troops, returned to
England and defeated Richard
at the battle of Bosworth in 1485, bringing an end to the majority of
the fighting, although lesser rebellions against his Tudor dynasty
would continue for several years afterwards.
GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY
GOVERNANCE AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
Middle Ages (600–1066)
Main article: Social history of the Early
Middle Ages An
Saxon mancus , showing the face of
Æthelred the Unready
Saxon kingdoms were hierarchical societies, each based on
ties of allegiance between powerful lords and their immediate
followers. At the top of the social structure was the king, who stood
above many of the normal processes of Anglo-
Saxon life and whose
household had special privileges and protection. Beneath the king
were thegns , nobles, the more powerful of which maintained their own
courts and were termed ealdormen . The relationship between kings and
their nobles was bound up with military symbolism and the ritual
exchange of weapons and armour. Freemen, called churls , formed the
next level of society, often holding land in their own right or
controlling businesses in the towns. Geburs, peasants who worked land
belonging to a thegn, formed a lower class still. The very lowest
class were slaves, who could be bought and sold and who held only
The balance of power between these different groups changed over
time. Early in the period, kings were elected by members of the late
king's council, but primogeniture rapidly became the norm for
succession. The kings further bolstered their status by adopting
Christian ceremonies and nomenclature, introducing ecclesiastical
coronations during the 8th century and terming themselves "Christ's
deputy" by the 11th century. Huge estates were initially built up by
the king, bishops, monasteries and thegns, but in the 9th and 10th
centuries these were slowly broken up as a consequence of inheritance
arrangements, marriage settlements and church purchases. In the 11th
century, the royal position worsened further, as the ealdormen rapidly
built up huge new estates, making them collectively much more powerful
than the king—this contributed to the political instability of the
Saxon years. As time went by, the position of the churls
deteriorated, as their rights were slowly eroded and their duties to
their lords increased.
The kingdom of Wessex, which eventually laid claim to
England as a
whole, evolved a centralised royal administration. One part of this
was the king's council, the witenagemot , comprising the senior
clergy, ealdormen, and some of the more important thegns; the council
met to advise the king on policy and legal issues. The royal
household included officials, thegns and a secretariat of clergy which
travelled with the king, conducting the affairs of government as it
went. Under the Danish kings, a bodyguard of housecarls also
accompanied the court. At a regional level, ealdormen played an
important part in government, defence and taxation, and the post of
sheriff emerged in the 10th century, administering local shires on
behalf of an ealdorman. Anglo-
Saxon mints were tightly controlled by
the kings, providing a high quality currency, and the whole country
was taxed using a system called hidage .
Saxon kings built up a set of written laws, issued either
as statutes or codes, but these laws were never written down in their
entirety and were always supplemented by an extensive oral tradition
of customary law. In the early part of the period local assemblies
called moots were gathered to apply the laws to particular cases; in
the 10th century these were replaced by hundred courts , serving local
areas, and shire moots dealing with larger regions of the kingdom.
Many churchmen and thegns were also given permission by the king to
hold their own local courts. The legal system depended on a system of
oaths , in which the value of different individuals swearing on behalf
of the plaintiff or defendant varied according to their social status
- the word of a companion of the king, for example, was worth twelve
times that of a churl. If fines were imposed, their size similarly
varied accord to the oath-value of the individual. The Anglo-Saxon
authorities struggled to deal with the bloodfeuds between families
that emerged following violent killings, attempting to use a system of
weregild , a payment of blood money, as a way of providing an
alternative to long-running vendettas.
Middle Ages (1066–1272)
England in the High Middle Ages Further information:
Social history of the High
Middle Ages Anglo-Norman 12th-century
gaming piece , illustrating soldiers presenting a sheep to a figure
seated on a throne
Within twenty years of the Norman conquest, the former Anglo-Saxon
elite were replaced by a new class of Norman nobility, with around
Normans and French settling in England. The new earls
(successors to the ealdermen), sheriffs and church seniors were all
drawn from their ranks. In many areas of society there was
continuity, as the
Normans adopted many of the Anglo-Saxon
governmental institutions, including the tax system, mints and the
centralisation of law-making and some judicial matters; initially
sheriffs and the hundred courts continued to function as before. The
existing tax liabilities were captured in
Domesday Book , produced in
Changes in other areas soon began to be felt. The method of
government after the conquest can be described as a feudal system , in
that the new nobles held their lands on behalf of the king; in return
for promising to provide military support and taking an oath of
allegiance, called homage , they were granted lands termed a fief or
an honour . Major nobles in turn granted lands to smaller landowners
in return for homage and further military support, and eventually the
peasantry held land in return for local labour services, creating a
web of loyalties and resources enforced in part by new honorial
courts. This system had been used in Normandy and concentrated more
power in the king and the upper elite than the former Anglo-Saxon
system of government. The practice of slavery declined in the years
after the conquest, as the
Normans considered the practice backward
and contrary to the teachings of the church. The more prosperous
peasants, however, lost influence and power as the
holding land more dependent on providing labour services to the local
lord. They sank down the economic hierarchy, swelling the numbers of
unfree villeins or serfs , forbidden to leave their manor or seek
At the centre of power, the kings employed a succession of clergy as
chancellors , responsible for running the royal chancery, while the
familia regis , the military household, emerged to act as a bodyguard
and military staff. England's bishops continued to form an important
part in local administration, alongside the nobility. Henry I and
Henry II both implemented significant legal reforms , extending and
widening the scope of centralised, royal law; by the 1180s, the basis
for the future English common law had largely been established, with a
standing law court in Westminster—an early
Common Bench —and
travelling judges conducting eyres around the country. King John
extended the royal role in delivering justice, and the extent of
appropriate royal intervention was one of the issues addressed in the
Magna Carta of 1215. The emerging legal system reinvigorated the
institution of serfdom in the 13th century by drawing an increasingly
sharp distinction between freemen and villeins.
Many tensions existed within the system of government. Royal
landownings and wealth stretched across England, and placed the king
in a privileged position above even the most powerful of the noble
elite. Successive kings, though, still needed more resources to pay
for military campaigns, conduct building programmes or to reward their
followers, and this meant exercising their feudal rights to interfere
in the land-holdings of nobles. This was contentious and a frequent
issue of complaint, as there was a growing belief that land should be
held by hereditary right, not through the favour of the king.
Property and wealth became increasingly focused in the hands of a
subset of the nobility, the great magnates, at the expense of the
wider baronage, encouraging the breakdown of some aspects of local
feudalism. As time went by, the Norman nobility intermarried with
many of the great Anglo-
Saxon families, and the links with the Duchy
began to weaken. By the late 12th century, mobilising the English
barons to fight on the continent was proving difficult, and John's
attempts to do so ended in civil war. Civil strife re-emerged under
Henry III, with the rebel barons in 1258–59 demanding widespread
reforms, and an early version of Parliament was summoned in 1265 to
represent the rebel interests.
Middle Ages (1272–1485)
Main article: Social history of the Late
Middle Ages Early
15th-century depiction of Edward III , shown wearing the chivalric
symbols of the
Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
On becoming king in 1272, Edward I reestablished royal power,
overhauling the royal finances and appealing to the broader English
elite by using Parliament to authorise the raising of new taxes and to
hear petitions concerning abuses of local governance. This political
balance collapsed under Edward II and savage civil wars broke out
during the 1320s. Edward III restored order once more with the help
of a majority of the nobility, exercising power through the exchequer
, the common bench and the royal household. This government was
better organised and on a larger scale than ever before, and by the
14th century the king's formerly peripatetic chancery had to take up
permanent residence in
Westminster . Edward used Parliament even more
than his predecessors to handle general administration, to legislate
and to raise the necessary taxes to pay for the wars in France. The
royal lands—and incomes from them—had diminished over the years,
and increasingly frequent taxation was required to support royal
initiatives. Edward held elaborate chivalric events in an effort to
unite his supporters around the symbols of knighthood. The ideal of
chivalry continued to develop throughout the 14th century, reflected
in the growth of knightly orders (including the
Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter ),
grand tournaments and round table events.
Society and government in
England in the early 14th century were
challenged by the Great Famine and the Black Death. The economic and
demographic crisis created a sudden surplus of land, undermining the
ability of landowners to exert their feudal rights and causing a
collapse in incomes from rented lands. Wages soared, as employers
competed for a scarce workforce. Legislation was introduced to limit
wages and to prevent the consumption of luxury goods by the lower
classes, with prosecutions coming to take up most of the legal
system's energy and time. A poll tax was introduced in 1377 that
spread the costs of the war in France more widely across the whole
population. The tensions spilled over into violence in the summer of
1381 in the form of the Peasants' Revolt; a violent retribution
followed, with as many as 7,000 alleged rebels executed. A new class
of gentry emerged as a result of these changes, renting land from the
major nobility to farm out at a profit. The legal system continued to
expand during the 14th century, dealing with an ever-wider set of
By the time that Richard II was deposed in 1399, the power of the
major noble magnates had grown considerably; powerful rulers such as
Henry IV would contain them, but during the minority of Henry VI they
controlled the country. The magnates depended upon their income from
rent and trade to allow them to maintain groups of paid, armed
retainers, often sporting controversial livery, and buy support
amongst the wider gentry; this system has been dubbed bastard
feudalism . Their influence was exerted both through the House of
Lords at Parliament and through the king's council. The gentry and
wealthier townsmen exercised increasing influence through the House of
Commons , opposing raising taxes to pay for the French wars. By the
1430s and 1440s the English government was in major financial
difficulties, leading to the crisis of 1450 and a popular revolt under
the leadership of
Jack Cade . Law and order deteriorated, and the
crown was unable to intervene in the factional fighting between
different nobles and their followers. The resulting Wars of the Roses
saw a savage escalation of violence between the noble leaderships of
both sides: captured enemies were executed and family lands attainted
. By the time that Henry VII took the throne in 1485, England's
governmental and social structures had been substantially weakened,
with whole noble lines extinguished.
WOMEN IN SOCIETY
Main articles: Women in the
Middle Ages and Anglo-
Saxon women A
depiction of an English woman c. 1170 using a spindle and distaff ,
while caring for a young child
England was a patriarchal society and the lives of women
were heavily influenced by contemporary beliefs about gender and
authority. However, the position of women varied considerably
according to various factors, including their social class ; whether
they were unmarried, married, widowed or remarried; and in which part
of the country they lived. Significant gender inequities persisted
throughout the period, as women typically had more limited
life-choices, access to employment and trade, and legal rights than
Saxon society, noblewomen enjoyed considerable rights and
status, although the society was still firmly patriarchal. Some
exercised power as abbesses, exerting widespread influence across the
early English Church, although their wealth and authority diminished
with the monastic reforms of the 9th century. Anglo-
began to hold lands in their own right in the 10th century and their
households contributed to the running of the kingdom. Although women
could not lead military forces, in the absence of their husbands some
noblewomen led the defence of manors and towns. Most Anglo-Saxon
women, however, worked on the land as part of the agricultural
community, or as brewers or bakers .
After the Norman invasion, the position of women in society changed.
The rights and roles of women became more sharply defined, in part as
a result of the development of the feudal system and the expansion of
the English legal system; some women benefited from this, while others
lost out. The rights of widows were formally laid down in law by the
end of the 12th century, clarifying the right of free women to own
property, but this did not necessarily prevent women from being
forcibly remarried against their wishes. The growth of governmental
institutions under a succession of bishops reduced the role of queens
and their households in formal government. Married or widowed
noblewomen remained significant cultural and religious patrons and
played an important part in political and military events, even if
chroniclers were uncertain if this was appropriate behaviour. As in
earlier centuries, most women worked in agriculture, but here roles
became more clearly gendered, with ploughing and managing the fields
defined as men's work, for example, and dairy production becoming
dominated by women.
The years after the
Black Death left many women widows; in the wider
economy labour was in short supply and land was suddenly readily
available. In rural areas peasant women could enjoy a better standard
of living than ever before, but the amount of work being done by women
may have increased. Many other women travelled to the towns and
cities, to the point where they outnumbered men in some settlements.
There they worked with their husbands, or in a limited number of
occupations, including spinning , making clothes, victualling and as
servants. Some women became full-time ale brewers, until they were
pushed out of business by the male-dominated beer industry in the 15th
century. Higher status jobs and apprenticeships, however, remained
closed to women. As in earlier times, noblewomen exercised power on
their estates in their husbands' absence and again, if necessary,
defended them in sieges and skirmishes. Wealthy widows who could
successfully claim their rightful share of their late husband's
property could live as powerful members of the community in their own
English national identity The English Gothic
vaulted ceiling of St George\'s Chapel , Windsor
An English cultural identity first emerged from the interaction of
the Germanic immigrants of the 5th and 6th centuries and the
indigenous Romano-British inhabitants. Although early medieval
chroniclers described the immigrants as
Angles and Saxons, they came
from a much wider area across Northern Europe, and represented a range
of different ethnic groups. Over the 6th century, however, these
different groups began to coalesce into stratified societies across
England, roughly corresponding to the later Angle and
Bede in the 8th century. By the 9th century, the term the
Angelcynn was being officially used to refer to a single English
people, and promoted for propaganda purposes by chroniclers and kings
to inspire resistance to the Danish invasions.
Normans and French who arrived after the conquest saw themselves
as different from the English. They had close family and economic
links to the Duchy of Normandy, spoke
Norman French and had their own
distinctive culture. For many years, to be English was to be
associated with military failure and serfdom. During the 12th
century, the divisions between the English and
Normans began to
dissolve as a result of intermarriage and cohabitation. By the end of
the 12th century, and possibly as early as the 1150, contemporary
commentators believed the two peoples to be blending, and the loss of
the Duchy in 1204 reinforced this trend. The resulting society still
prized wider French cultural values, however, and French remained the
language of the court, business and international affairs, even if
Parisians mocked the English for their poor pronunciation. By the
14th century, however, French was increasingly having to be formally
taught, rather than being learnt naturally in the home, although the
aristocracy would typically spend many years of their lives in France
and remained entirely comfortable working in French.
During the 12th and 13th centuries, the English began to consider
themselves superior to the Welsh, Scots and
Bretons . The English
perceived themselves as civilised, economically prosperous and
properly Christian, while the
Celtic fringe was considered lazy,
barbarous and backward. Following the invasion of Ireland in the late
12th century, similar feelings were expressed about the Irish, with
the distinctions clarified and reinforced in 14th-century English
legislation. The English also felt strongly about the foreign traders
who lived in the special enclaves in London in the Late Middle Ages;
the position of the Jews is described below, but Italian and Baltic
traders were also regarded as aliens and were frequently the targets
of violence during economic downturns. Even within England, different
identities abounded, each with their own sense of status and
importance. Regional identities could be important - men and women
Yorkshire , for example, had a clear identity within English
society, and professional groups with a distinct identity, such as
lawyers, engaged in open fighting with others in cities such as
History of the Jews in England (1066–1290)
Clifford\'s Tower in the city of
York , the site of an anti-Jewish
pogrom in 1190
The Jewish community played an important role in
much of the period. The first Jews arrived in
England in the aftermath
of the Norman invasion, when
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror brought over
wealthy members of the
Rouen community in Normandy to settle in
London. The Jewish community expanded out across
England and provided
essential money-lending and banking services that were otherwise
banned by the usury laws . During the 12th century, the Jewish
financial community grew richer still, operating under royal
protection and providing the king with a source of ready credit. All
major towns had Jewish centres, and even the smaller towns saw visits
by travelling Jewish merchants. Towards the end of Henry II's reign,
however, the king ceased to borrow from the Jewish community and
instead turned to extracting money from them through arbitrary
taxation and fines. The Jews became vilified and accusations were
made that they conducted ritual child murder , encouraging the pogroms
carried out against Jewish communities in the reign of Richard I.
After an initially peaceful start to John's reign, the king again
began to extort money from the Jewish community and, with the
breakdown in order in 1215, the Jews were subject to fresh attacks.
Henry III restored some protection and Jewish money-lending began to
recover. Despite this, the Jewish community became increasingly
impoverished and was finally expelled from
England in 1290 by Edward
I, being replaced by foreign merchants.
Religion in Medieval England
RISE OF CHRISTIANITY
Gregorian mission and
Saxon reliquary cross , with English-carved walrus ivory Christ
and German gold and cedar cross, c. 1000
Christianity had been the official imperial religion of the Roman
Empire, and the first churches were built in
England in the second
half of the 4th century, overseen by a hierarchy of bishops and
priests. Many existing pagan shrines were converted to Christian use
and few pagan sites still operated by the 5th century. The collapse
of the Roman system in the late 5th century, however, brought about
the end of formal Christian religion in the east of England, and the
new Germanic immigrants arrived with their own polytheistic gods,
Thunor and Tiw , still reflected in various English
place names. Despite the resurgence of paganism in England, Christian
communities still survived in more western areas such as
The movement towards
Christianity began again in the late 6th and 7th
centuries, helped by the conversion of the
Franks in Northern France,
who carried considerable influence in England.
Pope Gregory I sent a
team of missionaries to convert King
Æthelberht of Kent
Æthelberht of Kent and his
household, starting the process of converting Kent. Augustine became
Archbishop of Canterbury and started to build new churches
across the South-East, reusing existing pagan shrines. Oswald and
Oswiu , kings of Northumbria, were converted in the 630s and 640s, and
the wave of change carried on through the middle of the 7th century
across the kingdoms of Mercia, the South Saxons and the Isle of Wight
. The process was largely complete by the end of the 7th century, but
left a confusing and disparate array of local practices and religious
ceremonies. This new
Christianity reflected the existing military
culture of the Anglo-Saxons: as kings began to convert in the 6th and
7th centuries, conversion began to be used as a justification for war
against the remaining pagan kingdoms, for example, while Christian
saints were imbued with martial properties.
Viking invasions of the 8th and 9th centuries reintroduced
paganism to North-East England, leading in turn to another wave of
conversion. Indigenous Scandinavian beliefs were very similar to other
Germanic groups, with a pantheon of gods including
Ullr , combined with a belief in a final, apocalyptic battle called
Ragnarok . The Norse settlers in
England were converted relatively
quickly, assimilating their beliefs into
Christianity in the decades
following the occupation of York, which the
Archbishop had survived.
The process was largely complete by the early 10th century and enabled
England's leading Churchmen to negotiate with the warlords. As the
Norse in mainland
Scandinavia started to convert , many mainland
rulers recruited missionaries from
England to assist in the process.
Fountains Abbey , one of the new Cistercian monasteries built in
the 12th century
With the conversion of much of
England in the 6th and 7th centuries,
there was an explosion of local church building. English monasteries
formed the main basis for the church, however, and were often
sponsored by local rulers, taking various forms, including mixed
communities headed by abbesses , bishop-led communities of monks , and
others formed around married priests and their families. Cathedrals
were constructed, staffed either with secular canons in the European
tradition or, uniquely to England, chapters of monks. These
institutions were badly affected in the 9th century by
and predatory annexations by the nobility. By the start of the 10th
century, monastic lands, financial resources and the quality of
monasteries' religious work had been much diminished. Reforms
followed under the kings of
Wessex who promoted the Benedictine rule
then popular on the Continent. A reformed network of around 40
monastic institutions across the south and east of England, under the
protection of the king, helped re-establish royal control over the
The 1066 Norman conquest brought a new set of Norman and French
churchmen to power; some adopted and embraced aspects of the former
Saxon religious system, while others introduced practices from
Normandy. Extensive English lands were granted to monasteries in
Normandy, allowing them to create daughter priories and monastic cells
across the kingdom. The monasteries were brought firmly into the web
of feudal relations, with their holding of land linked to the
provision of military support to the crown. The
Normans adopted the
Saxon model of monastic cathedral communities, and within
seventy years the majority of English cathedrals were controlled by
monks; every English cathedral, however, was rebuilt to some extent by
the new rulers. England's bishops remained powerful temporal figures,
and in the early 12th-century raised armies against Scottish invaders
and built up extensive holdings of castles across the country.
New orders began to be introduced into England. As ties to Normandy
waned, the French
Cluniac order became fashionable and their houses
were introduced in England. The
Augustinians spread quickly from the
beginning of the 12th century onwards, while later in the century the
Cistercians reached England, creating houses with a more austere
interpretation of the monastic rules and building the great abbeys of
Rievaulx and Fountains . By 1215, there were over 600 monastic
communities in England, but new endowments slowed during the 13th
century, creating long-term financial problems for many institutions.
The Dominican and
Franciscan friars arrived in
England during the
1220s, establishing 150 friaries by the end of the 13th century; these
mendicant orders rapidly became popular, particularly in towns, and
heavily influenced local preaching. The religious military orders
that became popular across Europe from the 12th century onwards
acquired possessions in England, including the
Templars , Teutons and
CHURCH, STATE AND HERESY
Church and state in medieval Europe
Mid-13th-century depiction of the death of
The Church had a close relationship with the English state throughout
the Middle Ages. The bishops and major monastic leaders played an
important part in national government, having key roles on the king's
council. Bishops often oversaw towns and cities, managing local
taxation and government . This frequently became untenable with the
Viking incursions of the 9th century, and in locations such as
Worcester the local bishops came to new accommodations with the local
ealdormen, exchanging some authority and revenue for assistance in
defence. The early English church was racked with disagreement on
doctrine , which was addressed by the
Synod of Whitby in 664; some
issues were resolved, but arguments between the archbishops of
York as to which had primacy across Britain began
shortly afterwards and continued throughout most of the medieval
William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror acquired the support of the Church for the
England by promising ecclesiastical reform. William
promoted celibacy amongst the clergy and gave ecclesiastical courts
more power, but also reduced the Church's direct links to
made it more accountable to the king. Tensions arose between these
practices and the reforming movement of
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII , which
advocated greater autonomy from royal authority for the clergy,
condemned the practice of simony and promoted greater influence for
the papacy in church matters. Despite the bishops continuing to play
a major part in royal government, tensions emerged between the kings
England and key leaders within the English Church. Kings and
archbishops clashed over rights of appointment and religious policy,
and successive archbishops including Anselm ,
Theobald of Bec
Theobald of Bec , Thomas
Stephen Langton were variously forced into exile, arrested
by royal knights or even killed. By the early 13th century, however,
the church had largely won its argument for independence, answering
almost entirely to Rome.
In the 1380s, several challenges emerged to the traditional teachings
of the Church, resulting from the teachings of
John Wycliffe , a
Oxford University . Wycliffe argued that scripture was the
best guide to understanding God's intentions, and that the superficial
nature of the liturgy , combined with the abuses of wealth within the
Church and the role of senior churchmen in government, distracted from
that study. A loose movement that included many members of the gentry
pursued these ideas after Wycliffe's death in 1384 and attempted to
pass a Parliamentary bill in 1395: the movement was rapidly condemned
by the authorities and was termed "
Lollardy ". The English bishops
were charged to control and counter this trend, disrupting Lollard
preachers and to enforcing the teaching of suitable sermons in local
churches. By the early 15th century, combating Lollard teachings had
become a key political issue, championed by Henry IV and his
Lancastrian followers, who used the powers of both the church and
state to combat the heresy .
PILGRIMAGES AND CRUSADES
A pilgrim 's flask, carried as a protective talisman, containing
holy water from the shrine of
Thomas Becket in Canterbury
Pilgrimages were a popular religious practice throughout the Middle
Ages in England, with the tradition dating back to the Roman period.
Typically pilgrims would travel short distances to a shrine or a
particular church, either to do penance for a perceived sin, or to
seek relief from an illness or other condition. Some pilgrims
travelled further, either to more distant sites within Britain or, in
a few cases, onto the continent.
During the Anglo-
Saxon period, many shrines were built on former
pagan sites which became popular pilgrimage destinations, while other
pilgrims visited prominent monasteries and sites of learning. Senior
nobles or kings would travel to
Rome , which was a popular destination
from the 7th century onwards; sometimes these trips were a form of
convenient political exile. Under the Normans, religious institutions
with important shrines, such as Glastonbury , Canterbury and
Winchester , promoted themselves as pilgrimage destinations,
maximising the value of the historic miracles associated with the
sites. Accumulating relics became an important task for ambitious
institutions, as these were believed to hold curative powers and lent
status to the site. Indeed, by the 12th century reports of posthumous
miracles by local saints were becoming increasing common in England,
adding to the attractiveness of pilgrimages to prominent relics.
Participation in the
Crusades was also seen as a form of pilgrimage,
and indeed the same Latin word, peregrinatio, was sometimes applied to
both activities. While English participation in the First Crusade
between 1095 and 1099 was limited,
England played a prominent part in
the Second , Third and Fifth
Crusades over the next two centuries,
with many crusaders leaving for the Levant during the intervening
years. The idea of undertaking a pilgrimage to
Jerusalem was not new
in England, however, as the idea of religiously justified warfare went
back to Anglo-
Saxon times. Many of those who took up the Cross to go
on a Crusade never actually left, often because the individual lacked
sufficient funds to undertake the journey. Raising funds to travel
typically involved crusaders selling or mortgaging their lands and
possessions, which affected their families and, at times, considerably
affected the economy as a whole.
ECONOMY AND TECHNOLOGY
Geography of England 15th-century depiction of an
English hunting park
England had a diverse geography in the medieval period, from the
East Anglia or the heavily wooded
Weald , through to the
upland moors of
Yorkshire . Despite this, medieval
formed two zones, roughly divided by the rivers Exe and Tees : the
south and east of
England had lighter, richer soils, able to support
both arable and pastoral agriculture, while the poorer soils and
colder climate of the north and west produced a predominantly pastoral
economy. Slightly more land was covered by trees than in the 20th
century, and bears , beavers and wolves lived wild in England, bears
being hunted to extinction by the 11th century and beavers by the
12th. Of the 10,000 miles of roads that had been built by the Romans,
many remained in use and four were of particular strategic
Icknield Way , the
Fosse Way ,
Ermine Street and
Watling Street —which criss-crossed the entire country. The road
system was adequate for the needs of the period, although it was
significantly cheaper to transport goods by water. The major river
networks formed key transport routes, while many English towns formed
navigable inland ports .
For much of the Middle Ages, England's climate differed from that in
the 21st century. Between the 9th and 13th centuries
Medieval Warm Period , a prolonged period of warmer
temperatures; in the early 13th century, for example, summers were
around 1 °C warmer than today and the climate was slightly drier.
These warmer temperatures allowed poorer land to be brought into
cultivation and for grapevines to be cultivated relatively far north.
The Warm Period was followed by several centuries of much cooler
temperatures, termed the
Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age ; by the 14th century spring
temperatures had dropped considerably, reaching their coldest in the
1340s and 1350s. This cold end to the
Middle Ages significantly
affected English agriculture and living conditions.
Even at the start of the
Middle Ages the English landscape had been
shaped by human occupation over many centuries. Much woodland was
new, the result of fields being reclaimed by brush after the collapse
of the Roman Empire. Human intervention had established wood pastures
, an ancient system for managing woods and animals, and coppicing , a
more intensive approach to managing woodlands. Other agricultural
lands included arable fields and pastorage, while in some parts of the
country, such as the South-West, waste moorland remained testament to
earlier over-farming in the
Bronze Age . England's environment
continued to be shaped throughout the period, through the building of
dykes to drain marshes, tree clearance and the large-scale extraction
of peat . Managed parks for hunting game, including deer and boars,
were built as status symbols by the nobility from the 12th century
onwards, but earlier versions of parks, such as hays , may have
originated as early as the 7th century.
ECONOMY AND DEMOGRAPHICS
Economy of England in the Middle Ages and Demography
England The central hall of a restored 13th-century house ,
originally built with the profits from European trade
The English economy was fundamentally agricultural , depending on
growing crops such as wheat , barley and oats on an open field system
, and husbanding sheep , cattle and pigs . In the late Anglo-Saxon
period many peasants moved away from living in isolated hamlets and
instead came together to form larger villages engaged in arable
cultivation. Agricultural land became typically organised around
manors , and was divided between some fields that the landowner would
manage directly, called demesne land, and the majority of the fields
that would be cultivated by local peasants. These peasants would pay
rent to the landowner either through agricultural labour on the lord's
demesne fields or through rent in the form of cash and produce. By
the 11th century, a market economy was flourishing across much of
England, while the eastern and southern towns were heavily involved in
international trade. Around 6,000 watermills were built to grind
flour, freeing up labour for other more productive agricultural tasks.
Although the Norman invasion caused some damage as soldiers looted
the countryside and land was confiscated for castle building, the
English economy was not greatly affected. Taxes were increased,
however, and the
Normans established extensive forests that were
exploited for their natural resources and protected by royal laws .
The next two centuries saw huge growth in the English economy, driven
in part by the increase in the population from around 1.5 million in
1086 to between 4 and 5 million in 1300. More land, much of it at the
expense of the royal forests, was brought into production to feed the
growing population and to produce wool for export to Europe. Many
hundreds of new towns, some of them planned communities , were built
across England, supporting the creation of guilds , charter fairs and
other medieval institutions which governed the growing trade. Jewish
financiers played a significant role in funding the growing economy,
along with the new Cistercian and Augustinian religious orders that
emerged as major players in the wool trade of the north. Mining
increased in England, with a silver boom in the 12th century helping
to fuel the expansion of the money supply .
Economic growth began to falter at the end of the 13th century, owing
to a combination of overpopulation , land shortages and depleted soils
. The Great Famine shook the English economy severely and population
growth ceased; the first outbreak of the
Black Death in 1348 then
killed around half the English population. The agricultural sector
shrank rapidly, with higher wages, lower prices and diminishing
profits leading to the final demise of the old demesne system and the
advent of the modern farming system centring on the charging of cash
rents for lands. As returns on land fell, many estates, and in some
cases entire settlements, were simply abandoned, and nearly 1,500
villages were deserted during this period. A new class of gentry
emerged who rented farms from the major nobility. Unsuccessful
government attempts were made to regulate wages and consumption, but
these largely collapsed in the decades following the Peasants' Revolt
The English cloth industry grew considerably at the start of the 15th
century, and a new class of international English merchant emerged,
typically based in London or the South-West, prospering at the expense
of the older, shrinking economies of the eastern towns. These new
trading systems brought about the end of many of the international
fairs and the rise of the chartered company . Fishing in the North
Sea expanded into deeper waters, backed by commercial investment from
major merchants. Between 1440 and 1480, however, Europe entered a
England suffered the Great Slump : trade collapsed,
driving down agricultural prices, rents and ultimately the acceptable
levels of royal taxation. The resulting tensions and discontent
played an important part in Jack Cade's popular uprising in 1450 and
the subsequent Wars of the Roses. By the end of
Middle Ages the
economy had begun to recover and considerable improvements were being
made in metalworking and shipbuilding that would shape the Early
TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
Main articles: Science in the
Middle Ages and
A medieval carving from
Rievaulx Abbey showing one of the many new
windmills established during the 13th century
Technology and science in
England advanced considerably during the
Middle Ages, driven in part by the Greek and Islamic thinking that
England from the 12th century onwards. Many advances were
made in scientific ideas, including the introduction of Arabic
numerals and a sequence of improvements in the units used for
measuring time . Clocks were first built in
England in the late 13th
century, and the first mechanical clocks were certainly being
installed in cathedrals and abbeys by the 1320s.
Astrology , magic
and palm reading were also considered important forms of knowledge in
medieval England, although some doubted their reliability.
The period produced some influential English scholars.
Roger Bacon ,
a philosopher and
Franciscan friar, produced works on natural
philosophy , astronomy and alchemy ; his work set out the theoretical
basis for future experimentation in the natural sciences. William of
Ockham helped to fuse Latin, Greek and Islamic writing into a general
theory of logic; "Ockham\'s Razor " was one of his oft-cited
conclusions. English scholars since the time of
Bede had believed the
world was probably round, but
Johannes de Sacrobosco estimated the
circumference of the earth in the 13th century. Despite the
limitations of medieval medicine ,
Gilbertus Anglicus published the
Compendium Medicinae, one of the longest medical works ever written in
Latin. Prominent historical and science texts began to be translated
into English for the first time in the second half of the 14th
century, including the Polychronicon and The Travels of Sir John
Mandeville . The universities of Oxford and Cambridge were
established during the 11th and 12th centuries, drawing on the model
University of Paris
University of Paris .
Technological advances proceeded in a range of areas. Watermills to
grind grain had existed during most of the Anglo-
Saxon period, using
horizontal mill designs; from the 12th century on many more were
built, eliminating the use of hand mills, with the older horizontal
mills gradually supplanted by a new vertical mill design. Windmills
began to be built in the late 12th century and slowly became more
common. Water-powered fulling mills and powered hammers first
appeared in the 12th century; water power was harnessed to assist in
smelting by the 14th century, with the first blast furnace opening in
1496. New mining methods were developed and horse-powered pumps were
installed in English mines by the end of the Middle Ages. The
introduction of hopped beer transformed the brewing industry in the
14th century, and new techniques were invented to better preserve
fish. Glazed pottery became widespread in the 12th and 13th
centuries, with stoneware pots largely replacing wooden plates and
bowls by the 15th century.
William Caxton and
Wynkyn de Worde
Wynkyn de Worde began
using the printing press during the late 15th century. Transport
links were also improved; many road bridges were either erected or
rebuilt in stone during the long economic boom of the 12th and 13th
centuries. England's maritime trade benefited from the introduction of
cog ships , and many docks were improved and fitted with cranes for
the first time.
Medieval warfare The 15th-century Coventry Sallet
Warfare was endemic in early Anglo-
Saxon England, and major conflicts
still occurred approximately every generation in the later period.
Groups of well-armed noblemen and their households formed the heart of
these armies, supported by larger numbers of temporary troops levied
from across the kingdom, called the fyrd . By the 9th century, armies
of 20,000 men could be called up for campaigns, with another 28,000
men available to guard urban defences. The most common weapon was the
spear , with swords used by the wealthier nobles; cavalry was probably
less common than in wider Europe, but some
Anglo-Saxons did fight from
Viking attacks on
England in the 9th century led to
developments in tactics, including the use of shield walls in battle,
and the Scandinavian seizure of power in the 11th century introduced
housecarls, a form of elite household soldier who protected the king.
Anglo-Norman warfare was characterised by attritional military
campaigns, in which commanders tried to raid enemy lands and seize
castles in order to allow them to take control of their adversaries'
territory, ultimately winning slow but strategic victories. Pitched
battles were occasionally fought between armies but these were
considered risky engagements and usually avoided by prudent
commanders. The armies of the period comprised bodies of mounted,
armoured knights , supported by infantry . Crossbowmen become more
numerous in the 12th century, alongside the older shortbow . At the
heart of these armies was the familia regis, the permanent military
household of the king, which was supported in war by feudal levies,
drawn up by local nobles for a limited period of service during a
campaign. Mercenaries were increasingly employed, driving up the cost
of warfare considerably, and adequate supplies of ready cash became
essential for the success of campaigns.
In the late 13th century Edward I expanded the familia regis to
become a small standing army, forming the core of much larger armies
up to 28,700 strong, largely comprising foot soldiers, for campaigns
in Scotland and France. By the time of Edward III, armies were
smaller in size, but the troops were typically better equipped and
uniformed, and the archers carried the longbow , a potentially
devastating weapon. Cannons were first used by English forces at
battles such as Crécy in 1346. Soldiers began to be contracted for
specific campaigns, a practice which may have hastened the development
of the armies of retainers that grew up under bastard feudalism. By
the late 15th century, however, English armies were somewhat backward
by wider European standards; the
Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses were fought by
inexperienced soldiers, often with outdated weapons, allowing the
European forces which intervened in the conflict to have a decisive
effect on the outcomes of battles.
Medieval naval warfare A reconstruction of a
The first references to an
English navy occur in 851, when
Wessex ships defeating a
Viking fleet. These
early fleets were limited in size but grew in size in the 10th
century, allowing the power of
Wessex to be projected across the Irish
Sea and the
English Channel ; Cnut's fleet had as many as 40 vessels,
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor could muster 80 ships. Some ships were
manned by sailors called lithesmen and bustsecarls, probably drawn
from the coastal towns, while other vessels were mobilised as part of
a national levy and manned by their regular crews. Naval forces
played an important role during the rest of the Middle Ages, enabling
the transportation of troops and supplies, raids into hostile
territory and attacks on enemy fleets. English naval power became
particularly important after the loss of Normandy in 1204, which
English Channel from a friendly transit route into a
contested and critical border region. English fleets in the 13th and
14th centuries typically comprised specialist vessels, such as galleys
and large transport ships, and pressed merchant vessels conscripted
into action; the latter increasingly included cogs , a new form of
sailing ship. Battles might be fought when one fleet found another at
anchor, such as the English victory at Sluys in 1340, or in more open
waters, as off the coast of Winchelsea in 1350; raiding campaigns,
such as the French attacks on the south of
England between 1338 and
1339, could cause devastation from which some towns never fully
English castles and List of town walls in
Wales A reconstruction of the city of
York in the 15th century,
showing the city walls , the Old Baile (left) and
Many of the fortifications built by the Romans in
into the Middle Ages, including the walls surrounding their military
forts and cities. These defences were often reused during the
unstable post-Roman period. The Anglo-
Saxon kings undertook
significant planned urban expansion in the 8th and 9th centuries,
creating burhs, often protected with earth and wood ramparts. Burh
walls sometimes utilised older Roman fortifications, both for
practical reasons and to bolster their owners' reputations through the
symbolism of former Roman power.
Although a small number of castles had been built in
the 1050s, after the conquest the
Normans began to build timber motte
and bailey and ringwork castles in large numbers to control their
newly occupied territories. During the 12th century the
to build more castles in stone, with characteristic square keeps that
supported both military and political functions. Royal castles were
used to control key towns and forests, whilst baronial castles were
used by the Norman lords to control their widespread estates; a feudal
system called the castle-guard was sometimes used to provide
garrisons. Castles and sieges continued to grow in military
sophistication during the 12th century, and in the 13th century new
defensive town walls were constructed across England.
By the 14th century, castles were combining defences with luxurious,
sophisticated living arrangements and landscaped gardens and parks.
Early gunpowder weapons were used to defend castles by the end of the
14th century and gunports became an essential feature for a
fashionable castle. The economics of maintaining castles meant that
many were left to decline or abandoned; in contrast, a small number of
castles were developed by the very wealthy into palaces that hosted
lavish feasts and celebrations amid elaborate architecture. Smaller
defensible structures called tower houses emerged in the north of
England to protect against the Scottish threat. By the late medieval
period, town walls were increasingly less military in character and
more often expressions of civic pride or part of urban governance:
many grand gatehouses were built in the 14th and 15th centuries for
Anglo-Saxon art and
Medieval art Anglo-Saxon
shoulder clasp , with geometric designs and zoomorphic boars on the
England produced art in the form of paintings, carvings,
books, fabrics and many functional but beautiful objects. A wide
range of materials were used, including gold, glass and ivory, the art
usually drawing overt attention to the materials utilised in the
Saxon artists created carved ivories , illuminated
manuscripts , embroidered cloths, crosses and stone sculpture,
although relatively few of these have survived to the modern period.
They produced a wide range of metalwork , frequently using gold and
garnets , with brooches, buckles, sword hilts and drinking horns
particularly favoured designs. Early designs, such as those found at
Sutton Hoo burial , used a zoomorphic style, heavily influenced by
German fashions, in which animal shapes were distorted into flowing
shapes and positioned alongside geometric patterns. From the 7th
century onwards more naturalistic designs became popular, showing a
plasticity of form and incorporating both animals and people into the
designs. In the 10th century, Carolingian styles , inspired by
Classical imagery, began to enter from the continent, becoming widely
used in the reformed Benedictine monasteries across the south and east
The Norman conquest introduced northern French artistic styles,
particular in illuminated manuscripts and murals, and reduced the
demand for carvings. In other artistic areas, including embroidery,
Saxon influence remained evident into the 12th century, and
Bayeux Tapestry is an example of older styles being
reemployed under the new regime.
Stained glass became a distinctive
form of English art during this later medieval period, although the
coloured glass for these works was almost entirely imported from
Europe. Little early stained glass in
England has survived, but it
typically had both an ornamental and educational function, while later
works also commemorated the sponsors of the windows into the designs.
English tapestry making and embroidery in the early 14th century were
of an especially high quality; works produced by nuns and London
professionals were exported across Europe, becoming known as the opus
anglicanum . English illuminated books, such as the Queen Mary
Psalter , were also famous in this period, featuring rich decoration,
a combination of grotesque and natural figures and rich colours. The
quality of illuminated art in
England declined significantly in the
face of competition from
Flanders in the 14th century, and later
English illuminated medieval pieces generally imitated Flemish styles.
LITERATURE, DRAMA AND MUSIC
Old English literature ,
Anglo-Norman literature ,
Middle English literature ,
Music in Medieval England , and Medieval
theatre The Ellesmere illuminated manuscript of the Canterbury
Geoffrey Chaucer , early 15th-century, showing the Knight
Anglo-Saxons produced extensive poetry in
Old English , some of
which was written down as early as the 9th century, although most
surviving poems were compiled in the 10th and early 11th century.
Beowulf , probably written between 650 and 750, is typical of these
poems, portraying a vivid, heroic tale, ending with the protagonist's
death at the hands of a dragon , but still showing signs of the new
Christian influences in England.
Old English was also used for
academic and courtly writing from the 9th century onwards, including
translations of popular foreign works, including The
Pastoral Care .
Poetry and stories written in French were popular after the Norman
conquest, and by the 12th century some works on English history began
to be produced in French verse. Romantic poems about tournaments and
courtly love became popular in Paris and this fashion spread into
England in the form of lays; stories about the court of King Arthur
were also fashionable, due in part to the interest of Henry II.
English continued to be used on a modest scale to write local
religious works and some poems in the north of England, but most major
works were produced in Latin or French. In the reign of Richard II
there was an upsurge in the use of
Middle English in poetry, sometimes
termed "Ricardian poetry", although the works still emulated French
fashions. The work of
Geoffrey Chaucer from the 1370s onwards,
however, culminating in the influential
Canterbury Tales , was
uniquely English in style. Major pieces of courtly poetry continued
to be produced into the 15th century by Chaucher's disciples, and
Thomas Malory compiled the older Arthurian tales to produce Le Morte
Music and singing were important in
England during the medieval
period, being used in religious ceremonies, court occasions and to
accompany theatrical works. Singing techniques called gymel were
England in the 13th century, accompanied by instruments
such as the guitar , harp , pipes and organ . Henry IV sponsored an
extensive range of music in England, while his son Henry V brought
back many influences from occupied France. Carols became an important
form of music in the 15th century; originally these had been a song
sung during a dance with a prominent refrain — the 15th century form
lost the dancing and introduced strong religious overtones. Ballads
were also popular from the late 14th century onwards, including the
Ballad of Chevy Chase and others describing the activities of Robin
Miracle plays were performed to communicate the Bible in
various locations. By the late 14th century, these had been extended
into vernacular mystery plays which performed annually over several
days, broken up into various cycles of plays; a handful have survived
into the 21st century. Guilds competed to produce the best plays in
each town and performances were often an expression of civic identity.
Main articles: Anglo-
Saxon architecture and English Gothic
architecture The Romanesque All Saints\' Church, Brixworth ,
late 7th–8th century
In the century after the collapse of the Romano-British economy, very
few substantial buildings were constructed and many villas and towns
were abandoned. New long - and round-houses were constructed in some
settlements, while in others timber buildings were built imitating the
older Roman styles. The Germanic immigrants constructed small
rectangular buildings from wood, and occasionally grander halls.
However, the conversion to
Christianity in the 6th and 7th centuries
reintroduced Italian and French masons , and these craftsmen built
stone churches, low in height, following a narrow, rectangular plan,
plastered inside and fitted with glass and colourful vestments . This
Romanesque style developed throughout the period, featuring
characteristic circular arches. By the 10th and 11th centuries, much
larger churches and monastery buildings were being built, featuring
square and circular towers after the contemporary European fashion.
The palaces constructed for the nobility centred on great timber
halls, while manor houses began to appear in rural areas.
Normans brought with them architectural styles from their own
duchy, where austere stone churches were preferred. Under the early
Norman kings this style was adapted to produce large, plain cathedrals
with ribbed vaulting . During the 12th century the Anglo-Norman style
became richer and more ornate, with pointed arches derived from French
architecture replacing the curved Romanesque designs; this style is
termed Early English Gothic and continued, with variation, throughout
the rest of the Middle Ages. In the early 14th century the
Perpendicular Gothic style was created in England, with an emphasis on
verticality, immense windows and soaring arcades. Fine timber roofs
in a variety of styles, but in particular the hammerbeam , were built
in many English buildings. In the 15th century the architectural
focus turned away from cathedrals and monasteries in favour of parish
churches, often decorated with richly carved woodwork; in turn, these
churches influenced the design of new chantry chapels for existing
Meanwhile, domestic architecture had continued to develop, with the
Normans, having first occupied the older Anglo-
rapidly beginning to build larger buildings in stone and timber. The
elite preferred houses with large, ground-floor halls but the less
wealthy constructed simpler houses with the halls on the first floor;
master and servants frequently lived in the same spaces. Wealthier
town-houses were also built using stone, and incorporated business and
domestic arrangements into a single functional design. By the 14th
century grander houses and castles were sophisticated affairs:
expensively tiled, often featuring murals and glass windows, these
buildings were often designed as a set of apartments to allow greater
privacy. Fashionable brick began to be used in some parts of the
country, copying French tastes. Architecture that emulated the older
defensive designs remained popular. Less is known about the houses of
peasants during this period, although many peasants appear to have
lived in relatively substantial, timber-framed long-houses; the
quality of these houses improved in the prosperous years following the
Black Death, often being built by professional craftsmen.
A page of
Domesday Book for
Warwickshire ; a key source for
The first history of medieval
England was written by
Bede in the 8th
century; many more accounts of contemporary and ancient history
followed, usually termed chronicles . In the 16th century, the first
academic histories began to be written, typically drawing primarily on
the chroniclers and interpreting them in the light of current
Edward Gibbon 's 18th-century writings were
influential, presenting the medieval period as a dark age between the
Rome and the rebirth of civilisation in the Early Modern
period. Late Victorian historians continued to use the chroniclers as
sources, but also deployed documents such as
Domesday Book and Magna
Carta, alongside newly discovered financial, legal and commercial
records. They produced a progressive account of political and economic
development in England. The growth of the
British Empire spurred
interest in the various periods of English hegemony during the Middle
Ages, including the
Angevin Empire and the Hundred Years' War.
By the 1930s, older historical analyses were challenged by a range of
Marxist and econometric approaches, supported by a
widening body of documentary, archaeological and scientific evidence.
Marxist and Neo-
Marxist analyses continued to be popular in the
post-war years, producing seminal works on economic issues and social
Post-modern analysis became influential in the 1970s and
1980s, focusing on identity, gender, interpretation and culture. Many
studies focused on particular regions or groups, drawing on new
records and new scientific approaches, including landscape and
environmental archaeology . Fresh archaeological finds, such as the
Staffordshire Hoard , continue to challenge previous interpretations,
and historical studies of
England in the
Middle Ages have never been
so diverse as in the early 21st century.
Main article: Depiction of the
Middle Ages in popular culture
Re-enactments of English medieval events, such as the battle of
Tewkesbury shown here, form part of the modern heritage industry
The period has also been used in a wide range of popular culture.
William Shakespeare 's plays on the lives of the medieval kings have
proved to have had long lasting appeal, heavily influencing both
popular interpretations and histories of figures such as King John and
Henry V. Other playwrights have since taken key medieval events, such
as the death of Thomas Becket, and used them to draw out contemporary
themes and issues. The medieval mystery plays continue to be enacted
in key English towns and cities. Film-makers have drawn extensively on
the medieval period, often taking themes from Shakespeare or the Robin
Hood ballads for inspiration.
Historical fiction set in England
Middle Ages remains persistently popular, with the 1980s
and 1990s seeing a particular growth of historical detective fiction .
The period has also inspired fantasy writers, including J. R. R.
Tolkien 's stories of
Middle-earth . English medieval music was
revived from the 1950s, with choral and musical groups attempting to
authentically reproduce the original sounds. Medieval living history
events were first held during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and
the period has inspired a considerable community of historical
re-enactors , part of England's growing heritage industry.
* ^ At the time of the succession crisis, Matilda was married to
Count Geoffrey of Anjou , but she still used the title of Empress from
her first marriage to Henry V , the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor .
* ^ Academics have discussed the fate of Edward II at length. The
majority opinion is that Edward died in 1327 at Berkeley Castle,
possibly murdered; a minority opinion holds that Edward was either
released or escaped, and lived on elsewhere in Europe for many years.
* ^ The term feudalism is controversial in current academic debate
on the medieval period; depending on the definition used, feudalism
may have pre-dated the Conquest instead of being imported by the
Normans, and some academics consider the term unreliable altogether.
* ^ The utility of the term bastard feudalism has been extensively
discussed by historians, with many different conclusions being drawn.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 2–3.
* ^ Fleming, p. 24.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 30, 40.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 76–77, 106-107.
* ^ Fleming, p. 110.
* ^ A B Fleming, p. 205.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 205–207.
* ^ Fleming, p. 208.
* ^ Fleming, p. 271.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 219–221.
* ^ Fleming, p. 220; Williams, p. 327.
* ^ Fleming, p. 270; Yorke, pp. 114, 122.
* ^ Yorke, p. 122; Carpenter, p. 3.
* ^ Fleming, p. 270.
* ^ Fleming, p. 221
* ^ Fleming, p. 314.
* ^ A B Fleming, pp. 314–315.
* ^ A B C Fleming, p. 315.
* ^ Fleming, p. 311; Huscroft, pp. 11, 13, 22-24.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 67, 72-73.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 72–74.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 74–77; Prior, pp. 225–228.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 76.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 110–112.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 125–126.
* ^ Prestwich (1992b), pp. 70–71, 74.
* ^ Chibnall, p. 64.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 131–133.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 134–135.
* ^ Huscroft, pp. 65, 69–71; Carpenter, pp. 124, 138-140.
* ^ Chibnall, pp. 64–65, 75.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 161.
* ^ Davis, p. 78; King (2010), p. 281; Review of King Stephen,
(review no. 1038), David Crouch, Reviews in History, accessed 12 May
* ^ Carpenter, p. 191.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 191; Aurell (2003), p. 15.
* ^ White (2000), pp. 2–7; King (2007), p. 40.
* ^ Warren (2000), pp. 161, 561–562.
* ^ Warren (2000), pp. 131–136, 619-622.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 245, 261-262, 265-268.
* ^ Turner (2009), p. 107.
* ^ Turner (2009), pp. 139, 173–174, 189.
* ^ Turner (2009), p. 195; Barlow (1999), p. 357.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 369, 380.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 380–381.
* ^ Carpener, pp. 468–469.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 495, 505–512.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 477.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 477, 524; Prestwich (1988), pp. 412–415; 554.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 31–34.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 35–36, 52, 54.
* ^ Rubin, p. 54; Doherty, pp. 213–215; Mortimer (2004), pp.
* ^ Mortimer (2008), pp. 80–83.
* ^ Mortimer (2008), pp. 84–90; Rubin, pp. 89, 92–93.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 63–67; Myers, pp. 23–24.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 74–75; Mortimer (2008), pp. 134–136.
* ^ Myers, p. 21.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 78–80, 83; Steane, p. 110.
* ^ Rubin, p. 96; 113–114.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 120–121; Jones, pp. 21–22.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 168–172; Myers, pp. 30–35.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 182–183, 186; Myers, p. 133.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 213–214, 220–223; Myers, pp. 120–121.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 224–227; Myers, pp. 122–125.
* ^ Hicks, pp. 3–8.
* ^ A B C Hicks, p. 5.
* ^ Hicks, pp. 8, 238–245.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 29–21, 33.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 50–51.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 85, 90.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 35.
* ^ A B Whitelock, pp. 97–99.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 100.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 108–109.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 54.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 52–53.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 27, 29.
* ^ Huscroft, p. 22.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 54–55; Barlow (1999), pp. 27, 34–35.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 56–5.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 57.
* ^ Lavelle, pp. 2–3; Whitelock, p. 80.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 52, 55–56.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 134–135.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 137.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 140.
* ^ Whitelock pp. 140–141.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 140, 145.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 41–45.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 4; Davies, p. 20; Huscroft, p. 81.
* ^ Burton, p. 21; Barlow (1999), p. 87.
* ^ Huscroft, pp. 78–79.
* ^ Barlow (1999), pp. 78–79.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 84–85; Barlow (1999), pp. 88–89.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 84.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 84–85, 94; Huscroft, p. 104.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 87.
* ^ Danziger and Gillingham, p. 40.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 52.
* ^ Douglas, p. 312.
* ^ Huscroft, p. 85.
* ^ Bartlett, pp. 395–402
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 290–292.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 291; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 41; Postan, pp.
* ^ Huscroft, p. 104.
* ^ Huscroft, p. 95.
* ^ Barlow (1999), p. 320.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 87; Barlow (1999), p. 320; Dyer (2009), pp.
* ^ Pounds (1994), pp. 146–147; Carpenter, pp. 399–401, 410.
* ^ Barlow (1999), pp. 308–309.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 369–370; Stenton, pp. 56–57.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 477–479.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 34–36.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 473–474.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 475.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 479.
* ^ Myers, p. 38; Rubin, p. 78.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 109–111.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 109–112; Barber (2007a), pp. 84–86, 95–96;
Barber (2007b), pp. 151–152.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 228.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 268–269.
* ^ Jones, p. 15.
* ^ Jones, p. 21.
* ^ Jones, pp. 41–43, 149–155, 199-201.
* ^ Myers, pp. 132–133; Hicks, p. 23.
* ^ Hicks, pp. 28–30.
* ^ Coss, p. 102.
* ^ Myers, p. 134–135.
* ^ Myers, pp. 48–49, 137–138.
* ^ Myers, pp. 140–141; Hicks, pp. 65–72.
* ^ Myers, pp. 142–143.
* ^ Hicks, p. 269.
* ^ Mate, pp. 6–7, 97-99.
* ^ Mate, pp. 2–3; Johns, p. 14.
* ^ Mate, pp. 98–99.
* ^ Mate, pp. 6–7.
* ^ Mate, pp. 78.
* ^ Mate, p. 11.
* ^ Mate, p. 12.
* ^ Mate, pp. 14–15.
* ^ Johns, pp. 25, 195-196; Mate, pp. 20–21.
* ^ Mate, pp. 21–23.
* ^ Johns, pp. 30, 69; Johns, pp. 22–25; Mate, p. 25.
* ^ Mate, p. 26.
* ^ Mate, pp. 32, 36.
* ^ Mate, p. 33.
* ^ Mate, pp. 46–47.
* ^ Mate, p. 47.
* ^ Mate, p. 41.
* ^ Mate, p. 57.
* ^ Mate, pp. 64–65.
* ^ Mate, pp. 81–82.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 1.
* ^ Fleming, p. 61.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 62, 65, 75.
* ^ A B Carpenter, p. 3.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 6–7.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 6.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 3–4, p. 8.
* ^ Davies, pp. 18–20; Carpenter, p. 9; Danziger and Gillingham,
* ^ Rubin, p. 8; Carpenter, p. 9.
* ^ Davies, pp. 20–22.
* ^ Rubin, p. 106.
* ^ A B Hicks, pp. 52–53.
* ^ Rubin, p. 8.
* ^ Hillaby, pp. 16–17; Douglas, p. 314.
* ^ Hillaby, pp. 16, 21-22.
* ^ Stenton, pp. 193–194, 197.
* ^ Stenton, p. 194.
* ^ Hillaby, p. 29; Stenton, p. 200.
* ^ Skinner, p. 9; Stenton, p. 199.
* ^ Stenton, p. 200; Hillaby, p. 35.
* ^ Stacey, p. 44.
* ^ Stenton, pp. 193–194.
* ^ A B Fleming, pp. 121, 126.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 21–22; Fleming, p. 127.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 156–157.
* ^ A B Fleming, p. 152.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 152–153.
* ^ Fleming, p. 153.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 160–161.
* ^ Lavelle, pp. 8, 11-12.
* ^ Sawyer, p. 131.
* ^ Lavelle, pp. 319; Rahtz and Watts, pp. 303–305.
* ^ Sawyer, p. 140.
* ^ Nilson, p. 70.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 128–129, 170-173.
* ^ Gilchrist, p. 2.
* ^ A B Fleming, pp. 318–319, 321.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 322–323.
* ^ Fleming, p. 322; Burton, pp. 3–4.
* ^ Burton, pp. 23–24.
* ^ Burton, pp. 29–30.
* ^ Burton, p. 28.
* ^ Burton, pp. 28–29; Nilson, p. 70.
* ^ Huscroft, pp. 126–127; Bradbury, p. 36; Pounds (1994), pp.
* ^ Burton, pp. 36–38.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 444–445.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 446; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 208.
* ^ Carpenter, pp. 448–450; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 209.
* ^ Forey, pp. 98–99, 106-107.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 54–55.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 246–247.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 160–163.
* ^ Burton, p. 21; Barlow (1999), p. 75.
* ^ Barlow (1999), pp. 98, 103-104.
* ^ Barlow (1999), p. 104; Duggan (1965), p. 67, cited Alexander,
* ^ Hollister, p. 168; Alexander, pp. 2–3, 10; Barlow (1986), pp.
* ^ Barlow (1999), p. 361.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 148–149.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 149–150.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 150–151; Aston and Richmond, pp. 1–4.
* ^ Rubin, p. 154.
* ^ Rubin, pp. 188–189; 198-199.
* ^ Webb, p. 1.
* ^ Webb, pp. xiii, xvi.
* ^ Webb, pp. xvi-xvii.
* ^ Webb, pp. 3–5.
* ^ Webb, pp. 5–6.
* ^ Webb, pp. 19–21.
* ^ Webb, pp. 24–27.
* ^ Webb, pp. 35–38.
* ^ Webb, p.xii.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 455.
* ^ Tyerman, pp. 11, 13.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 456.
* ^ Carpenter, p. 458; Tyerman, pp. 16–17.
* ^ Cantor, p. 22.
* ^ Cantor, pp. 22–23.
* ^ A B C Dyer (2009), p. 13.
* ^ Danziger and Gillingham, pp. 48–49.
* ^ Dyer (2000), pp. 261–263.
* ^ Prior, p. 83; Creighton, pp. 41–42.
* ^ Danziger and Gillingham, p. 33; Hughes and Diaz, p. 111.
* ^ Danziger and Gillingham, p. 33.
* ^ Hughes and Diaz, p. 131; Cowie, p. 194.
* ^ Cowie, p. 194.
* ^ Rotherham, p. 79.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 25, 161, 236.
* ^ Rotherham, p. 80; Dyer (2009), p. 13.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 14.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 19, 22.
* ^ A B Bartlett, p. 313.
* ^ Bartlett, p. 313; Dyer (2009), p. 14.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 26.
* ^ Douglas, p. 310; Dyer (2009), pp. 87–88.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 89; Barlow (1999), p. 98.
* ^ Cantor 1982, p. 18.
* ^ Bailey, p. 41; Bartlett, p. 321; Cantor 1982, p. 19.
* ^ Hodgett, p. 57; Bailey, p. 47; Pounds (2005), p. 15.
* ^ Hillaby, p. 16; Dyer (2009), p. 115.
* ^ Blanchard, p. 29.
* ^ A B Jordan, p. 12; Bailey, p. 46; Aberth, pp. 26–7; Cantor
1982, p. 18.
* ^ Hodgett, p. 206; Bailey, p. 46.
* ^ Hodgett, p. 206.
* ^ A B Hodgett, p. 148; Ramsay, p.xxxi; Kowalesk, p. 248.
* ^ Dyers (2009), pp. 291–293.
* ^ Myers, pp. 161–4; Raban, p. 50; Barron, p. 78.
* ^ Bailey, p. 53.
* ^ Hicks, pp. 50–51, 65.
* ^ Geddes, p. 181
* ^ Gillingham and Danziger, p. 237.
* ^ Gillingham and Danziger, p. 237; Humphrey, pp. 106–107.
* ^ Hill, p. 245.
* ^ Gillingham and Danziger, pp. 239, 241.
* ^ Hackett, pp. 9, 16, 19, 20-21.
* ^ Normore, p. 31; Spade, p. 101.
* ^ Gillingham and Danziger, pp. 234–235.
* ^ Getz, p.liii; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 9.
* ^ Myers, p. 99.
* ^ Cobban, p. 101; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 9.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 25–26.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 131.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 212–213, 324-325.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 326–327.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 323.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 214, 324.
* ^ Myers, p. 250.
* ^ Dyer (2009) pp. 214–215.
* ^ Lavelle, pp. 8, 14-15.
* ^ A B Bachrach, p. 76.
* ^ Halsall, p. 185; Davidson, pp. 8–9.
* ^ Hooper (1992a), p. 1, 11; Halsall, p. 185.
* ^ A B Bradbury, p. 71.
* ^ A B Bradbury, p. 74.
* ^ Morillo, p. 52; Prestwich (1992a), pp. 97–99.
* ^ Stringer, pp. 24–25; Morillo, pp. 16–17, 52.
* ^ Prestwich (1992a), p. 93; Carpenter, p. 524.
* ^ Prestwich (2003), pp. 172, 176-177.
* ^ Prestwich (2003), p. 156.
* ^ Prestwich (2003), pp. 173–174; Coss, p. 91.
* ^ Hicks, pp. 9–10; 231-232, 234-235.
* ^ Hooper (1992b), p. 17.
* ^ Hooper (1992b), pp. 18–19, 22.
* ^ Hooper (1992b), pp. 20–24.
* ^ Rose, p. 57.
* ^ Warren (1991), p. 123.
* ^ Turner (2009), p. 106; Warren (1991), p. 123; Rose, p. 69.
* ^ Rose, pp. 64–66, 71; Coppack, pp. 19–20.
* ^ A B Turner (1971), pp. 20–21; Creighton and Higham, pp.
* ^ Turner (1971), pp. 19–20.
* ^ Turner (1971), pp. 19–20: Lavelle, p. 10; Creighton and
Higham, pp. 56–58.
* ^ Liddiard, pp. 22, 24, 37; Brown, p. 24.
* ^ Hulme, p. 213.
* ^ Pounds (1994), pp. 44–45, 66, 75-77.
* ^ Pounds (1994), pp. 107–112; Turner (1971), pp. 23–25.
* ^ Liddiard, pp. 61–63, 98.
* ^ Pounds (1994), pp. 253–255.
* ^ Pounds (1994), pp. 250–251, 271; Johnson, p. 226.
* ^ Pounds (1994), p. 287; Reid, pp. 12, 46.
* ^ Creighton and Higham, p. 166–167.
* ^ A B Kessler, pp. 14, 19.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 224–225.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 224.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 224; Webster, p. 11.
* ^ Webster, p. 11.
* ^ Webster, p. 20.
* ^ Thomas, pp. 368–369.
* ^ Thomas, pp. 372–373.
* ^ Marks (2001), pp. 265–266.
* ^ Baker, p. 2; Marks (1993), p. 3.
* ^ Myers, p. 107.
* ^ Myers, pp. 108–109.
* ^ Myers, p,255.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 207, 213.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 211–213.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 214–217.
* ^ Stenton, pp. 274–275.
* ^ Myers, p. 275; Aurell (2007), p. 363.
* ^ Myers, pp. 96–98.
* ^ Rubin, p. 158; Myers, pp. 98–99.
* ^ Myers, pp. 100–101.
* ^ Mers, pp. 182–183, 250-251.
* ^ Happé, p. 335–336; Danziger and Gillingham, pp. 29–30.
* ^ Myers, pp. 112–113.
* ^ Myers, p. 197.
* ^ Myers, pp. 184–85.
* ^ Myers, p. 186.
* ^ Myers, p. 97.
* ^ Myers, pp. 187–188.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 32–33.
* ^ Fleming, pp. 34–35, 38.
* ^ McClendon, p. 59.
* ^ McClendon, pp. 60, 83-84; Whitelock, p. 225.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 239.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 238–239.
* ^ Whitelock, pp. 88–89; Emery, pp. 21–22.
* ^ Stenton, pp. 268–269.
* ^ Stenton, p. 269.
* ^ Stenton, pp. 270–271.
* ^ Myers, pp. 102, 105.
* ^ A B Myers, p. 105.
* ^ Myers, pp. 190–192.
* ^ A B Emery, p. 24.
* ^ Pantin, pp. 205–206.
* ^ Liddiard, pp. 60–62.
* ^ Liddiard, pp. 64–66.
* ^ Dyer (2000), pp. 153–162.
* ^ Whitelock, p. 11.
* ^ Bevington, p. 432; Vincent, p. 3.
* ^ Sreedharan, pp. 122–123.
* ^ Dyer (2009), p. 4; Coss, p. 81.
* ^ Aurell (2003), p. 15; Vincent, p. 16.
* ^ Hinton, pp. vii–viii; Crouch, pp. 178–9.
* ^ Dyer (2009), pp. 4–6.
* ^ Rubin, p. 325.
* ^ Driver and Ray, pp. 7–14.
* ^ Tiwawi and Tiwawi, p. 90.
* ^ Airlie, pp. 163–164, 177-179; Driver and Ray, pp. 7–14.
* ^ Ortenberg, p. 175; D'haen, pp. 336–337.
* ^ Timmons, pp. 5–6.
* ^ Page, pp. 25–26.
* ^ Redknap, pp. 45–46.
* Bartlett, Robert.
England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings,
1075–1225 (New Oxford History of England) (2002) excerpt and text
* Barlow, Frank (1999). The
Feudal Kingdom of England, 1042–1216.
Harlow, UK: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-582-03081-7 .
* Carpenter, David (2004). The Struggle for Mastery: The Penguin
History of Britain 1066–1284. London: Penguin. ISBN
* Fleming, Robin (2011). Britain After Rome: The Fall and Rise, 400
to 1070. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-014823-7 .
* Given-Wilson, Chris, ed. (1996). An Illustrated History of Late
Medieval England. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN
* Hinton, David (2002). Archaeology, Economy and Society: England
from the Fifth to the Fifteenth Century. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. ISBN
* Hodgett, Gerald (2006). A Social and Economic History of Medieval
Europe. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37707-2 .
* Huscroft, Richard (2005). Ruling England, 1042–1217. Harlow, UK:
Pearson. ISBN 0-582-84882-2 .
* Mate, Mavis E. (2001). Women in Medieval English Society.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58733-4 .
* Myers, A. R. (1978). English Society in the Late Middle Ages,
1066–1307 (8th ed.). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-020234-X
* Rubin, Miri (2006). The Hollow Crown: The Penguin History of
Britain 1272–1485. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-014825-1 .
* Stenton, Doris Mary (1976). English Society in the Early Middle
Ages, 1066–1307. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-020252-8 .
* White, Graeme J. (2000). Restoration and Reform, 1153–1165:
Recovery From Civil War in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55459-6 .
* Whitelock, Dorothy (1972). The Beginnings of English Society (2nd
ed.). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-020245-5 .
* Aurell, Martin (2003). L'Empire des Plantagenêt, 1154–1224 (in
French). Paris: Tempus. ISBN 978-2-262-02282-2 .
* Aurell, Martin (2007). "Henry II and Arthurian Legend". In
Harper-Bill, Christopher; Vincent, Nicholas. Henry II: New
Interpretations. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-340-6
* Barber, Richard (2007a). "Why Did Edward III Hold the Round Table?
Chivalric Background". In Munby, Julian; Barber, Richard; Brown,
Richard. Edward III's Round Table at Windsor. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell
Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-391-8 .
* Barber, Richard (2007b). "The Order of the Round Table". In Munby,
Julian; Barber, Richard; Brown, Richard. Edward III's Round Table at
Windsor. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-391-8 .
* Bradbury, Jim (2009). Stephen and Matilda: the Civil War of
1139–53. Stroud, UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-3793-1 .
* Chibnall, Marjorie (1993). The Empress Matilda: Queen Consort,
Queen Mother and Lady of the English. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. ISBN
* Davis, Ralph Henry Carless (1977). King Stephen (1st ed.). London:
Longman. ISBN 0-582-48727-7 .
* Doherty, P. C. (2003). Isabella and the Strange Death of Edward
II. London: Robinson. ISBN 1-84119-843-9 .
* Douglas, David Charles (1962). William the Conqueror: The Norman
Impact Upon England. Berkeley, US: University of California Press.
ISBN 978-0-520-00348-4 .
* Hollister, C. Warren (2003). Henry I (Yale ed.). New Haven, U.S.:
Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09829-7 .
* King, Edmund (2007). "The Accession of Henry II". In Harper-Bill,
Christopher; Vincent, Nicholas. Henry II: New Interpretations.
Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-340-6 .
* King, Edmund (2010). King Stephen. New Haven, US: Yale University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11223-8 .
* Mortimer, Ian (2008). The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III,
Father of the English Nation. London: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-952709-1
* Prestwich, J. O. (1992a). "The Military Household of the Norman
Kings". In Strickland, Matthew. Anglo-Norman Warfare. Woodbridge, UK:
Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-327-5 .
* Prestwich, Michael (1988). Edward I. Berkeley and Los Angeles, US:
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06266-5 .
* Prestwich, Michael (2003). The Three Edwards: War and State in
England, 1272–1377 (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN
* Raban, Sandra (2000).
England Under Edward I and Edward II,
1259–1327. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22320-7 .
* Stringer, Keith J. (1993). The Reign of Stephen: Kingship, Warfare
and Government in Twelfth-Century England. London: Routledge. ISBN
* Turner, Ralph V. (2009). King John: England\'s Evil King?. Stroud,
UK: History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-4850-3 .
* Vincent, Nicholas (2007). "Introduction: Henry II and the
Historians". In Harper-Bill, Christopher; Vincent, Nicholas. Henry II:
New Interpretations. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN
* Warren, W. Lewis (1991). King John. London: Methuen. ISBN
* Warren, W. L. (2000). Henry II (Yale ed.). New Haven, U.S.: Yale
University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08474-0 .
ARCHITECTURE, CASTLES, CHURCHES, LANDSCAPE
* Baker, John (1978). English Stained Glass of the Medieval Period.
London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27128-3 .
* Brown, R. Allen (1962). English Castles. London: Batsford. OCLC
* Cantor, Leonard (1982). "Introduction: The English Medieval
Landscape". In Cantor, Leonard. The English Medieval Landscape.
London: Croon Helm. ISBN 978-0-7099-0707-7 .
* Coppack, Glyn (2003). Medieval Merchant\'s House, Southampton.
London: English Heritage. ISBN 1-85074-354-1 .
* Creighton, Oliver Hamilton (2005). Castles and Landscapes: Power,
Community and Fortification in Medieval England. London: Equinox. ISBN
* Creighton, Oliver Hamilton; Robert, Higham (2005). Medieval Town
Walls: An Archaeology and Social History of Urban Defence. Stroud, UK:
Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7524-1445-4 .
* Emery, Anthony (2007). Discovering Medieval Houses. Risborough,
Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0655-4 .
* Gilchrist, Roberta (2006). Norwich
Cathedral Close: The Evolution
of the English
Cathedral Landscape. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press.
ISBN 978-1-84383-173-0 .
* Hill, Donald Routledge (1996). A History of Engineering in
Classical and Medieval Times. London: Routledge. ISBN
* Hulme, Richard (2007–2008). "Twelfth Century Great Towers –
The Case for the Defence" (PDF). The
Castle Studies Group Journal
* Liddiard, Robert (2005). Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and
Landscape, 1066 to 1500. Macclesfield, UK: Windgather Press. ISBN
* Marks, Richard (1993). Stained Glass in
England During the Middle
Ages. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-03345-9 .
* Marks, Richard (2001). "Window Glass". In Blair, John; Ramsay,
Nigel. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products.
London: Hambledon Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-326-6 .
* McClendon, Charles B. (2005). The Origins of Medieval
Architecture: Building in Europe, A.D 600-900. New Haven and London:
Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10688-6 .
* Nilson, Ben (2001).
Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England.
Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-808-2 .
* Pantin, W. A. (1963). "Medieval English Town-House Plans" (PDF).
Medieval Archaeology. 6–7: 202–239.
* Pounds, Norman John Greville (1994). The Medieval
England and Wales: A Social and Political History. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45828-3 .
* Pounds, Norman John Greville (2005). The Medieval City. Westport,
US: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32498-7 .
* Prior, Stuart (2006). A Few Well-Positioned Castles: The Norman
Art of War. Stroud, UK: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-7524-3651-7 .
* Reid, Stuart (2006). Castles and Tower Houses of the Scottish
Clans, 1450–1650. Botley, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN
* Rotherham, Ian D. (2007). "The Historical Ecology of Medieval
Parks and the Implications for Conservation". In Liddiard, Robert. The
Medieval Park: New Perspectives. Macclesfield, UK: Windgather Press.
ISBN 978-1-905119-16-5 .
* Steane, John (1999). The Archaeology of the Medieval English
Monarchy. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-19788-5 .
* Aberth, John (2001). From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting
Famine, War, Plague and Death in the Later Middle Ages. London:
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92715-3 .
* Airlie, Stuart (2001). "Strange Eventful Histories: The Middle
Ages in the Cinema". In Linehan, Peter; Nelson, Janet L. The Medieval
World. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-30234-0 .
* Alexander, James W. (1970). "The Becket Controversy in Recent
Historiography". The Journal of British Studies. 9 (2): 1–26. JSTOR
175153 . doi :10.1086/385589 .
* Aston, Margaret; Richmond, Colin (1997). "Introduction". In Aston,
Margaret; Richmond, Colin.
Lollardy and the
Gentry in the Later Middle
Ages. Stroud, UK: Sutton. ISBN 978-0-312-17388-3 .
* Bachrach, Bernard S. (2005). "On Roman Ramparts 300-1300". In
Parker, Geoffrey. The Cambridge History Of Warfare. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85359-0 .
* Bailey, Mark (1996). "Population and Economic Resources". In
Given-Wilson, Chris. An Illustrated History of Late Medieval England.
Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-4152-5 .
* Barlow, Frank (1986). Thomas Becket. London: Weidenfeld and
Nicholson. ISBN 978-0-297-79189-8 .
* Barron, Caroline (2005). London in the Later Middle Ages:
Government and People 1200–1500. Oxford, UK: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-928441-2 .
* Bevington, David (2002). "Literature and the theatre". In
Loewenstein, David; Mueller, Janel M. The Cambridge History of Early
Modern English Literature. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-63156-3 .
* Blanchard, Ian (2002). "Lothian and Beyond: the Economy of the
"English Empire" of David I". In Britnell, Richard; Hatcher, John.
Progress and Problems in Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Edward
Miller. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Burton, Janet E. (1994). Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain,
1000–1300. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Cobban, Alan B. (1975). The Medieval Universities: Their
Development and Organization. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-81250-3
* Coss, Peter (2002). "From
Feudalism to Bastard Feudalism". In
Fryde, Natalie; Monnet, Pierre; Oexle, Oto. The Presence of Feudalism.
Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. ISBN 978-3-525-35391-2
* Cowie, Jonathan (2007). Climate Change: Biological and Human
Aspects. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Crouch, David (2005). The Birth of Nobility: Constructing
England and France : 900–1300. Harlow: Pearson. ISBN
* Danziger, Danny; Gillingham, John (2004). 1215: The Year of Magna
Carta. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-82475-7 .
* Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1998). The
Sword in Anglo-
Its Archaeology and Literature. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN
* Davies, R. R. (1990). Domination and Conquest: The Experience of
Ireland, Scotland and Wales, 1100–1300. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02977-3 .
* Driver, Martha W.; Ray, Sid (2009). "General Introduction". In
Driver, Martha W.; Ray, Sid. Shakespeare and the Middle Ages: Essays
on the Performance and Adaptation of the Plays with Medieval Sources
or Settings. Jefferson, US: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3405-3 .
* Duggan, Charles (1962). "The Becket Dispute and the Criminous
Clerks". Bulletin of the Institute for Historical Research. 35 (91):
1–28. doi :10.1111/j.1468-2281.1962.tb01411.x .
* Dyer, Christopher (2000). Everyday Life in Medieval England.
London: Hambledon and London. ISBN 978-1-85285-201-6 .
* Dyer, Christopher (2009). Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The
People of Britain 850-1520. New Haven, US and London: Yale University
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10191-1 .
* Forey, Alan (1992). The Military Orders From the Twelfth to the
Early Fourteenth Centuries. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan. ISBN
* Geddes, Jane (2001). "Iron". In Blair, John; Ramsay, Nigel.
English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products. London:
Hambledon Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-326-6 .
* Getz, Faye Marie (1991). Healing and Society in Medieval England:
Middle English Translation of the Pharmaceutical Writings of
Gilberus Anglicus. Wisconsin, US: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN
* Hackett, Jeremiah (1997). "Roger Bacon: His Career, Life and
Works". In Hackett, Jeremiah.
Roger Bacon and the Sciences:
Commemorative Essays. Leiden, the Netherlands: BRILL. ISBN
* Halsall, Guy (2003). Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West,
450-900. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-23940-0 .
* Happé, Peter (2003). "A Guide to Criticism of Medieval English
Theatre". In Beadle, Richard. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval
English Theatre. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Hicks, Michael (2012). The Wars of the Roses. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18157-9 .
* Hillaby, Joe (2003). "Jewish Colonisation in the Twelfth Century".
In Skinner, Patricia. The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical,
Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell
Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-931-7 .
* Hooper, Nicholas (1992a). "The Housecarls in
England in the
Eleventh Century". In Strickland, Matthew. Anglo-Norman Warfare.
Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-327-5 .
* Hooper, Nicholas (1992b). "Some Observations on the Navy in Late
Saxon England". In Strickland, Matthew. Anglo-Norman Warfare.
Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-327-5 .
* Hughes, Malcolm K.; Diaz, Henry F. (1997). "Was There a 'Medieval
Warm Period', and if so, Where and When?". In Hughes, Malcolm K.;
Diaz, Henry F. The Medieval Warm Period. Dordrecht, the Netherlands:
Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7923-2842-1 .
* Humphrey, Chris (2001). "Time and Urban Culture in Late Medieval
England". In Humphrey, Chris; Ormrod, W. M. Time in the Medieval
World. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-903153-08-6 .
* Johns, Susan M. (2003). Noblewomen, Aristocracy and Power in the
Twelfth-Century Anglo-Norman Realm. Manchester, UK: Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6305-1 .
* Johnson, Matthew (2000). "Self-made men and the staging of
agency". In Dobres, Marcia-Anne; Robb, John E. Agency in Archaeology.
London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20760-7 .
* Jones, Dan (2010). Summer of Blood: The Peasants\' Revolt of 1381.
London: Harper Press. ISBN 978-0-00-721393-1 .
* Jordan, William Chester (1997). The Great Famine: Northern Europe
in the Early Fourteenth Century. Princeton, US: Princeton University
Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05891-7 .
* Kessler, Herbert L. (2004). Seeing Medieval Art. Toronto, Canada:
University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55111-535-1 .
* Kowalski, Maryanne (2007). "Warfare, Shipping, and Crown
Patronage: The Economic Impact of the Hundred Years War on the English
Port Towns". In Armstrong, Lawrin; Elbl, Ivana; Elbl, Martin. Money,
Markets and Trade in Late Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of John H.
A. Munro. Leiden, the Netherlands: BRILL. ISBN 978-1-84383-340-6 .
* Lavelle, Ryan (2010). Alfred\'s Wars: Sources and Interpretations
Saxon Warfare in the
Viking Age. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell
Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-569-1 .
* Morillo, Stephen (1994). Warfare Under the Anglo-Norman Kings
1066–1135. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-689-7 .
* Mortimer, Ian (2004). The Greatest Traitor: The Life of Sir Roger
Mortimer, Ruler of
England 1327–1330. London: Pimlico Press. ISBN
* Normore, Calvin G. (1999). "Some Aspects of Ockham's Logic". In
Spade, Paul Vincent. The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-58790-7 .
* Ortenberg, Veronica (2006). In Search of The Holy Grail: The Quest
for the Middle Ages. London: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN
* Page, Christopher (1997). "The English a capella Heresy". In
Knighton, Tess; Fallows, David. Companion to Medieval and Renaissance
Music. Berkeley and Los Angeles, US: University of California Press.
ISBN 978-0-520-21081-3 .
* Prestwich, J. O. (1992b). "War and Finance in the Anglo-Norman
State". In Strickland, Matthew. Anglo-Norman Warfare. Woodbridge, UK:
Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-327-5 .
* Rahtz, Philip; Watts, Lorna (2005). "Three Ages of Conversion at
Kirkdale, North Yorkshire". In Carver, Martin. The Cross Goes North:
Processes of Conversion in Northern Europe, AD 300-1300. Woodbridge,
UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843831259 .
* Ramsay, Nigel (2001). "Introduction". In Blair, John; Ramsay,
Nigel. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products.
London: Hambledon Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-326-6 .
* Rose, Susan (2002). Medieval Naval Warfare, 1000–1500. London:
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-23976-9 .
* Sawyer, P. H. (1982). Kings and Vikings:
Scandinavia and Europe,
AD 700-1100. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-04590-2 .
* Skinner, Patricia (2003). "Introduction: Jews in Medieval Britain
and Europe". In Skinner, Patricia. The Jews in Medieval Britain:
Historical, Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives. Woodbridge, UK:
Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-931-7 .
* Spade, Paul Vincent (1999). "Ockham's Nominalist Metaphysics: Some
Main Themes". In Spade, Paul Vincent. The Cambridge Companion to
Ockham. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Thomas, Hugh M. (2003). The English and the Normans: Ethnic
Hostility, Assimilation, and Identity, 1066-c.1220. Oxford, UK: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925123-0 .
* Timmons, Daniel (2000). "Introduction". In Clark, George; Timmons,
Daniel. J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of
Middle-Earth. Westport, US: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-30845-1 .
* Turner, Hilary L. (1971). Town Defences in
England and Wales.
London: John Baker.
OCLC 463160092 .
* Tyerman, Christopher (1996).
England and the Crusades,
1095–1588. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. ISBN
* Webb, Diana (2000).
Pilgrimage in Medieval England. London:
Hambledon. ISBN 978-1-85285-250-4 .
* Webster, Leslie (2003). "Encrypted Visions: Style and Sense in the
Saxon Minor Arts, AD 400-900". In Karkov, Catherine E.; Hardin
Brown, George. Anglo-
Saxon Styles. New York, US: State University of
New York. ISBN 978-0-7914-5869-3 .
* Williams, Gareth (2001). "Military Institutions and Royal Power".
In Brown, Michelle P.; Farr, Carol Ann. Mercia: An Anglo-
In Europe. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-7765-1 .
* Yorke, Barbara (1995).
Wessex in the Early Middle Ages. London:
Leicester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7185-1856-1 .
* D'haen, Theo (2004). "Stalking Multiculturalism: Historical
Sleuths at the end of the Twentieth Century". In Bak, Hans. Uneasy
Alliance: Twentieth-Century American Literature, Culture and
Biography. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-1611-8
* Redknap, Mark (2002). Re-Creations: Visualising Our Past. Cardiff,
UK: National Museums and Galleries of Wales and Cadw. ISBN
* Sreedharan, E. (2004). A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to
A.D. 2000. Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman. ISBN 978-81-250-2657-0 .
Middle Ages by region
of current political units
England (Early , High , Late )
* Ireland (400–800 , 800–1169 , 1169–1536 )
* Scotland (Early , High , Late )
* Wales (Early , High , Late )
Central, Eastern Europe
and Near East
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Czech lands
* Greece (Byzantine and Ottoman )
* Hungary (High Medieval Kingdom and Late Medieval Kingdom )
* Turkey (
Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm and Ottoman )
* Frankish Empire
Roman Empire (
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia , Kingdom of Italy , Swiss
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy (
Burgundian Netherlands )
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
* Portugal (County and
Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal )
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
Lordship of Ireland
* al-Andalus (
Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba ,
Taifa , Almoravids )
Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
Central, Eastern Europe
and Near East
Bulgarian Empire (First Empire , Second Empire )
* Croatia (Dalmatia , Pannonia , Kingdom of Croatia )
Crusader states (Cyprus ,
* Bosnia and Herzegovina (
Kingdom of Bosnia
Kingdom of Bosnia ,
Duchy of Saint Sava )
* Ukraine (Kievan Rus\' , Kingdom of Rus\' , Principality of
* Russia (Rus\' Khaganate ,
Novgorod Republic , Ryazan , Moscow )
* Serbia (Principality , Grand Principality , Kingdom , Empire ,
Lordship , Despotate )
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
* Norman conquest
Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
* Civil War
* Union with Scotland
* Country clothing
* Landscape garden
* Innovations and discoveries
* English language in
* Church of
* national team
The Football Association
The Football Association
* national team
* Rugby league
Rugby Football League
* national team
* Rugby union
Rugby Football Union