HOME
The Info List - Engine Displacement


--- Advertisement ---



Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (cc or cm3), litres (l), or cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Governmental regulations 3 Automotive model names 4 See also 5 References

Definition[edit] Engine displacement is determined from the bore and stroke of an engine's cylinders. The bore is the diameter of the circular chambers cut into the cylinder block.

displacement

=

π 4

×

bore

2

×

stroke

×

number of cylinders

displaystyle mbox displacement = pi over 4 times mbox bore ^ 2 times mbox stroke times mbox number of cylinders

Or in decimal form:

displacement

= 0.7854... ×

bore

2

×

stroke

×

number of cylinders

displaystyle mbox displacement =0.7854...times mbox bore ^ 2 times mbox stroke times mbox number of cylinders

Examples: The 427 Chevy bore is 4.312 in, and the stroke is 3.65 in, therefore the displacement for this eight-cylinder engine is:

3.1416/4 × 4.3122 × 3.65 × 8 = 426.4 cu in

or:

4.3122 × 0.7854 × 3.65 × 8 = 426.4 cu in

If the bore is 10 cm and the stroke is 5 cm with four cylinders, the calculation is:

3.1416/4 × 102 × 5 × 4 = 1,570 cm3 = 1.57 litres

Governmental regulations[edit] Main article: Road tax Taxation of automobiles is sometimes based on engine displacement, rather than power output, fuel economy, emissions, or vehicle weight. Displacement is a basic fundamental of engine design, whereas power output depends a great deal on other factors, particularly on how the car manufacturer has tuned the engine from new. This has encouraged the development of other methods to increase engine power, such as variable valve timing and turbochargers. There are four major regulatory constraints for automobiles: the European, British, Japanese, and American. The method used in some European countries, and which predates the EU, has a level of taxation for engines over 1.0 litre, and another at the level of about 1.6 litres. The British system of taxation depends upon vehicle emissions for cars registered after 1 March 2001, but for cars registered before this date, it depends on engine size. Cars under 1549 cc qualify for a cheaper rate of tax.[1] The Japanese method is similar to the European taxation by classes of displacement, plus a vehicle weight tax. The United States (also Canada (except Québec[2]), Australia, and New Zealand) does not tax a vehicle based on the displacement of the engine. Engine displacement is important in determining whether or not smaller vehicles need to be registered with the state and whether or not a license is required to operate such a vehicle. A common threshold is 50 cc. In the Netherlands road tax is based on region, weight, and fuel type (petrol / CNG, LPG, Diesel, or other (electric/hybrid/H2))[3] and in Sweden, road tax is based on vehicle weight. However, Swedish cars registered in 2008, or later, are taxed based on carbon dioxide emissions.[citation needed] Displacement is also used to distinguish categories of (heavier) and lighter motorbikes with respect to driving licence and insurance requirements. In France and some other EU countries, mopeds of less than 50 cm3 displacement (and usually with a two-stroke engine), can be driven with minimum qualifications (previously, they could be driven by any person over 14). This led to all light motorbikes having a displacement of about 49.9 cm3. Some people tuned the engine by increasing the cylinder bore, increasing displacement; such mopeds cannot be driven legally on public roads since they no longer conform to the original specifications and may go faster than 45 km/h. Wankel engines, due to the amount of power and emissions they create for their displacement, are generally taxed as 1.5 times their stated physical displacement (1.3 litres becomes effectively 2.0, 2.0 becomes effectively 3.0), although actual power outputs are far greater (the 1.3-litre 13B can produce power comparable to either a 3.0 V6 engine
V6 engine
or a turbocharged 2.0 inline-4 engine, and the 2.0-litre 20B can produce power comparable to a 3.5 to 3.8 V6 engine
V6 engine
or a 4.0 V8 engine).[citation needed] As such, racing regulations actually use a much higher conversion factor. Automotive model names[edit] In the automotive industry, engine displacement is frequently encoded in the auto manufacturer's model names. For instance, Nissan's Teana 350JM is a car with a 3,498 cubic centimetres (213.5 cu in) displacement engine. Motorcycles are often labeled similarly. However, this nomenclature can be misleading. For instance, the BMW 3 Series (F30) 320i, 328i and 330i all have a 2.0-litre engine; the Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W205)
Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W205)
C 200, C 250, C 300 and C 350 Plug-In Hybrid all have a 2.0-litre engine; and the Bugatti Veyron
Bugatti Veyron
16.4 has an 8.0-litre (quad-turbocharged W16) engine. Lexus hybrid vehicles ("h") are marked higher than true engine size to signify the extra power from auxiliary systems. For example, the RX450h has a 3.5 L engine, and the LS600h has a 5.0 L engine. See also[edit]

Active Fuel Management compression ratio Variable displacement

References[edit]

^ Direct.gov.uk Archived 16 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.: The Cost of Vehicle Tax for Cars, Motorcycles, Light Goods Vehicles and Trade Licences. ^ SAAQ. "Additional Registration Fee for Large Cylinder Capacity Vehicles". SAAQ. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ Belastingdienst. "Hoeveel motorrijtuigenbelasting moet ik betalen?". www.belastingdienst.nl. 

v t e

Automotive engine

Part of the Automobile series

Basic terminology

Bore Compression ratio Crank Cylinder Dead centre Diesel engine Dry sump Engine balance Engine configuration Engine displacement Engine knocking Firing order Hydrolock Petrol
Petrol
engine Power band Redline Spark-ignition engine Stroke Stroke ratio Wet sump

Main components

Connecting rod Crankcase Crankpin Crankshaft Crossplane Cylinder bank Cylinder block Cylinder head
Cylinder head
(crossflow, reverse-flow) Flywheel Head gasket Hypereutectic piston Main bearing Piston Piston
Piston
ring Starter ring gear Sump

Valvetrain

Cam Cam
Cam
follower Camshaft Desmodromic valve Hydraulic tappet Multi-valve Overhead camshaft Overhead valve Pneumatic valve springs Poppet valve Pushrod Rocker arm Sleeve valve Tappet Timing belt Timing mark Valve float Variable valve timing

Aspiration

Air filter Blowoff valve Boost controller Butterfly valve Centrifugal-type supercharger Cold air intake Dump valve Electronic throttle control Forced induction Inlet manifold Intake Intercooler Manifold vacuum Naturally aspirated engine Ram-air intake Scroll-type supercharger Short ram air intake Supercharger Throttle Throttle
Throttle
body Turbocharger Twin-turbo Variable-geometry turbocharger Variable-length intake manifold Warm air intake

Fuel system

Carburetor Common rail Direct injection Fuel filter Fuel injection Fuel pump Fuel tank Gasoline direct injection Indirect injection Injection pump Lean-burn Stratified charge engine Turbo fuel stratified injection Unit injector

Ignition

Contact breaker Magneto Distributor Electrical ballast High tension leads Ignition coil Spark plug Wasted spark

Electrics and engine management

Air–fuel ratio meter Alternator Automatic Performance Control Car
Car
battery (lead–acid battery) Crankshaft
Crankshaft
position sensor Dynamo Drive by wire Electronic control unit Engine control unit Engine coolant temperature sensor Glow plug Idle air control actuator MAP sensor Mass flow sensor Oxygen sensor Starter motor Throttle
Throttle
position sensor

Exhaust system

Automobile emissions control Catalytic converter Diesel particulate filter Exhaust manifold Glasspack Muffler

Engine cooling

Air cooling Antifreeze
Antifreeze
(ethylene glycol) Core plug Electric fan Fan belt Radiator Thermostat Water cooling Viscous fan (fan clutch)

Other components

Balance shaft Block heater Combustion chamber Cylinder head
Cylinder head
porting Gasket Motor oil Oil filter Oil pump Oil sludge PCV valve Seal Synthetic oil Underdrive pulleys

Portal Category

v t e

Aircraft piston engine components, systems and terminology

Piston
Piston
engines

Mechanical components

Camshaft Connecting rod Crankpin Crankshaft Cylinder Cylinder head Gudgeon pin Hydraulic tappet Main bearing Obturator ring Oil pump Piston Piston
Piston
ring Poppet valve Pushrod Rocker arm Sleeve valve Tappet

Electrical components

Alternator Capacitor discharge ignition Dual ignition Electronic fuel injection Generator Ignition system Magneto Spark plug Starter

Terminology

Air-cooled Aircraft engine
Aircraft engine
starting Bore Compression ratio Dead centre Engine displacement Four-stroke engine Horsepower Ignition timing Manifold pressure Mean effective pressure Naturally aspirated Monosoupape Overhead camshaft Overhead valve engine Rotary engine Shock cooling Stroke Time between overhaul Two-stroke engine Valve timing Volumetric efficiency

Propellers

Components

Propeller governor Propeller speed reduction unit Spinner

Terminology

Autofeather Blade pitch Constant-speed Contra-rotating Counter-rotating Scimitar Single-blade Variable-pitch

Engine instruments

Annunciator panel EFIS EICAS Flight data recorder Glass cockpit Hobbs meter Tachometer

Engine controls

Carburetor
Carburetor
heat Throttle

Fuel and induction system

Avgas Carburetor Fuel injection Gascolator Inlet manifold Intercooler Pressure carburetor Supercharger Turbocharger Updraft carburetor

Other systems

Auxiliary power unit Coffman starter Hydraulic system Ice protection s

.