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ENGELBERT DOLLFUSS (German : Engelbert Dollfuß, IPA: ; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian Christian Social and Patriotic Front statesman . Having served as Minister for Forests and Agriculture, he ascended to Federal Chancellor in 1932 in the midst of a crisis for the conservative government. In early 1933, he shut down parliament, banned the Austrian Nazi party and assumed dictatorial powers. Suppressing the Socialist movement in February 1934, he cemented the rule of “austrofascism ” through the authoritarian First of May Constitution . Dollfuss was assassinated as part of a failed coup attempt by Nazi agents in 1934. His successor Kurt Schuschnigg maintained the regime until Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's annexation of Austria
Austria
in 1938.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Chancellor of Austria
Chancellor of Austria

* 3 Dollfuss as dictator of Austria
Austria

* 3.1 Austrofascism
Austrofascism
* 3.2 Austrian civil war * 3.3 New constitution

* 4 Assassination * 5 In literature * 6 Works * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

EARLY LIFE

Dollfuss' birthplace in Texing

He was born in Texing in Lower Austria
Lower Austria
to unmarried mother Josepha Dollfuss and her lover Joseph Weninger. The couple, of peasant origin, was unable to get married due to financial problems. A few months after her son’s birth, Josepha married landowner Leopold Schmutz in Kirnberg , who did not, however, adopt Engelbert as his own child. Dollfuss, who was raised as a devout Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, received a scholarship for the minor seminary of the Archdiocese of Vienna
Vienna
in Hollabrunn in 1904. Having obtained his Matura
Matura
degree in 1913, he first decided to continue his studies at the Vienna
Vienna
seminary but subsequently switched to study law at the University of Vienna
Vienna
.

At the outbreak of World War I
World War I
, Dollfuss had difficulty gaining admission into the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
as he was only 153 centimetres or 5 feet 0.2 inches tall. Indeed, according to the New York Times , who reported a series of jokes, including how in the coffee houses of Vienna, one could order a “Dollfuss” cup of coffee instead of a "Short Black" cup of coffee (black being the color of the Christian Democratic political faction), Dollfuss stood no more than 4 feet 11 inches or 150 centimetres tall. Dollfuss’ diminutive status would remain an object of satire all his life; among his nicknames were 'Millimetternich' (making a portmanteau out of millimeter and Metternich ), and the “Jockey’. In contrast to his own diminutive stature, his personal assistant and secretary Eduard Hedvicek , who later played a significant role in the unsuccessful attempt to save his life, was a very large and tall man (2 m or 6 ft 7 in).

Dollfuss was eventually accepted and joined the Tyrolean Landesschützen regiment at Brixen
Brixen
and by the end of 1914 was sent to the Italian Front . Serving as commander of a machine gun artillery division, he was a highly decorated soldier and was briefly taken by the Italian forces as a prisoner of war in 1918. After the war he returned to studies in Vienna, joining a Catholic
Catholic
male student fraternity ( Studentenverbindung ), became co-founder of the German Student Union in Austria
Austria
and acted as a representative at the Cartellverband umbrella organization. Together with occasional allies like Arthur Seyss-Inquart
Arthur Seyss-Inquart
, Robert Hohlbaum and Hermann Neubacher , he distinguished himself as a German nationalist and antisemite . From 1919 he worked as secretary of the Austrian Farmers’ Association (Bauernbund) and was sent to study economics at the University of Berlin . There Engelbert met Alwine Glienke (1897–1973), a German woman from a Protestant family, whom he married in 1921. The couple had one son and two daughters, with one daughter dying during early childhood.

Dollfuss finished his studies and obtained the doctor of law degree in 1922. He worked as a secretary of the Lower Austrian Chamber of Agriculture and in 1927 became its director. A great admirer of Karl Freiherr von Vogelsang ’s teachings, he became a member of the conservative Christian Social Party (CS) and promoted the establishment of agricultural cooperatives as well as the implementation of social insurance and unemployment benefits for farm workers against inner party disapproval. At the instigation of his party colleague Chancellor Carl Vaugoin , he was appointed president of the Austrian Federal Railways in 1930 (Dollfuss would push off Vaugoin to this post three years later).

In the 1930 legislative election , the Social Democrats emerged as the strongest party and Vaugoin resigned as chancellor. In March 1931, Dollfuss was named Minister of Agriculture and Forests in the short-lived coalition cabinet of Chancellor Otto Ender . When Ender resigned a few months later at the height of the Creditanstalt
Creditanstalt
affair, he maintained this office under Ender's successor Karl Buresch . However, the political situation became more and more unstable after a failed Heimwehr
Heimwehr
coup d'état and the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
reaching a significant level of votes in several Landtag
Landtag
elections. The CS lost its Greater German allies in parliament and when the Social Democrats requested the dissolution of the National Council , the Buresch cabinet resigned on 20 May 1932.

CHANCELLOR OF AUSTRIA

On 10 May 1932, Dollfuss, age 39 and with only one year’s experience in the Federal Government , was offered the office of Chancellor by President Wilhelm Miklas
Wilhelm Miklas
, also a member of the Christian-Social Party. Accordingly, Dollfuss refused to reply, instead spending the night in his favorite church praying, returning in the morning for a bath and a spartan meal before replying to the President he would accept the offer. Dollfuss was sworn in on 20 May 1932 as head of a coalition government between the Christian-Social Party, the Landbund — a right-wing agrarian party — and Heimatblock , the parliamentary wing of the Heimwehr
Heimwehr
, a paramilitary ultra-nationalist group. The coalition assumed the pressing task of tackling the problems of the Great Depression
Great Depression
. Much of the Austro-Hungarian Empire ’s industry had been situated in the areas that became part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
after World War I
World War I
as a result of the Treaty of Saint-Germain . Postwar Austria
Austria
was therefore economically disadvantaged.

Dollfuss’ majority in Parliament was marginal; his government had only a one-vote majority.

DOLLFUSS AS DICTATOR OF AUSTRIA

Chancellor Dollfuss in Geneva
Geneva
, 1933 Main article: Self-elimination of Parliament

In March 1933, an argument arose over irregularities in the voting procedure. The Social Democratic president of the National Council (the lower house of parliament) Karl Renner
Karl Renner
resigned to be able to cast a vote as a parliament member. As a consequence, the two vice presidents, belonging to other parties, resigned as well to be able to vote. Without a president, the parliament could not conclude the session. Dollfuss took the three resignations as a pretext to declare that the National Council had become unworkable, and advised President Wilhelm Miklas
Wilhelm Miklas
to issue a decree adjourning it indefinitely. When the National Council wanted to reconvene days after the resignation of the three presidents, Dollfuss had police bar entrance to parliament, effectively eliminating democracy in Austria. From that point onwards, he governed as dictator by emergency decree with absolute power.

Dollfuss was concerned that with German National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Austrian National Socialists (DNSAP) could gain a significant minority in future elections (according to fascism scholar Stanley G. Payne , should elections have been held in 1933, the DNSAP could have mustered about 25% of the votes – contemporary Time magazine analysts suggest a higher support of 50%, with a 75% approval rate in the Tyrol region bordering Nazi Germany). In addition, the Soviet Union’s influence in Europe had increased throughout the 1920s and early 1930s. Dollfuss banned the communists on 26 May 1933 and the DNSAP on 19 June 1933. Under the banner of Christian Social Party , he later established a one-party dictatorship rule largely modeled after fascism in Italy, banning all other Austrian parties including the Social Democratic Labour Party (SDAPÖ). Social Democrats however continued to exist as an independent organization, nevertheless, without its paramilitary Republikanischer Schutzbund, which until 31 March 1933 could have mustered tens of thousands against Dollfuss' government.

AUSTROFASCISM

Dollfuss modeled Austrofascism
Austrofascism
after Italian fascism juxtaposed to Catholic
Catholic
corporatism and anti-secularism , dropping Austrian pretenses of unification with Germany as long as the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
remained in power. In August 1933, Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
’s regime issued a guarantee of Austrian independence. Dollfuss also exchanged ‘Secret Letters’ with Mussolini about ways to guarantee Austrian independence. Mussolini was interested in Austria
Austria
forming a buffer zone against Nazi Germany. Dollfuss always stressed the similarity of the regimes of Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in the Soviet Union, and was convinced that Austrofascism
Austrofascism
and Italian fascism could counter totalitarian national socialism and communism in Europe.

In September 1933 Dollfuss merged his Christian Social Party with elements of other nationalist and conservative groups, including the Heimwehr, which encompassed many workers who were unhappy with the radical leadership of the socialist party, to form the Vaterländische Front , though the Heimwehr
Heimwehr
continued to exist as an independent organization until 1936, when Dollfuss' successor Kurt von Schuschnigg forcibly merged it into the Front, instead creating the unabidingly loyal Frontmiliz as paramilitary task force. Dollfuss escaped an assassination attempt in October 1933 by Rudolf Dertill , a 22-year-old who had been ejected from the military for his national socialist views.

AUSTRIAN CIVIL WAR

In February 1934 the security forces provoked arrests of Social Democrats and unjustified searches for weapons of the Social Democrats’ already outlawed Republikanischer Schutzbund . After the Dollfuss dictatorship took steps against known Social Democrats, the Social Democrats called for nationwide resistance against the government. A civil war began, which lasted sixteen days, from 12 until 27 February. Fierce fighting took place primarily in the East of Austria, especially in the streets of some outer Vienna
Vienna
districts, where large fortress-like municipal workers\' buildings were situated, and in the northern, industrial areas of the province of Styria , where Nazi agents had great interest in a bloodbath between security forces and workers’ militias. The resistance was suppressed by police and military power. The Social Democrats were outlawed, and their leaders were imprisoned or fled abroad.

NEW CONSTITUTION

Dollfuss staged a parliamentary session with just his party members present in April 1934 to have his new constitution approved , effectively the second constitution in the world espousing corporatist ideas after that of the Portuguese Estado Novo . The session retrospectively made all the decrees already passed since March 1933 legal. The new constitution became effective on 1 May 1934 and swept away the last remnants of democracy and the system of the first Austrian Republic.

ASSASSINATION

Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
styled himself Il Duce
Il Duce
(the leader).

Dollfuss was assassinated on 25 July 1934 by ten Austrian Nazis (Paul Hudl , Franz Holzweber , Otto Planetta and others) of Regiment 89 who entered the Chancellery building and shot him in an attempted coup d'état, the July Putsch
July Putsch
. Mussolini had no hesitation in attributing the attack to the German dictator: the news reached him at Cesena
Cesena
, where he was examining the plans for a psychiatric hospital. The Duce personally gave the announcement to the widow, who was a guest at his villa in Riccione with children. He also put at the disposal of Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg , who spent a holiday in Venice
Venice
, a plane that allowed the prince to rush back to Vienna
Vienna
and to face the assailants with his militia, with the permission of President Wilhelm Miklas
Wilhelm Miklas
.

Mussolini also mobilized a part of the Italian army on the Austrian border and threatened Hitler with war in the event of a German invasion of Austria
Austria
to thwart the putsch. Then he announced to the world: "The independence of Austria, for which he has fallen, is a principle that has been defended and will be defended by Italy even more strenuously", and then replaced in the main square of Bolzano
Bolzano
the statue of Walther von der Vogelweide
Walther von der Vogelweide
, a Germanic troubadour, with that of Drusus , a Roman general who conquered part of Germany. This was the greatest moment of friction between Fascism
Fascism
and National Socialism and Mussolini himself came down several times to reaffirm the differences in the field. The assassination of Dollfuss was accompanied by uprisings in many regions in Austria, resulting in further deaths. In Carinthia , a large contingent of northern German Nazis tried to seize power but were subdued by the Italian units nearby. At first Hitler was jubilant, but the Italian reaction surprised him. Hitler became convinced that he could not face a conflict with the Western European powers, and he officially denied liability, stating his regret for the murder of the Austrian Prime Minister. He replaced the ambassador to Vienna
Vienna
with Franz von Papen and prevented the conspirators entering Germany, also expelling them from the Austrian Nazi Party. The Nazi assassins in Vienna, after declaring the formation of a new government under Austrian Nazi Anton Rintelen , previously exiled by Dollfuss as Austrian Ambassador to Rome, surrendered after threats from Austrian military of blowing up the Chancellery using dynamite , and were subsequently tried and executed by hanging . Kurt Schuschnigg
Kurt Schuschnigg
, previously Minister of Education, was appointed new chancellor of Austria
Austria
after a few days, assuming the office from Dollfuss’ deputy Starhemberg.

Out of a population of 6.5 million, approximately 500,000 Austrians were present at Dollfuss’ burial in Vienna
Vienna
. He is interred in the Hietzing cemetery in Vienna
Vienna
beside his wife Alwine Dollfuss (d. 1973) and two of his children, Hannerl and Eva, all of whom were in Italy as guests of Rachele Mussolini at the time of his death, an event which saw Mussolini himself shed tears over his slain ally.

IN LITERATURE

In Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
's 1941 play The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui , Dollfuss is represented by the character "Dullfeet".

WORKS

* Das Kammersystem in der Landwirtschaft Österreichs. Agrarverlag, Wien 1929. * Mertha, Rudolf, Dollfuß, Engelbert: Die Sozialversicherung in der Landwirtschaft Österreichs nach dem Stande von Ende März 1929. Agrarverlag, Wien 1929. * Der Führer Bundeskanzler Dr. Dollfuß zum Feste des Wiederaufbaues. 3 Reden. 1. Mai 1934. Österr. Bundespressedienst, Wien 1934. * Tautscher, Anton (Hrsg.): So sprach der Kanzler. Dollfuss’ Vermächtnis. Aus seinen Reden. Baumgartner, Wien 1935. * Weber, Edmund (Hrsg.): Dollfuß an Oesterreich. Eines Mannes Wort und Ziel. Reinhold, Wien 1935. * Maderthaner, Wolfgang (Hrsg.): „Der Führer bin ich selbst.“ Engelbert Dollfuß – Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
. Briefwechsel. Löcker, Wien 2004, ISBN 3-85409-393-4 .

NOTES

* ^ Gudula Walterskirchen: Engelbert Dollfuß - Arbeitermörder oder Heldenkanzler. Vienna
Vienna
2004. * ^ „Wer war Engelbert Dollfuß?“ retrieved April 19, 2012 * ^ "AUSTRIA: Eve of Renewal". Time. September 25, 1933. * ^ Portisch, Hugo; Sepp Riff (1989). Österreich I (Die unterschätzte Republik). Vienna, Austria: Verlag Kremayr und Scheriau. p. 415. ISBN 3-218-00485-3 . * ^ Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism
Fascism
1914-1945 * ^ "AUSTRIA: Eve of Renewal". Time. September 25, 1933. * ^ "AUSTRIA: Eve of Renewal". Time. September 25, 1933. * ^ "DöW - Documentation Center of Austrian Resistance". braintrust.at. Retrieved 5 July 2015. * ^ Protokolle des Ministerrates der Ersten Republik, Volume 8, Part 6. ISBN 3-7046-0004-0 . Google Book Search. Retrieved on February 6, 2010. * ^ Stanley G. Payne, Civil War in Europe, 1905-1949, 2011, p. 108. * ^ * ^ "Pics of Planetta and Holzweber (1934 coup) - Axis History Forum". Axis History Forum. Retrieved 5 July 2015. * ^ "AUSTRIA: Death for Freedom". Time. August 6, 1934. Retrieved May 2, 2010. * ^ Richard Lamb, Mussolini and the British, 1997, p. 149 * ^ "AUSTRIA: Death for Freedom". Time. August 6, 1934. * ^ "Austria: Death for Freedom". Time. August 6, 1934. * ^ " Vienna
Vienna
Tourist Guide: Dollfuss Hietzinger Friedhof". Hedwig Abraham. Retrieved 6 February 2010. (includes photographs) * ^ "AUSTRIA: Eve of Renewal". Time. September 25, 1933. * ^ "Rudolf Dollfuß - Traueranzeige und Parte † 05.11.2011 - ASPETOS". Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ Mel Gussow (May 9, 1991). "Review/Theater; Brecht\'s Cauliflower King In Another Resistible Rise". The New York Times
New York Times
. The New York Times
New York Times
Company . Retrieved 24 September 2014.

REFERENCES

* Bauman, Vladimír & Hladký, Miroslav První zemřel kancléř, Praha, 1968 * Brožek, Otakar & Horský, Jiří, Na dně byla smrt, Praha, 1968 * Bußhoff, Heinrich, Das Dollfuß-Regime in Österreich (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1968) * Carsten, F. L., The First Austrian Republic
First Austrian Republic
1918-1938 (Cambridge U.P., 1986) * Dollfuß, Engelbert, Dollfuß schafft Arbeit (Heimatdienst, 1933) * Dreidemy, Lucile: Der Dollfuß-Mythos. Eine Biographie des Posthumen. Böhlau, Wien 2014, ISBN 978-3-205-79597-1 . * Ender, D, Die neue österreichische Verfassung mit dem Text des Konkordates (Wien/Leipzig: Österreichischer Bundesverlag, 1935) * Gregory, J. D., Dollfuss and his Times (Tiptree: Hutchinson Barry, Richard (2001), The Order of the Death's Head: the Story of Hitler's SS, Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-139012-3 * Luksan, Martin, Schlösser, Hermann, Szanya, anton (Hrsg.): Heilige Scheine – Marco d’Aviano, Engelbert Dollfuß und der österreichische Katholizismus. Promedia, Wien 2007, ISBN 978-3-85371-275-7 . * Maass, Walter B. Assassination in Vienna, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York * Maleta, Alfred, Der Sozialist im Dollfuß-Österreich (Linz: Preßverein Linz, 1936) * Messner, Johannes, Dollfuß (Tyrolia, 1935) * Messner, Johannes, Dollfuss: An Austrian Patriot (Norfolk, Virginia: IHS Press, 2003) * Moth, G., Neu Österreich und seine Baumeister (Wien: Steyrermühl-Verlag, 1935) * Naderer, Otto: Der bewaffnete Aufstand: der Republikanische Schutzbund der österreichischen Sozialdemokratie und die militärische Vorbereitung auf den Bürgerkrieg (1923–1934) (= Hochschulschriften), Ares, Graz 2005, ISBN 978-3-902475-06-0 (Dissertation Universität Salzburg 2003, 384 Seiten). * Österreichischer Bundespressedienst, Der Führer Bundeskanzler Dr. Dollfuß zum Feste des Wiederaufbaues 1. Mai 1934 (Österreichischer Bundespressedienst, 1934) * Hans Schafranek: „Sommerfest mit Preisschießen“. Die unbekannte Geschichte des NS-Putsches im Juli 1934. Czernin, Wien 2006, ISBN 3-7076-0081-5 . * Sugar, Peter (ed.) Native Fascism
Fascism
in the Successor States (Seattle 1971) * Tálos, Emmerich & Neugebauer, Wolfgang, Austrofaschismus (Vienna: Lit. Verlag, 2005) * Walterskirchen, Gudula Engelbert Dollfuß, Arbeitermörder oder Heldenkanzler (Vienna: Molden Verlag, 2004) * Weber, Hofrat Edmund, Dollfuß an Oesterreich, Eines Mannes Wort und Ziel (Wien: Reinhold Verlag, 1935) * Winkler, Franz, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich (Zürich/Leipzig: Orell Füssli Verlag, 1935) * Zweig, Stefan , Die Welt von Gestern, eines Dichters von Morgen (Frankfurt am Main/Bonn: Athenäum, 1965) * Ludwig Jedlicka (1959), "Dollfuß, Engelbert", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 4, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 62–63 ; (full text online) * "Dollfuß Engelbert". In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Vol. 1, Austrian Academy of Sciences
Austrian Academy of Sciences
, Vienna 1957, p. 192.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Video: Dollfuss gives a speech in Burgenland 1933 (mpeg, 6,1 MB) * Dollfuss: An Austrian Patriot by Father Johannes Messner

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