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Enfield Town, also known as Enfield, is the historic centre of the London
London
Borough of Enfield. It is 10.1 miles (16.3 km) north-northeast of central London. The area is identified in the London
London
Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.[2] The town was originally in the county of Middlesex, but became part of Greater London
London
on 1 April 1965 when the London
London
Government Act 1963 was commenced. Enfield Town
Enfield Town
had a population of 115,762 in 2011.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Notable people, places, and events

1.1.1 Enfield Palace 1.1.2 Enfield Market 1.1.3 The Enfield Fair 1.1.4 The New River 1.1.5 Hothouses 1.1.6 John Keats 1.1.7 Robert Everist 1.1.8 Silver Street White House 1.1.9 World's first ATM 1.1.10 The Civic Centre 1.1.11 August 2011 riots

2 Demography 3 Economy 4 Sports 5 Transport and locale

5.1 Nearest places 5.2 Nearest railway stations 5.3 Buses

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography

History[edit] Enfield used to be a collection of small communities spread around the royal hunting grounds of Enfield Chase. At the time of the Domesday Book the area was spelt 'Enefelde', and had a priest who almost certainly resided in St. Andrew's Church. By 1572 most of the basic street layout had been completed. The village green later became the historic marketplace between the church and where the fountain now stands. A market is still operated in this area, which is owned by the parish charity. Its name most likely came from Anglo-Saxon Ēanafeld or similar, meaning "open land belonging to a man called Ēana" or "open land for lambs". Notable people, places, and events[edit] The parish church, on the north side of the marketplace, is dedicated to St Andrew. There is some masonry surviving from the thirteenth century, but the nave, north aisle, choir and tower are late fourteenth century, built of random rubble and flint. The clerestory dates from the early sixteenth century, and the south aisle was rebuilt in brick in 1824.[3] Adjacent to the church is the old school building of the Tudor period, Enfield Grammar School, which expanded over the years, becoming a large comprehensive school from the late 1960s. Enfield Palace[edit] A sixteenth century manor house, known since the eighteenth century as Enfield Palace, is remembered in the name of the Palace Gardens Shopping Centre (and the hothouses on the site were once truly notable; see below). It was used as a private school from around 1670 until the late nineteenth century. The last remains of it were demolished in 1928, to make way for an extension to Pearson's department store, though a panelled room with an elaborate plaster ceiling and a stone fireplace survives, relocated to a house in Gentleman's Row, a street of sixteenth- to eighteenth-century houses near the town centre.[4] Enfield Market[edit] In 1303, Edward I granted a charter to Humphrey de Bohun, and his wife to hold a weekly market in Enfield each Monday, and James I granted another in 1617, to a charitable trust, for a Saturday market.[5] The Market was still prosperous in the early eighteenth century, but fell into decline soon afterwards. There were sporadic attempts to revive it: an unsuccessful one of 1778 is recorded,[6] and in 1826 a stone Gothic market cross was erected, to replace the octagonal wooden market house, demolished sixteen years earlier. In 1858, J. Tuff wrote of the market "several attempts have been made to revive it, the last of which, about twenty years ago, also proved a failure, It has again fallen into desuetude and will probably never be revived".[7] However the trading resumed in the 1870s. In 1904 a new wooden structure was built to replace the stone cross, by now decayed. The market is still in existence, administered by the Old Enfield Charitable trust.[8] The Enfield Fair[edit] The charter of 1303 also gave the right to hold two annual fairs, one on St Andrew's Day and the other in September.[9] The latter was suppressed in 1869 at the request of local tradesmen, clergy and other prominent citizens, having become, according to the local historian Pete Eyre, "a source of immorality and disorder, and a growing nuisance to the inhabitants".[10] The New River[edit] The New River, built to supply water to London
London
from Hertfordshire, runs immediately behind the town centre through the Town Park, which is the last remaining public open space of Enfield Old Park. The Enfield Loop of the New River also passes through the playing fields of Enfield Grammar School, and this is the only stretch of the loop without a public footpath on at least one side of it. Hothouses[edit] Enfield was the location of some of the earliest successful hothouses, developed by Dr Robert Uvedale, headmaster of both Enfield Grammar School and the Palace School. He was a Cambridge scholar and renowned horticulturalist; George Simonds Boulger writes of Uvedale in the Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 58:

As a horticulturist Uvedale earned a reputation for his skill in cultivating exotics, being one of the earliest possessors of hothouses in England. In an Account of several Gardens near London
London
written by J. Gibson in 1691 (Archæologia, 1794, xii. 188), the writer says: 'Dr. Uvedale of Enfield is a great lover of plants, and, having an extraordinary art in managing them, is become master of the greatest and choicest collection of exotic greens that is perhaps anywhere in this land. His greens take up six or seven houses or roomsteads. His orange-trees and largest myrtles fill up his biggest house, and … those more nice and curious plants that need closer keeping are in warmer rooms, and some of them stoved when he thinks fit. His flowers are choice, his stock numerous, and his culture of them very methodical and curious.'

John Keats[edit] The poet John Keats
John Keats
went to progressive Clarke's School in Enfield, where he began a translation of the Aeneid. The school's building later became Enfield Town railway station
Enfield Town railway station
until it was demolished in 1872. The current building was erected in the 1960s. In 1840 the first section of the Northern and Eastern Railway
Northern and Eastern Railway
had been opened from Stratford to Broxbourne. The branch line from Water Lane to Enfield Town station was opened in 1849. Robert Everist[edit] Millionaire
Millionaire
businessman, Robert Everist
Robert Everist
was born in Enfield. He now lives between Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and London
London
where his companies' head offices are based. Silver Street White House[edit] The White House in Silver Street – now a doctors' surgery – was the home of Joseph Whitaker, publisher and founder of Whitaker's Almanack, who lived there from 1820 until his death in 1895. (Inscription on Blue Plaque on The White House, Silver Street, Enfield.) World's first ATM[edit] Enfield Town
Enfield Town
had the world's first cash machine or automatic teller machine, invented by John Shepherd-Barron. It was installed at the local branch of Barclays Bank
Barclays Bank
on 27 June 1967 and was opened by the actor and Enfield resident Reg Varney.[11] The Civic Centre[edit] Enfield Town
Enfield Town
houses the Civic Centre, the headquarters of the Borough administration, at which Council and committee meetings are also held. August 2011 riots[edit] On Sunday 7 August 2011, after rioting spread from Tottenham, vehicles including a police car were attacked and several shops and business were targeted in the town centre. Most businesses remained closed on Monday 8th and many were not repaired for several weeks after the rioting. The mayor of London, Boris Johnson, later visited the town centre to receive people's views of the riots.[12] Demography[edit] In the 2011 census, the Town ward (covering areas north from the Southbury Road) was 82% white (68% British, 10% Other, 3% Irish). The largest non-white group, Black African, claimed 3%. The District is also covered by the Chase, Highlands, Grange, Southbury, Lock, Highway, Turkey Street and Bush Hill Park
Bush Hill Park
wards. Economy[edit] Enfield Town
Enfield Town
centre underwent major redevelopment work, completed in Autumn 2006. A large extension to the existing shopping centre was built, under the name Palace Exchange.[13] Many branches of chain stores already existing in the town centre were relocated to the new extension, and there are some completely new stores. In the summer of 2011 a vacant building (previously a bingo club) on Burleigh way in the town centre was demolished and replaced with new apartments, which were completed in the spring of 2012. There is space for six commercial units and public art. A further two apartments are being built on Silver Street and Southbury Road. There are also plans for a fourth new block of flats to be built, which will go ahead if the council approve them. Sports[edit] The town is home to two association football teams one being Enfield 1893 F.C. and the other being Enfield Town F.C.
Enfield Town F.C.
formed by the original Enfield Supporters' Trust. The original Enfield F.C.
Enfield F.C.
played in the Isthmian League
Isthmian League
until they were liquidated in 2007. Transport and locale[edit] Nearest places[edit] Further information on local history and topics: London
London
Borough of Enfield

Neighbouring towns, villages and places.

Botany Bay Gordon Hill Forty Hill

Oakwood

Enfield Town

Ponders End

Southgate Bush Hill Park
Bush Hill Park
and Winchmore Hill Edmonton

Nearest railway stations[edit] Enfield Town
Enfield Town
station is well connected with National Rail
National Rail
services to Liverpool Street in Central London
London
operated by London
London
Overground.

Preceding station   London
London
Overground   Following station

Bush Hill Park towards Liverpool Street

Enfield & Cheshunt Line Enfield Town
Enfield Town
Branch

Terminus

Services from Enfield Chase
Enfield Chase
station also provide alternative services to Central London
London
and connects the area to Letchworth
Letchworth
Garden City.

Enfield Town
Enfield Town
railway station Enfield Chase
Enfield Chase
railway station Southbury railway station Turkey Street railway station Bush Hill Park
Bush Hill Park
railway station

Buses[edit] Enfield Town
Enfield Town
has excellent bus links. London
London
Buses routes 121, 191, 192, 231, 307, 313, 317, 329, 377, 629, W8, W9, W10, night route N29, and non- London
London
route 610 serves Enfield Town. See also[edit]

172 and 174 Baker Street

References[edit]

^ "Enfield Ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ Mayor of London
London
(February 2008). " London
London
Plan (Consolidated with Alterations since 2004)" (PDF). Greater London
Greater London
Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2010.  ^ Historic England. "Details from image database (200594)". Images of England. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ A P Baggs; Diane K Bolton; Eileen P Scarff; G C Tyack (1976). T F T Baker; R B Pugh, eds. "Enfield: Manors". A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 5: Hendon, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, Little Stanmore, Edmonton Enfield, Monken Hadley, South Mimms, Tottenham. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ Ford (1873) p.101 ^ Pam (1990) pp.226 ^ Tuff, J. (1858). Historical, Topographical and Statistical Notices of Enfield. Enfield: J.H. Meyers. " ^ "Historical Information". Old Enfield Charitable Trust. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ Ford (1873) pp. 102 ^ Ford (1873) pp. 104-5 ^ "The man who invented the cash machine". BBC News. 25 June 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ News report Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 12 August 2011 ^ "Enfield". Palace Exchange. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 

Bibliography[edit]

Pam, David (1992). A Victorian Suburb. A History of Enfield. Enfield: Enfield Preservation Society.  Ford, Edward; George H. Hodson (1873). A History of Enfield in the County of Middlesex. Enfield. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  Edward Walford (1883), "Enfield", Greater London, London: Cassell & Co., OCLC 3009761 

v t e

London
London
Borough of Enfield

Districts

Arnos Grove Botany Bay Bowes Park Brimsdown Bulls Cross Bullsmoor Bush Hill Park Chase Side Clay Hill Cockfosters Crews Hill Edmonton Enfield Chase Enfield Highway Enfield Island Village Enfield Lock Enfield Town Enfield Wash Forty Hill Freezywater Gordon Hill Grange Park Hadley Wood New Southgate Oakwood Palmers Green Picketts Lock Ponders End Southgate Upper Edmonton Winchmore Hill World's End

Attractions

Forty Hall
Forty Hall
and Gardens Millfield Theatre
Millfield Theatre
and Arts Centre Capel Manor Myddelton House Gardens Chickenshed Museum of Domestic Design and Architecture Whitewebbs Museum of Transport Royal Small Arms Factory
Royal Small Arms Factory
Interpretation Centre

Parks and open spaces

Arnos Park Broomfield Park Durants Park Grovelands Park Oakwood Park Pymmes Park Trent Country Park Whitewebbs Park

Constituencies

Edmonton Enfield North Enfield Southgate

Tube and rail stations

Angel Road Arnos Grove Brimsdown Bush Hill Park Cockfosters Crews Hill Edmonton Green Enfield Chase Enfield Lock Enfield Town Gordon Hill Grange Park Hadley Wood Oakwood Palmers Green Ponders End Silver Street Southbury Southgate Turkey Street Winchmore Hill

Other topics

Coat of arms Council Grade I and II* listed buildings People Public art Public transport Schools

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London
London
wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London
London
Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London
London
Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greate

.