Botswana has significant reserves of coal, estimated at over 200 billion tons. No petroleum reserves have been identified and all petroleum products are imported refined, mostly from South Africa. There is extensive woody biomass from 3 to 10t / hectare.
Most electric power is generated thermally in installations run by the Botswana Power Corporation, a public enterprise established in 1970. Electric generating capacity consists of the 132 MW Morupole coal-fired plant. The 60 MW coal-fired plant at Selebi-Phikwe has been closed. Total capacity in 2002 stood at 132 MW. Production of electricity in that same year totaled 930 GWh. Fossil fuels were used exclusively. Consumption of electricity totaled 1.989 TWh. Coal production in 2002 consisted entirely of the bituminous type and totaled 992,000 tons. Coal is mined solely at Morupule Colliery by Debswana, mostly for the generation of electricity. The government is considering constructing a coal-fired power plant at the same coal field, which would be designed to export power to South Africa. Further coal-to-electricity power stations are under consideration 
Solar insolation is one of the highest levels in the world, but until recently there were no reports of significant use of solar energy. As of September 2012, the first solar power generation plant in the country has been opened. As of 2012, the nation's average wind speeds were deemed too low to make wind-powered energy commercially attractive with then-available wind turbine technologies. However, both with and solar energy technologies have been dramatically improved since that time, in other parts of the world, and best practice implementation may lag behind.
The Botswana Renewable Energy Conference was held 11–12 August 2014. The Sustainable Development Goals were cited for development of renewable energy through "green and environmentally sound technologies" at the 5th plenary meeting, 70th Session of the United Nations General Assembly: the Sustainable Development Summit 2015.