ENERGY STAR (trademarked ENERGY STAR) is an international standard
for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States
. It was created in 1992 by the Environmental Protection Agency and
the Department of Energy . Since then,
New Zealand ,
Taiwan , and the
European Union have adopted the
program. Devices carrying the
Energy Star service mark, such as
computer products and peripherals, kitchen appliances, buildings and
other products, generally use 20–30% less energy than required by
federal standards. In the United States, the
Energy Star label is
also shown on
EnergyGuide appliance label of qualifying products.
* 1 History
* 2 Specifications
* 2.1 Computers
* 2.2 Servers
* 2.3 Appliances
* 2.4 Heating and cooling systems
* 2.5 Home electronics
* 2.6 Imaging equipment
* 2.7 Lighting
* 2.8 New homes
* 3 Energy performance ratings
* 3.1 Buildings
* 3.2 Industrial facilities
* 3.3 Other facilities
* 4 Small business award
* 5 Controversies
* 6 Adoption in building codes
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Energy Star program was developed by John S. Hoffman , inventor
of the Green Programs at EPA, working closely with the IT industry,
and implemented by
Cathy Zoi and Brian Johnson. The program was
intended to be part of a series of voluntary programs, such as Green
Lights and the Methane Programs, that would demonstrate the potential
for profit in reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gases by
power plants .
Initiated as a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and
promote energy efficient products,
Energy Star began with labels for
computer and printer products. In 1995 the program was significantly
expanded, introducing labels for residential heating and cooling
systems and new homes. At this time, newly formed energy efficiency
programs, administered by ratepayer funded entities such as utilities,
agreed through the
Consortium for Energy Efficiency to begin promoting
their programs using the ENERGY STAR brand. In 2000, the Consortium
for Energy Efficiency was directed by members to begin an annual
survey of ENERGY STAR impact.
As of 2006, more than 40,000
Energy Star products were available in a
wide range of items including major appliances, office equipment,
lighting, home electronics, and more. In addition, the label can also
be found on new homes and commercial and industrial buildings. In
2006, about 12 percent of new housing in the
United States was labeled
The EPA estimates that it saved about $14 billion in energy costs in
2006 alone. The
Energy Star program has helped spread the use of LED
traffic lights , efficient fluorescent lighting , power management
systems for office equipment, and low standby energy use.
In 2008, the EPA announced the Green Power Partnership program, which
was designed to help achieve its goal of encouraging the use of
renewable power sources. The renewable energy credits (REC) allow
companies without direct access to renewable power the ability to
achieve their goals. However, to avoid companies buying RECs years in
advance of any of the hypothetical power ever being produced, RECs are
only accepted into the program when the actual equivalent renewable
power will be produced.
Energy Star specifications differ with each item, and are set by
either the Environmental Protection Agency or the Department of
Energy. The following highlights product and specification information
available on the
Energy Star website.
Energy Star 4.0 specifications for computers became effective on July
20, 2007. The requirements are more stringent than the previous
specification and existing equipment designs can no longer use the
service mark unless re-qualified. They require the use of 80 Plus
Bronze level or higher power supplies .
Energy Star 5.0 became
effective on July 1, 2009.
Energy Star 6.1 became effective on
September 10, 2014.
The EPA released Version 1.0 of the Computer Server specifications on
May 15, 2009. It covered standalone servers with one to four processor
sockets . A second tier to the specification adding active state power
and performance reporting for all qualified servers, as well as blade
and multi-node server idle state requirements became effective
December 16, 2013.
As of early 2008, average refrigerators need 20% savings over the
minimum standard. Dishwashers need at least 41% savings. Most
appliances as well as heating and cooling systems have a yellow
EnergyGuide label showing the annual cost of operation compared to
other models. This label is created through the Federal Trade
Commission and often shows if an appliance is Energy Star. While an
Energy Star label indicates that the appliance is more energy
efficient than the minimum guidelines, purchasing an Energy Star
labeled product does not always mean one is getting the most energy
efficient option available. For example, dehumidifiers that are rated
under 25 US pints (12 L) per day of water extraction receive an Energy
Star rating if they have an energy factor of 1.2 (higher is better),
while those rated 25 US pints (12 L) to 35 US pints (17 L) per day
Energy Star rating for an energy factor of 1.4 or higher.
Thus a higher-capacity but non-
Energy Star rated dehumidifier may be a
more energy efficient alternative than an
Energy Star rated but
lower-capacity model. The
Energy Star program's savings calculator
has also been criticized for unrealistic assumptions in its model that
tend to magnify savings benefits to the average consumer.
Another factor yet to be considered by the EPA and DOE is the overall
effect of energy-saving requirements on the durability and expected
service life of a mass-market appliance built to a consumer-level cost
standard. For example, a refrigerator may be made more efficient by
the use of more insulative spacing and a smaller-capacity compressor
using electronics to control operation and temperature. However, this
may come at the cost of reduced interior storage (or increased
exterior mass) or a reduced service life due to compressor or
electronic failures. In particular, electronic controls used on
new-generation appliances are subject to damage from shock, vibration,
moisture, or power spikes on the electrical circuit to which they are
attached. Critics have pointed out that even if a new appliance is
energy efficient, any consumer appliance that does not provide
customer satisfaction, or must be replaced twice as often as its
predecessor contributes to landfill pollution and waste of natural
resources used to construct its replacement.
HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS
Energy Star qualified heat pumps, boilers, air conditioning systems,
and furnaces are available. In addition, cooling and heating bills can
be significantly lowered with air sealing and duct sealing. Air
sealing reduces the outdoor air that penetrates a building, and duct
sealing prevents attic or basement air from entering ducts and
lessening the heating/cooling system’s efficiency. Energy Star
qualified room air conditioners are at least 10% more energy efficient
than the minimum U.S. federal government standards.
Energy Star qualified televisions use 30% less energy than average.
In November 2008, television specifications were improved to limit
on-mode power use, in addition to standby power which is limited by
the current specifications. A wider range of
Energy Star qualified
televisions will be available. Other qualified home electronics
include cordless phones, battery chargers, VCRs and external power
adapters, most of which use 90% less energy.
Energy Star Program Requirements for Imaging Products are focused
on product families such as electrophotographic (EP) printers, inkjet
printers (e.g., thermal), copiers, facsimile machines and other
imaging equipment including MFD 's (multifunctional devices). Typical
Electrical Consumption (TEC) of a product family are measured and
reported against an allowance set by the maximum throughput of the
device. Operation modes (OM) are measured and reported for devices
such as inkjet products against an allowance set by the functions
present in the EUT (equipment under test). Devices that included
"adders" such as Ethernet, on-board memory, wireless, etc. are
mathematically "added" to increase the OM allowance. Recently on
February 1, 2011, the EPA/DOE added the requirement that all products
registered under the
Energy Star service mark, must be tested by an AB
(Accredited Body) or CB (Certification Body) Laboratory.
Energy Star is awarded to only certain bulbs that meet strict
efficiency, quality, and lifetime criteria.
Energy Star qualified fluorescent lighting uses 75% less energy and
lasts up to ten times longer than normal incandescent lights .
Energy Star Qualified light-emitting diode (LED) Lighting:
* Reduces energy costs — uses at least 75% less energy than
incandescent lighting, saving on operating expenses.
* Reduces maintenance costs — lasts 35 to 50 times longer than
incandescent lighting and about 2 to 5 times longer than fluorescent
lighting. No bulb-replacements, no ladders, no ongoing disposal
* Reduces cooling costs — LEDs produce very little heat.
To qualify for
Energy Star certification, LED lighting products must
pass a variety of tests to prove that the products will display the
* Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting
technologies (incandescent or fluorescent) and light is well
distributed over the area lighted by the fixture.
* Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards
the end of the rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 years based
on use of 8 hours per day).
* Excellent color quality. The shade of white light appears clear
and consistent over time.
* Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting.
* Light comes on instantly when turned on.
* No flicker when dimmed.
* No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is
turned off, with the exception of external controls, whose power
should not exceed 0.5 watts in the off state.
New homes that meet strict guidelines for energy efficiency can
Energy Star certification. An
Energy Star qualified home
uses at least 15% less energy than standard homes built to the 2003
International Residential Code (IRC). They usually include properly
installed insulation , high performance windows, tight construction
and ducts, energy efficient cooling and heating systems, and Energy
Star qualified appliances, lighting, and water heaters. Further
information: Green building in the
ENERGY PERFORMANCE RATINGS
The U.S. EPA's
Energy Star program has developed energy performance
rating systems for several commercial and institutional building types
and manufacturing facilities. These ratings, on a scale of 1 to 100,
provide a means for benchmarking the energy efficiency of specific
buildings and industrial plants against the energy performance of
similar facilities. The ratings are used by building and energy
managers to evaluate the energy performance of existing buildings and
industrial plants. The rating systems are also used by EPA to
determine if a building or plant can qualify to earn Energy Star
For many types of commercial buildings, one can enter energy
information into EPA's free online tool, Portfolio Manager, and it
will calculate a score for one's building on a scale of 1-100.
Buildings that score a 75 or greater may qualify for the Energy Star.
Portfolio Manager is an interactive energy management tool that allows
one to track and assess energy and water consumption across one's
entire portfolio of buildings in a secure online environment. Whether
one owns, manages, or holds properties for investment, Portfolio
Manager can help one set investment priorities, identify
under-performing buildings, verify efficiency improvements, and
receive EPA recognition for superior energy performance. Portfolio
Manager uses an automated benchmarking tool that can award Energy Star
certification to buildings that have uploaded 12 months of consecutive
energy usage data and received scores of 75 or above.
The number of space types that can receive the energy performance
rating in Portfolio Manager is expanding and now includes housing,
bank/financial institutions, courthouses, hospitals (acute care and
children's), hotels and motels, houses of worship, K-12 schools,
medical offices, offices, residence halls/dormitories, retail stores,
supermarkets, warehouses (refrigerated and non-refrigerated), data
centers, senior care facilities, and wastewater facilities.
See the technical descriptions for models used in the rating system
at. These documents provide detailed information on the methodologies
used to create the energy performance ratings including details on
rating objectives, regression techniques, and the steps applied to
compute a rating. A 1-100 rating can be generated for ratable space
types by entering building attributes, such as square footage and
weekly operating hours, and monthly energy consumption data into
Portfolio Manager, a free online tool provided by Energy Star. This
process is known as benchmarking and reveals how a building's energy
consumption compares to that of other similar buildings of the same
space type, based on a national average. Earning a rating of 75 or
above is the first step towards achieving the
Energy Star for a
Energy Star energy performance ratings have been incorporated into
some green buildings standards, such as LEED for Existing Buildings.
Energy Conservation Building Code - India
Energy performance ratings have been released for the following
Automobile assembly plants , cement plants , wet corn mills ,
container glass manufacturing, flat glass manufacturing, frozen fried
potato processing plants, juice processing, petroleum refineries , and
pharmaceutical manufacturing plants.
THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (January
SMALL BUSINESS AWARD
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annually recognizes
small businesses that demonstrate abilities to reduce waste, conserve
energy, and recycle. The businesses use resources and ideas outlined
Energy Star program. The award was established in 1999.
On December 17, 2008, the EPA Office of the Inspector General
released its report on the
Energy Star program. The Inspector
General's audit found that the program's claims regarding greenhouse
gas reductions were inaccurate and based on faulty data. Additionally,
the IG found that
Energy Star program's reported energy savings were
unreliable, and that many of the touted benefits could not be
verified. "Deficiencies included the lack of a quality review of the
data collected; reliance on estimates, forecasting, and unverified
third party reporting; and the potential inclusion of exported items,"
the report concluded.
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy ,
Consumer Reports , and the trade website ApplianceAdvisor.com, have
released statements claiming that
Energy Star test procedures
contained loopholes that allow many inefficient products to receive
Energy Star labels. Specific claims include:
* U.S. Department of Energy regulations allowed the manufacturers to
test the refrigerators with their ice-makers turned off, which is not
how they are normally used in the home. However, the Energy Star
requirements usually exclude refrigerators that include an ice maker
because of the penetration of the ice dispenser. Some designs get
around this by dispensing the ice into a tray located in the freezer.
* Using outdated testing rules and loose standards to award Energy
* The program allows manufacturers to test their own products and
only selectively spot-checks the test results they submit.
* There are so many individually rated refrigerator categories that
even inefficient product categories (such as side-by-sides) are
Before the complaints were raised in 2008, 2006 federal court had
required the DOE to update and tighten misleading
Energy Star ratings
given to products in almost two dozen categories, including
dishwashers, air conditioners, heaters, furnaces and clothes dryers.
The updates were to settle complaints by 14 states. However,
categories such as room air conditioners and clothes dryers would not
be completed until June 2011.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had released reports in 2007
and 2008 claiming
Energy Star labels were misleading. Inspector
general issued a report that said Energy Star's savings claims were
"not accurate or verifiable." The report also found that shipment data
Energy Star products were not being adequately reviewed and in
some cases, were based on estimates instead of actual shipping totals.
Martin Hellman revealed that
Energy Star standby mode requirement can
be compromised when an electronic device uses Download Acquisition
Mode (DAM) feature to update TV Guide listing during standby mode.
Hellman first found the feature on
In March 2010, a report by the Government Accountability Office
stated that the
Energy Star program had accepted 15 out of 20 bogus
products submitted for approval. The
Energy Star program had also
qualified four businesses as
Energy Star partners, failing to catch
the fact that information on the companies, products and staff were
In 2011, EPA tried to remedy this problem by requiring third-party
verification of all products. EPA now requires products, destined for
the US market, to be tested for qualification in an EPA-recognized
laboratory and certified as meeting the ENERGY STAR requirements by a
third-party certification program.
In March 2017 the Trump Administration proposed a budget that would
eliminate the program.
ADOPTION IN BUILDING CODES
The current and projected status of energy codes and standards
adoption is show in the maps at the link.
The following cities have mandatory reporting requirements.
* Atlanta, GA
* Austin, TX
* Boston, MA
* Minneapolis, MN
* New York, NY
* Philadelphia, PA
* San Francisco, CA
* Seattle, WA
* Washington, DC
* Energy portal
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
Bureau of Energy Efficiency India
European Union energy label
House Energy Rating (Australia)
Miscellaneous electric load
* NTA Inc – Home Energy Rater
One Watt Initiative
* TCO Certification
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
New Zealand Green Building Council
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