Energy Star (trademarked ENERGY STAR) is a voluntary program launched
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and now managed by
the EPA and
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that helps businesses and
individuals save money and protect the environment through superior
Energy Star provides simple, credible, and
unbiased information that consumers and businesses rely on to make
well-informed decisions to save money and reduce emissions. A
widely recognized symbol for energy efficiency the Energy Star
label can be found on more than 75 different product categories, new
homes, commercial buildings and industrial plants. Thousands of
industrial, manufacturing, retailer, commercial, construction, home
improvement, utility, state, and local organizations—including more
than 40 percent of the Fortune 500—rely on their partnership with
Energy Star to deliver cost-saving energy efficiency solutions.
Elements of the
Energy Star Program have been adopted by the European
Union as well as Canada, Iceland, Japan, Liechtenstein, Norway,
Switzerland, and Taiwan. In the United States, the Energy Star
label is also shown on the Energy Guide appliance label of qualifying
2.4 Heating and cooling systems
2.5 Home electronics
2.6 Imaging equipment
2.8 New homes
3 Energy performance ratings
3.2 Industrial facilities
3.3 Other facilities
4 Small business award
6 Adoption in building codes
7 See also
9 External links
Energy Star program was established by the Environmental
Protection Agency in 1992 and operates under the authority of the
Clean Air Act, section 103(g), and the 2005 Energy Policy Act, section
131 (which amended the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, section
324). Since 1992,
Energy Star and its partners have helped
save American families and businesses $430 billion on their energy
bills—while also achieving broad emissions reductions—all through
EPA manages the
Energy Star Products, New Homes, Commercial, and
Industrial programs. EPA developed and manages
Energy Star Portfolio
Manager, an online energy tracking and benchmarking tool for
commercial buildings. EPA manages IT systems that share product data
in real time with thousands of retailers, manufacturers, and
utilities. DOE manages Home Performance with
Energy Star and provides
technical support, including test procedure development for products
and some verification testing of products.
Initiated as a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and
promote energy efficient products,
Energy Star began with labels for
computer and printer products. In 1995 the program was significantly
expanded, introducing labels for residential heating and cooling
systems and new homes. In 2000, the Consortium for Energy
Efficiency was directed by members to begin an annual survey of Energy
According to the U.S. Energy and Employment Report for 2016, 290,000
American workers are involved in the manufacture of Energy Star
certified products and building materials. The report also
projects that employment in energy efficiency will grow much faster
than other areas of the energy sector—9 percent in 2017 vs. average
projected growth of 5 percent across all of the energy sector—and
Energy Star is an integral part of that market.
Energy Star specifications differ with each item, and are set by the
Energy Star 4.0 specifications for computers became effective on July
20, 2007. The requirements are more stringent than the previous
specification and existing equipment designs can no longer use the
service mark unless re-qualified. They require the use of 80 Plus
Bronze level or higher power supplies.
Energy Star 5.0 became
effective on July 1, 2009.
Energy Star 6.1 became effective on
September 10, 2014.
The EPA released Version 1.0 of the Computer Server specifications on
May 15, 2009. It covered standalone servers with one to four processor
sockets. A second tier to the specification adding active state power
and performance reporting for all qualified servers, as well as blade
and multi-node server idle state requirements became effective
December 16, 2013.
2015 advertisement promoting Energy Star-certified clothes dryers
As of early 2008, average refrigerators need 20% savings over the
minimum standard. Dishwashers need at least 41% savings. Most
appliances as well as heating and cooling systems have a yellow
EnergyGuide label showing the annual cost of operation compared to
other models. This label is created through the Federal Trade
Commission and often shows if an appliance is
Energy Star rated.
Energy Star label indicates that the appliance is more energy
efficient than the minimum guidelines, purchasing an Energy Star
labeled product does not always mean one is getting the most energy
efficient option available. For example, dehumidifiers that are rated
under 25 US pints (12 L) per day of water extraction receive an
Energy Star rating if they have an energy factor of 1.2 (higher is
better), while those rated 25 US pints (12 L) to 35 US pints
(17 L) per day receive an
Energy Star rating for an energy factor
of 1.4 or higher. Thus a higher-capacity but non-
Energy Star rated
dehumidifier may be a more energy efficient alternative than an Energy
Star rated but lower-capacity model. The
Energy Star program's
savings calculator has also been criticized for unrealistic
assumptions in its model that tend to magnify savings benefits to the
Another factor yet to be considered by the EPA and DOE is the overall
effect of energy-saving requirements on the durability and expected
service life of a mass-market appliance built to a consumer-level cost
standard. For example, a refrigerator may be made more efficient by
the use of more insulative spacing and a smaller-capacity compressor
using electronics to control operation and temperature. However, this
may come at the cost of reduced interior storage (or increased
exterior mass) or a reduced service life due to compressor or
electronic failures. In particular, electronic controls used on
new-generation appliances are subject to damage from shock, vibration,
moisture, or power spikes on the electrical circuit to which they are
attached. Critics have pointed out that even if a new appliance is
energy efficient, any consumer appliance that does not provide
customer satisfaction, or must be replaced twice as often as its
predecessor contributes to landfill pollution and waste of natural
resources used to construct its replacement.
Heating and cooling systems
Energy Star qualified heat pumps, boilers, air conditioning systems,
and furnaces are available. In addition, cooling and heating bills can
be significantly lowered with air sealing and duct sealing. Air
sealing reduces the outdoor air that penetrates a building, and duct
sealing prevents attic or basement air from entering ducts and
lessening the heating/cooling system’s efficiency. Energy Star
qualified room air conditioners are at least 10% more energy efficient
than the minimum U.S. federal government standards.
Energy Star qualified televisions use 30% less energy than
average. In November 2008, television specifications were improved to
limit on-mode power use, in addition to standby power which is limited
by the current specifications. A wider range of
Energy Star qualified
televisions will be available. Other qualified home electronics
include cordless phones, battery chargers, VCRs and external power
adapters, most of which use 90% less energy.
Energy Star Program Requirements for Imaging Products are focused
on product families such as electrophotographic (EP) printers, inkjet
printers (e.g., thermal), copiers, facsimile machines and other
imaging equipment including MFD's (multifunctional devices). Typical
Electrical Consumption (TEC) of a product family are measured and
reported against an allowance set by the maximum throughput of the
device. Operation modes (OM) are measured and reported for devices
such as inkjet products against an allowance set by the functions
present in the EUT (equipment under test). Devices that included
"adders" such as Ethernet, on-board memory, wireless, etc. are
mathematically "added" to increase the OM allowance. Recently on
February 1, 2011, the EPA/DOE added the requirement that all products
registered under the
Energy Star service mark, must be tested by an AB
(Accredited Body) or CB (Certification Body) Laboratory.
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EPA graphic promoting light bulb replacement
Energy Star is awarded to only certain bulbs that meet strict
efficiency, quality, and lifetime criteria.
Energy Star qualified fluorescent lighting uses 75% less energy and
lasts up to ten times longer than normal incandescent lights.
Energy Star Qualified light-emitting diode (LED) Lighting:
Reduces energy costs — uses at least 75% less energy than
incandescent lighting, saving on operating expenses.
Reduces maintenance costs — lasts 35 to 50 times longer than
incandescent lighting and about 2 to 5 times longer than fluorescent
lighting. No bulb-replacements, no ladders, no ongoing disposal
Reduces cooling costs — LEDs produce very little heat.
To qualify for
Energy Star certification, LED lighting products must
pass a variety of tests to prove that the products will display the
Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies
(incandescent or fluorescent) and light is well distributed over the
area lighted by the fixture.
Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards the
end of the rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 years based on
use of 8 hours per day).
Excellent color quality. The shade of white light appears clear and
consistent over time.
Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting.
Light comes on instantly when turned on.
No flicker when dimmed.
No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is
turned off, with the exception of external controls, whose power
should not exceed 0.5 watts in the off state.
New homes that meet strict guidelines for energy efficiency can
Energy Star certification. Homes built to the Energy Star
Program Requirements are designed to be 15% more energy-efficient than
homes built to code. The National Program
Requirements are benchmarked against the 2009 International Energy
Conservation Code (IECC). In states that adopt the 2012 IECC, the
program is benchmarked to be 15% more efficient than the 2012 IECC.
They usually include properly installed insulation, high performance
windows, tight construction and ducts, energy efficient cooling and
heating systems, and
Energy Star qualified appliances, lighting, and
water heaters.[non-primary source needed]
Further information: Green building in the United States
Energy performance ratings
The U.S. EPA's
Energy Star program has developed energy performance
rating systems for several commercial and institutional building types
and manufacturing facilities. These ratings, on a scale of 1 to 100,
provide a means for benchmarking the energy efficiency of specific
buildings and industrial plants against the energy performance of
similar facilities. The ratings are used by building and energy
managers to evaluate the energy performance of existing buildings and
industrial plants. The rating systems are also used by EPA to
determine if a building or plant can qualify to earn Energy Star
For many types of commercial buildings, one can enter energy
information into EPA's free online tool, Portfolio Manager, and it
will calculate a score for one's building on a scale of 1-100.
Buildings that score a 75 or greater may qualify for the Energy Star.
Portfolio Manager is an interactive energy management tool that allows
one to track and assess energy and water consumption across one's
entire portfolio of buildings in a secure online environment. Whether
one owns, manages, or holds properties for investment, Portfolio
Manager can help one set investment priorities, identify
under-performing buildings, verify efficiency improvements, and
receive EPA recognition for superior energy performance. Portfolio
Manager uses an automated benchmarking tool that can award Energy Star
certification to buildings that have uploaded 12 months of consecutive
energy usage data and received scores of 75 or above.
2015 graph showing cities with the most Energy Star-certified
The number of space types that can receive the energy performance
rating in Portfolio Manager is expanding and now includes housing,
bank/financial institutions, courthouses, hospitals (acute care and
children's), hotels and motels, houses of worship, K-12 schools,
medical offices, offices, residence halls/dormitories, retail stores,
supermarkets, warehouses (refrigerated and non-refrigerated), data
centers, senior care facilities, and wastewater facilities.
See the technical descriptions for models used in the rating system
at. These documents provide detailed information on the
methodologies used to create the energy performance ratings including
details on rating objectives, regression techniques, and the steps
applied to compute a rating. A 1-100 rating can be generated for
ratable space types by entering building attributes, such as square
footage and weekly operating hours, and monthly energy consumption
data into Portfolio Manager, a free online tool provided by Energy
Star. This process is known as benchmarking and reveals how a
building's energy consumption compares to that of other similar
buildings of the same space type, based on a national average. Earning
a rating of 75 or above is the first step towards achieving the Energy
Star for a building.
Energy Star energy performance ratings have been incorporated into
some green buildings standards, such as LEED for Existing Buildings.
Energy performance ratings have been released for the following
Automobile assembly plants, cement plants, wet corn mills, container
glass manufacturing, flat glass manufacturing, frozen fried potato
processing plants, juice processing, petroleum refineries, and
pharmaceutical manufacturing plants.
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2016)
Small business award
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annually recognizes
small businesses that demonstrate abilities to reduce waste, conserve
energy, and recycle. The businesses use resources and ideas outlined
Energy Star program. The award was established in 1999.
In March 2010, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) performed
covert testing of the
Energy Star product certification process and
Energy Star was for the most part a self-certification
program that was vulnerable to fraud and abuse. While the GAO
demonstrated, by submitting fake products from made-up companies, that
cheating was possible, they found no evidence of consumer fraud
relating to the quality or performance of
Energy Star qualified
In response, the Environmental Protection Agency instituted
third-party certification of all
Energy Star products starting in
2011. Under this regime, products are tested in an EPA-recognized
laboratory and reviewed by an EPA-recognized certification body before
they can carry the label. In order to be recognized, labs and
certification bodies must meet specified criteria and be subject to
oversight by a recognized accreditation body. In addition, a
Energy Star certified product models in each category
are subject to off-the-shelf verification testing each year.
Senator Susan M. Collins (ME), who at the time was Ranking Member of
the Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee and had
requested the GAO audit, applauded the changes that were made to
further protect the credibility and integrity of the Energy Star
As of 2017, there are 23 independent certification bodies and 255
independent laboratories recognized for purposes of Energy Star
product certification and testing. Most cover multiple product
types. In 2016, 1,881 product models were subject to verification
testing with an overall compliance rate of 95%.
In March 2017 the Trump Administration proposed a budget that would
eliminate the program. This prompted an outpouring of expressions
of support for the
Energy Star program from environmental groups,
energy efficiency advocates, businesses and others,
including coverage of the "potentially lethal implications of
eliminating the program" on Full Frontal with Samantha Bee.
Adoption in building codes
The current and projected status of energy codes and standards
adoption is show in the maps at the link.
The following cities have mandatory reporting requirements.
New York, NY
San Francisco, CA
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
Bureau of Energy Efficiency India
European Union energy label
House Energy Rating
House Energy Rating (Australia)
Miscellaneous electric load
One Watt Initiative
^ "Guidelines for Energy Service and Product Providers". Retrieved 27
^ "EPA Celebrates 20th Anniversary of ENERGY STAR - ENERGY STAR".
EnergyStar.gov. 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
^ New York Times. "John Hoffman, a Force in Energy Efficiency, Dies at
Energy Star Overview". www.energystar.gov. Retrieved
^ Consortium for Energy Efficiency. "National Awareness of Energy Star
for 2016" (PDF).
^ U.S. EPA. "
Energy Star international partners".
^ U.S. General Publishing Office. "Section 103(g) of the Clean Air
^ U.S. General Publishing Office. "Energy Policy Act. Section 131"
^ U.S. EPA. "EPA's Statutory Authority for Energy Star".
^ U.S. EPA. "
Energy Star By the Numbers".
^ U.S. EPA. "EPA-DOE Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)".
^ EnergyStar.gov, “Milestones: Energy Star.” 2007. Retrieved on 1
^ "National Awareness of Energy Star". Consortium for Energy
Efficiency and US EPA. US EPA. Retrieved 2016-07-07.
^ "2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report Department of Energy".
energy.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
^ Computers with any
Energy Star version installed will display its
logo, or a rosette and the company's slogan when running the BIOS
after turning the machine on. Ng, Jansen (1 July 2009). "New Energy
Star 5.0 Specs for Computers Become Effective Today". DailyTech.
^ "Version 6.1 Energy Efficiency Requirements for Computers".
Retrieved November 30, 2016.
^ EnergyStar.gov, "
Energy Star - Enterprise Servers". Retrieved 30
^ EnergyStar.gov, "Learn More about EnergyGuide: Energy Star.".
Retrieved 1 March 2008.
^ Green Energy Efficient Homes, Energy Efficient Dehumidifiers
^ Belzer, Richard
Energy Star Appliances: EPA's Savings Calculator
Exaggerates Savings, Regulatory Economics, 5 March 2008
^ Muñoz, Sara Schaeffer, Do 'Green' Appliances Live Up To Their
Billing, The Wall Street Journal, Business, 2 August 2007
^ "EnergyStar.gov, "Room Air Conditioners Key Product Criteria"
Retrieved 2008-07-17". Energystar.gov. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
^ California Sustainability Alliance
Energy Star Televisions, Received
July 24th, 2010
Energy Star Qualified Homes : Energy Star". Energystar.gov.
2009-01-27. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
Energy Star - Evaluate Performance Energy Star.gov
Energy Star Benchmark Energy Star.gov
^ "Portfolio Manager". Energy Star. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
^ "Portfolio Manager Overview : ENERGY STAR". Energystar.gov.
2011-12-23. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "2006 Annual Report: Energy
Star and Other Climate Protection Partnerships.". Retrieved 1 March
^ "Criteria for Rating Building Energy Performance". Energystar.gov.
^ a b "The ENERGY STAR for Buildings & Manufacturing Plants :
ENERGY STAR". Energystar.gov. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
^ "Portfolio Manager Overview: Technical Descriptions for Models Used
in the Rating System : ENERGY STAR". Energystar.gov. Retrieved
^ "Industries in Focus : Energy Star". Energystar.gov.
2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
^ "Small Businesses and Congregations Improve Energy Efficiency and
Fight Climate Change / EPA names nine
Energy Star small business and
congregation award winners". EPA.gov. 2010-09-21.
^ a b U.S. Government Accountability Office (March 2010). "ENERGY STAR
PROGRAM Covert Testing Shows the
Energy Star Program Certification
Process is Vulnerable to Fraud and Abuse". GAO-10-470.
Retrieved October 12, 2017. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ United States Senate Committee on Homeland Secruity and
Governemental Affairs (April 14, 2010). "Senator Collins Lauds Changes
Energy Star Program; Notes Quick Response by EPA, DOE to Recent
Investigation". (Press Release).
Retrieved October 12, 2017. Missing or empty title= (help)
Retrieved October 16, 2017. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ "Trump Budget Plan Would Slice EPA Spending by Nearly a Third".
Bloomberg.com. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-04-24.
^ Wolf, Alan (March 28, 2017). "Trump May Pull the Plug on Energy Star
^ Callahan, Katari (April 5, 2017). "The cheap, effective program that
Trump wants to kill".
^ Heikkinen, Niina (April 5, 2017). "Private sector on quest to save
Energy Star". E&E News.
^ Daly, Matthew (April 25, 2017). "Companies decry Trump plan to
Energy Star Program". The Associated Press.
^ Bradley, Laura (March 23, 2017). "Samantha Bee Cackles Over Trump's
Failing Budget Proposal".
^ http://www.energycodes.gov/adoption/states title= Building Energy
title= Austin, TX
Boston Mandates Energy Benchmarking
^ http://www.minneapolismn.gov/environment/WCMS1P-102244 Minneapolis,
New York, NY
Benchmarking Summary Website
^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/gbee/html/plan/ll84.shtml New York, NY
^ http://legislation.phila.gov/attachments/13491.pdf Philadelphia, PA
San Francisco, CA Benchmarking
^ a b
Seattle, WA Benchmarking
^ http://green.dc.gov/page/private-building-benchmarking Washington,
Energy Star Australia
Energy Star Canada
Energy Consumption Calculator
Energy Star entry at Ecolabelling.org
Energy Efficiency Breakdown of the costs, savings, and energy
Energy Star appliances
Energy Star qualified Energy Service & Product Providers list
EPA recognized Certification Bodies (CBs) and Laboratories
Energy Star 5.0 Computer specification (November 14, 2008)
10 CFR 430, Subpart B, Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 430 - Uniform
Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Electric
Refrigerators and Electric Ref