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World energy resources
World energy resources
are the estimated maximum capacity for energy production given all available resources on Earth. They can be divided by type into fossil fuel, nuclear fuel and renewable resources.

Contents

1 Fossil fuel

1.1 Coal 1.2 Natural gas 1.3 Oil 1.4 Sustainability

2 Nuclear fuel

2.1 Nuclear energy 2.2 Nuclear fusion

3 Renewable resources

3.1 Solar energy 3.2 Wind power 3.3 Wave and tidal power 3.4 Geothermal 3.5 Biomass 3.6 Hydropower

4 References

Fossil fuel[edit] Main article: Fossil fuel Remaining reserves of fossil fuel are estimated as:[3]

Fuel Proven energy reserves in ZJ (end of 2009)

Coal   19.8

Gas   36.4

Oil   8.9

These are the proven energy reserves; real reserves may be up to a factor 4 larger. Significant uncertainty exists for these numbers. Estimating the remaining fossil fuels on the planet depends on a detailed understanding of Earth's crust. While modern drilling technology makes it possible to drill wells in up to 3 km of water to verify the exact composition of the geology, one half of the ocean is deeper than 3 km, leaving about a third of the planet beyond the reach of detailed analysis. In addition to uncertainty in real reserves, there is significant uncertainty in technological and economical factors that impact what percentage of reserves can be recovered gainfully. In general the easiest to reach deposits are the first extracted. Factors affecting the cost of exploiting the remaining reserves include the accessibility of fossil deposits, the level of sulfur and other pollutants in the oil and the coal, transportation costs, and societal instability in producing regions. Coal[edit] Main article: World coal reserves Coal is the most abundant and burned fossil fuel. This was the fuel that launched the industrial revolution and has continued to grow in use; China, which already has many of the world's most polluted cities,[4] was in 2007 building about two coal-fired power plants every week.[5][6] Coal is the fastest growing fossil fuel and its large reserves would make it a popular candidate to meet the energy demand of the global community, short of global warming concerns and other pollutants.[7] According to the International Energy Agency
International Energy Agency
the proven reserves of coal are around 909 billion tonnes, which could sustain the current production rate for 155 years,[8] although at a 5% growth per annum this would be reduced to 45 years, or until 2051. With the Fischer–Tropsch process
Fischer–Tropsch process
it is possible to make liquid fuels such as diesel and jet fuel from coal. In the United States, 49% of electricity generation comes from burning coal.[9] Natural gas[edit] Main article: Natural gas Natural gas
Natural gas
is a widely available fossil fuel with estimated 850 000 km³ in recoverable reserves and at least that much more using enhanced methods to release shale gas. Improvements in technology and wide exploration led to a major increase in recoverable natural gas reserves as shale fracking methods were developed. At present usage rates, natural gas could supply most of the world's energy needs for between 100 and 250 years, depending on increase in consumption over time. Oil[edit] See also: Oil reserves
Oil reserves
and Peak oil It is estimated that there may be 57 ZJ of oil reserves on Earth (although estimates vary from a low of 8 ZJ,[10] consisting of currently proven and recoverable reserves, to a maximum of 110 ZJ[11]) consisting of available, but not necessarily recoverable reserves, and including optimistic estimates for unconventional sources such as oil sands and oil shale. Current consensus among the 18 recognized estimates of supply profiles is that the peak of extraction will occur in 2020 at the rate of 93-million barrels per day (mbd). Current oil consumption is at the rate of 0.18 ZJ per year (31.1 billion barrels) or 85 mbd. There is growing concern that peak oil production may be reached in the near future, resulting in severe oil price increases.[12] A 2005 French Economics, Industry and Finance Ministry report suggested a worst-case scenario that could occur as early as 2013.[13] There are also theories that peak of the global oil production may occur in as little as 2–3 years. The ASPO predicts peak year to be in 2010. Some other theories present the view that it has already taken place in 2005. World crude oil production (including lease condensates) according to US EIA
US EIA
data decreased from a peak of 73.720 mbd in 2005 to 73.437 in 2006, 72.981 in 2007, and 73.697 in 2008.[14] According to peak oil theory, increasing production will lead to a more rapid collapse of production in the future, while decreasing production will lead to a slower decrease, as the bell-shaped curve will be spread out over more years. In a stated goal of increasing oil prices to $75/barrel, which had fallen from a high of $147 to a low of $40, OPEC
OPEC
announced decreasing production by 2.2 mbd beginning 1 January 2009.[15] Sustainability[edit] Political considerations over the security of supplies, environmental concerns related to global warming and sustainability are expected to move the world's energy consumption away from fossil fuels. The concept of peak oil shows that about half of the available petroleum resources have been produced, and predicts a decrease of production. A government moves away from fossil fuels would most likely create economic pressure through carbon emissions and green taxation. Some countries are taking action as a result of the Kyoto Protocol, and further steps in this direction are proposed. For example, the European Commission
European Commission
has proposed that the energy policy of the European Union should set a binding target of increasing the level of renewable energy in the EU's overall mix from less than 7% in 2007 to 20% by 2020.[16] The antithesis of sustainability is a disregard for limits, commonly referred to as the Easter Island Effect, which is the concept of being unable to develop sustainability, resulting in the depletion of natural resources.[17] Some estimate that, assuming current consumption rates, current oil reserves could be completely depleted by 2050.[18] Nuclear fuel[edit] See also: Nuclear power
Nuclear power
and Nuclear energy policy Nuclear energy[edit] See also: Nuclear fuel The International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
estimates the remaining uranium resources to be equal to 2500 ZJ.[19] This assumes the use of breeder reactors, which are able to create more fissile material than they consume. IPCC estimated currently proved economically recoverable uranium deposits for once-through fuel cycles reactors to be only 2 ZJ. The ultimately recoverable uranium is estimated to be 17 ZJ for once-through reactors and 1000 ZJ with reprocessing and fast breeder reactors.[20] Resources and technology do not constrain the capacity of nuclear power to contribute to meeting the energy demand for the 21st century. However, political and environmental concerns about nuclear safety and radioactive waste started to limit the growth of this energy supply at the end of last century, particularly due to a number of nuclear accidents. Concerns about nuclear proliferation (especially with plutonium produced by breeder reactors) mean that the development of nuclear power by countries such as Iran and Syria
Syria
is being actively discouraged by the international community.[21] Although at the beginning of the 21st century uranium is the primary nuclear fuel worldwide, others such as thorium and hydrogen had been under investigation since the middle of the 20th century. Thorium
Thorium
reserves significantly exceed those of uranium, and of course hydrogen is abundant. It is also considered by many to be easier to obtain than uranium. While uranium mines are enclosed underground and thus very dangerous for the miners, thorium is taken from open pits, and is estimated to be roughly three times as abundant as uranium in the Earth's crust.[22] Since the 1960s, numerous facilities throughout the world have burned Thorium. Nuclear fusion[edit] Alternatives for energy production through fusion of hydrogen has been under investigation since the 1950s. No materials can withstand the temperatures required to ignite the fuel, so it must be confined by methods which use no materials. Magnetic and inertial confinement are the main alternatives (Cadarache, Inertial confinement fusion) both of which are hot research topics in the early years of the 21st century. Fusion power
Fusion power
is the process driving the sun and other stars. It generates large quantities of heat by fusing the nuclei of hydrogen or helium isotopes, which may be derived from seawater. The heat can theoretically be harnessed to generate electricity. The temperatures and pressures needed to sustain fusion make it a very difficult process to control. Fusion is theoretically able to supply vast quantities of energy, with relatively little pollution.[23] Although both the United States
United States
and the European Union, along with other countries, are supporting fusion research (such as investing in the ITER
ITER
facility), according to one report, inadequate research has stalled progress in fusion research for the past 20 years.[24] Renewable resources[edit] Main article: Renewable resource Renewable resources are available each year, unlike non-renewable resources, which are eventually depleted. A simple comparison is a coal mine and a forest. While the forest could be depleted, if it is managed it represents a continuous supply of energy, vs. the coal mine, which once has been exhausted is gone. Most of earth's available energy resources are renewable resources. Renewable resources account for more than 93 percent of total U.S. energy reserves. Annual renewable resources were multiplied times thirty years for comparison with non-renewable resources. In other words, if all non-renewable resources were uniformly exhausted in 30 years, they would only account for 7 percent of available resources each year, if all available renewable resources were developed.[25] Solar energy[edit] Main article: Solar energy Renewable energy sources are even larger than the traditional fossil fuels and in theory can easily supply the world's energy needs. 89 PW[26] of solar power falls on the planet's surface. While it is not possible to capture all, or even most, of this energy, capturing less than 0.02% would be enough to meet the current energy needs. Barriers to further solar generation include the high price of making solar cells and reliance on weather patterns to generate electricity. Also, current solar generation does not produce electricity at night, which is a particular problem in high northern and southern latitude countries; energy demand is highest in winter, while availability of solar energy is lowest. This could be overcome by buying power from countries closer to the equator during winter months, and may also be addressed with technological developments such as the development of inexpensive energy storage. Globally, solar generation is the fastest growing source of energy, seeing an annual average growth of 35% over the past few years. Japan, Europe, China, U.S. and India are the major growing investors in solar energy. Solar power's share of worldwide electricity usage at the end of 2014 was 1%.[27] Wind power[edit] Main article: Wind power The available wind energy estimates range from 300 TW to 870 TW.[26][28] Using the lower estimate, just 5% of the available wind energy would supply the current worldwide energy needs. Most of this wind energy is available over the open ocean. The oceans cover 71% of the planet and wind tends to blow more strongly over open water because there are fewer obstructions. Wave and tidal power[edit] Main articles: Wave power
Wave power
and Tidal power At the end of 2005, 0.3 GW of electricity was produced by tidal power.[29] Due to the tidal forces created by the Moon (68%) and the Sun (32%), and the Earth's relative rotation with respect to Moon and Sun, there are fluctuating tides. These tidal fluctuations result in dissipation at an average rate of about 3.7 TW.[30] Another physical limitation is the energy available in the tidal fluctuations of the oceans, which is about 0.6 EJ (exajoule).[31] Note this is only a tiny fraction of the total rotational energy of the Earth. Without forcing, this energy would be dissipated (at a dissipation rate of 3.7 TW) in about four semi-diurnal tide periods. So, dissipation plays a significant role in the tidal dynamics of the oceans. Therefore, this limits the available tidal energy to around 0.8 TW (20% of the dissipation rate) in order not to disturb the tidal dynamics too much.[citation needed] Waves are derived from wind, which is in turn derived from solar energy, and at each conversion there is a drop of about two orders of magnitude in available energy. The total power of waves that wash against the earth's shores adds up to 3 TW.[32] Geothermal[edit] Main article: Geothermal power Estimates of exploitable worldwide geothermal energy resources vary considerably, depending on assumed investments in technology and exploration and guesses about geological formations. According to a 1999 study, it was thought that this might amount to between 65 and 138 GW of electrical generation capacity 'using enhanced technology'.[33] Other estimates range from 35 to 2000 GW of electrical generation capacity, with a further potential for 140 EJ/year of direct use.[34] A 2006 report by MIT
MIT
that took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050, just in the United States, for a maximum investment of 1 billion US dollars in research and development over 15 years.[35] The MIT
MIT
report calculated the world's total EGS resources to be over 13 YJ, of which over 200 ZJ would be extractable, with the potential to increase this to over 2 YJ with technology improvements - sufficient to provide all the world's energy needs for several millennia.[35] The total heat content of the Earth
Earth
is 13,000,000 YJ.[34] Biomass[edit] Main articles: biomass and biofuel Production of biomass and biofuels are growing industries as interest in sustainable fuel sources is growing. Utilizing waste products avoids a food vs fuel trade-off, and burning methane gas reduces greenhouse gas emissions, because even though it releases carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide is 23 times less of a greenhouse gas than is methane. Biofuels represent a sustainable partial replacement for fossil fuels, but their net impact on greenhouse gas emissions depends on the agricultural practices used to grow the plants used as feedstock to create the fuels. While it is widely believed that biofuels can be carbon-neutral, there is evidence that biofuels produced by current farming methods are substantial net carbon emitters.[36][37][38] Geothermal and biomass are the only two renewable energy sources that require careful management to avoid local depletion.[39] Hydropower[edit] Main article: hydropower In 2005, hydroelectric power supplied 16.4% of world electricity, down from 21.0% in 1973, but only 2.2% of the world's energy.[40] References[edit]

^ Smil, p. 204 * Tester, et al., p. 303 * " OPEC
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2005 Annual Statistical Bulletin" (PDF). Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-01-31. Retrieved 2007-01-25.  ^ "USGS World Energy Assessment Team". Retrieved 2007-01-18.  ^ Proven energy reserves, BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2010 ^ The Middle Landfill ^ China
China
building more power plants ^ COAL: Scrubbing its future ^ Pollution
Pollution
From Chinese Coal Casts a Global Shadow accessed 14 October 2007 ^ IEA (2006), p. 127 ^ EIA sources of electricity ^ "Consumption by fuel, 1965 - 2008". Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, BP. July 31, 2006. Archived from the original (XLS) on July 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-24.  ^ "Oil Gas Industry Stats". oiljobsource.com. Retrieved 2011-02-07.  ^ Gold Russell, Davis Ann (2007-11-10). "Oil Officials See Limit Looming on Production". The Wallstreet Journal.  ^ Porter, Adam (10 June 2005). "'Peak oil' enters mainstream debate". BBC. Retrieved 2007-02-02.  ^ International Petroleum Monthly Retrieved 10 November 2009 ^ Opec agrees record oil output cut retrieved 21 December 2008 ^ "Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: Renewable Energy Roadmap: Renewable Energies in the 21st century; building a sustainable future - COM(2006) 848" (PDF). Commission of the European Communities. 10 January 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  ^ Basic Concepts of Sustainable Development for Business Students ^ "World Proved1 Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas, Most Recent Estimates". Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Global Ur Resources to Meet Projected Demand: Latest Edition of "Red Book" Predicts Consistent Supply Up to 2025". International Atomic Energy Agency. 2 June 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-01.  ^ Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; et al. "IPCC Special
Special
Report on Emissions Scenarios". Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved 2007-02-20.  Special
Special
Report on Emissions Scenarios ^ " Syria
Syria
'had covert nuclear scheme'". BBC
BBC
News. 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2010-12-06.  ^ http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2015/01/16/thorium-future-nuclear-energy/#.VPfjkXbFo1w ^ Fusion Energy: Safety Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine. European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-03 ^ Fifty years of U.S. fusion research - An overview of programs st ^ Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply ^ a b Tester, Jefferson W.; et al. (2005). Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. The MIT
MIT
Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4.  ^ http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REN12-GSR2015_Onlinebook_low1.pdf pg31 ^ Exergy Flow Charts ^ "Renewables, Global Status Report 2006" (PDF). Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2007-04-03.  ^ Munk, Walter (1998). "Abyssal recipes II: energetics of tidal and wind mixing". Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 45: 1977–2010. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00070-3.  ^ Marchuk, G.I. and Kagan, B.A. (1989) "Dynamics of Ocean
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Tides", Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-90-277-2552-3. See page 225. ^ Tester, et al., p. 593 ^ "All About Geothermal energy". Geothermal Energy Association - Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 2006-09-29. Retrieved 2007-02-07.  ^ a b Fridleifsson,, Ingvar B.; Bertani, Ruggero; Huenges, Ernst; Lund, John W.; Ragnarsson, Arni; Rybach, Ladislaus (2008-02-11). O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin, ed. "The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change" (PDF). Luebeck, Germany: 59–80. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-04-06.  ^ a b "The Future of Geothermal Energy" (PDF). MIT. Retrieved 2007-02-07.  ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth (2008-02-08). "Biofuels Deemed a Greenhouse Threat". New York Times.  Registration required. "Almost all biofuels used today cause more greenhouse gas emissions than conventional fuels if the full emissions costs of producing these “green” fuels are taken into account, two studies being published Thursday have concluded." ^ Farigone, Joseph; Hill, Jason; Tillman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Hawthorne, Peter (2008-02-29). "Land Clearing and the Biofuel
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v t e

Human impact on the environment

General

Anthropocene Environmental issues

List of issues

Human impact Impact assessment Planetary boundaries

Causes

Agriculture

fishing irrigation meat production palm oil

Energy industry

biofuels biodiesel coal electricity generation nuclear power oil shale petroleum reservoirs wind power

Genetic pollution Industrialization Land use Manufacturing

cleaning agents concrete plastics nanotechnology paint paper pesticides pharmaceuticals and personal care

Mining Overdrafting Overexploitation Overpopulation Particulates Pollution Quarrying Reservoirs Tourism Transport

aviation roads shipping

Urbanization

urban sprawl

war

Effects

Biodiversity threats

Biodiversity loss

Climate change

Global warming Runaway climate change

Coral reefs Deforestation Defaunation Desertification Ecocide Erosion Environmental degradation Freshwater cycle Habitat destruction Holocene extinction Nitrogen cycle Land degradation Land surface effects on climate Loss of green belts Phosphorus cycle Ocean
Ocean
acidification Ozone depletion Resource depletion Water degradation Water scarcity

Mitigation

Birth control Cleaner production Climate change
Climate change
mitigation Climate engineering Ecological engineering Environmental engineering Environmental mitigation Industrial ecology Mitigation banking Organic farming Reforestation

urban

Restoration ecology Sustainable consumption Waste
Waste
minimization

  Commons   Category by country assessment mitigation

41.Energy has many forms , it can be changed form one form into another.

v t e

Global human population

Major topics

Biocapacity Optimum population Overpopulation

Malthusian catastrophe

Population Population
Population
ethics Population
Population
momentum Sustainable development Women's reproductive rights Zero population growth

Biological and related topics

Family planning

Pledge two or fewer

Human population planning

One-child policy Two-child policy

Population
Population
biology Population
Population
decline Population
Population
density

Physiological density

Population
Population
dynamics Population
Population
growth Population
Population
model Population
Population
pyramid Projections of population growth

Human impact on the environment

Deforestation Desalination Desertification Environmental impact

of agriculture of aviation of biodiesel of concrete of electricity generation of the energy industry of fishing of irrigation of mining of off-roading of oil shale industry of palm oil of paper of the petroleum industry of reservoirs of shipping of war

Industrialisation Land degradation Land reclamation Overconsumption Pollution Quarrying Urbanization

Loss of green belts Urban sprawl

Waste Water scarcity

Overdrafting

Population ecology

Carrying capacity Deep ecology Earth's energy budget Food security Habitat destruction I = P × A  × T Malthusian growth model Overshoot (population) World energy consumption World energy resources World3 model

Literature

A Modest Proposal Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. An Essay on the Principle of Population "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth Population
Population
Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits The Limits to Growth The Population
Population
Bomb The Skeptical Environmentalist The Ultimate Resource

Publications

Population
Population
and Environment Population
Population
and Development Review

Lists

Population
Population
and housing censuses by country Metropolitan areas by population Population
Population
milestone babies

Events and organizations

7 Billion Actions International Conference on Population
Population
and Development Population
Population
Action International Population
Population
Connection Population
Population
Matters Population
Population
Research Institute United Nations Population
Population
Fund Voluntary Human Extinction
Extinction
Movement World Population
Population
Day World Population
Population
Foundation

Related topics

Classic Maya collapse Fertility and intelligence Green Revolution Holocene extinction Migration

Commons Human overpopulation Human activities with impact on the environment Human migration

42.fossil fuels are found in three state solid-coal,liquid-petrol, kerosene and gas-natural gas.In the bowels of earth.Mineral oil is found up to depth of about 11,000 metres in the earth. Methane,Ethane,propane and butane,etc are various types of natural gas.

v t e

Lists of countries by population statistics

Global

Current population Current population (United Nations)

(Sub-)Continents

Africa Asia Europe North America

Caribbean

Oceania South America

Intercontinental

Americas Arab world Commonwealth of Nations Eurasia European Union Islands Latin America Middle East

Cities/urban regions

National capitals Cities proper Metropolitan areas Urban areas Megacities Megalopolises

Past and future

Past population (United Nations) Past and future population 1 1000 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1907 1939 1989 2000 2005 2010 Future population

Population
Population
density

Current density Current real density based on food growing capacity

Growth indicators

Population
Population
growth rate Natural increase Birth rate Mortality rate Fertility rate

Other demographics

Age at first marriage Divorce rate Ethnic and cultural diversity level Foreign-born population Immigrant population Linguistic diversity Median age Net migration rate Number of households Sex ratio Urban population Urbanization

Health

Antiviral medications for pandemic influenza HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate Infant and under-five mortality rates Life expectancy Percentage suffering from undernourishment Health
Health
expenditure covered by government Suicide rate Total health expenditure per capita Body Mass Index (BMI)

Education and innovation

Bloomberg Innovation Index Education Index International Innovation Index Innovation Union Scoreboard Literacy rate Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies Progress in International Reading Literacy Study Student skills Tertiary education attainment Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Women's average years in school World Intellectual Property Indicators

Economic

Development aid
Development aid
given

Official Development Assistance received

Employment rate Irrigated land area Human Development Index

by country inequality-adjusted

Human Poverty Index Imports Income equality Job security Labour force Number of millionaires (US dollars) Number of billionaires (US dollars) Percentage living in poverty Public sector Sen social welfare function Unemployment rate

List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country

v t e

Hierarchy of life

Biosphere > Ecosystem > Biocoenosis > Population > Organism > Organ system > Organ > Tissue > Cell > Organelle > Biomolecular complex > Macromolecule > Biomolecule

v t e

Globalization

Journals Outline Studies

Aspects

Alter-globalization Anti-globalization Counter-hegemonic globalization Cultural globalization Deglobalization Democratic globalization Economic globalization Environmental globalization Financial globalization Global citizenship

education

Global governance Global health History of

archaic early modern

Military globalization Political globalization Trade globalization Workforce globalization

Issues

Global

Disease Digital divide Labor arbitrage Population Warming Water crisis

Other

Brain drain

reverse

Climate change Climate justice Development aid Economic inequality Endangered languages Fair trade Forced migration Human rights Illicit financial flows Invasive species Investor-state disputes New international division of labour North–South divide Offshoring Race to the bottom

pollution havens

Transnational crime McDonaldization Westernization American imperialism British Empire World war

Theories

Capital accumulation Dependency Development Earth
Earth
system Fiscal localism Modernization

ecological history of

Primitive accumulation Social change World history World-systems

Notable scholars

Samir Amin Arjun Appadurai K. Anthony Appiah Daniele Archibugi Giovanni Arrighi Ravi Batra Jean Baudrillard Zygmunt Bauman Ulrich Beck Walden Bello Jagdish Bhagwati Robert Brenner Manuel Castells Noam Chomsky Alfred Crosby Christopher Chase-Dunn Andre G. Frank Thomas Friedman Anthony Giddens Peter Gowan Michael Hardt David Harvey David Held Paul Hirst Michael Hudson Paul James Ibn Khaldun Naomi Klein Antonio Negri George Ritzer Dani Rodrik Jeffrey Sachs Saskia Sassen John R. Saul Vandana Shiva Joseph Stiglitz John Urry Immanuel Wallerstein

Portal Category

v t e

Global catastrophic risks

Future of the Earth Ultimate fate of the universe

Technological

Grey goo Kinetic bombardment Mutual assured destruction

Dead Hand Doomsday device

Synthetic intelligence
Synthetic intelligence
/ Artificial intelligence

Existential risk from artificial intelligence

See Template

AI takeover

Technological singularity Transhumanism

Sociological

Malthusian catastrophe New World Order (conspiracy theory) Nuclear holocaust

winter famine cobalt

Societal collapse World War III

Ecological

Climate change

Extinction
Extinction
risk from global warming

Runaway climate change

Global terrestrial stilling Ice age Ecocide Human impact on the environment

See Template

Ozone depletion Cascade effect

Earth
Earth
Overshoot Day

Overexploitation Overpopulation

Human overpopulation

Biological

Extinction

Extinction
Extinction
event Human extinction Genetic erosion Genetic pollution

Dysgenics Pandemic

Biological agent

Transhumanism

Physical

Big Crunch Big Rip Coronal mass ejection Gamma-ray burst Hypercane Impact event

Asteroid Comet Potentially hazardous object

Rogue planet Solar flare Supervolcano

winter

Mythological

Eschatology

Buddhist Christian Hindu Islamic Jewish Norse Zoroastrian

2011 end times prediction 2012 phenomenon Apocalypse Armageddon Blood moon prophecy Book of Revelation Doomsday Clock End time Last Judgment List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events Nibiru cataclysm Rapture Revelation 12 sign prophecy Third Temple Year 2000 problem

Fiction

Alien invasion Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction

List of apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction

Disaster films

List of disaster films

List of fictional doomsday devices Zombie apocalypse

Categories Apocalypticism Future problems Hazards Risk analysis Doomsd

.