Endive (/ˈɛndv/ or /ˈɑːndiv/)[1] is a leaf vegetable belonging to the genus Cichorium, which includes several similar bitter leafed vegetables. Species include Cichorium endivia (also called endive), Cichorium pumilum (also called wild endive), and Cichorium intybus (also called common chicory). Common chicory includes types such as radicchio, puntarelle, and Belgian endive.

There is considerable confusion between Cichorium endivia and Cichorium intybus.[2][3]

Cichorium endivia

There are two main varieties of cultivated C. endivia endive:

  • Curly endive, or frisée (var crispum). This type has narrow, green, curly outer leaves. It is sometimes called chicory in the United States and is called chicorée frisée in French. Further confusion results from the fact that frisée also refers to greens lightly wilted with oil.
  • Escarole, or broad-leaved endive (var latifolia), has broad, pale green leaves and is less bitter than the other varieties. Varieties or names include broad-leaved endive, Bavarian endive, Batavian endive, grumolo, scarola, and scarole. It is eaten like other greens, sauteed, chopped into soups and stews, or as part of a green salad.

Cichorium intybus

Cichorium intybus endive is popular in Europe, and is also known as leaf chicory.

Chemical constituents

Endive is rich in many vitamins and minerals, especially in folate and vitamins A and K, and is high in fiber.[citation needed] It also contains kaempferol.[6]


  1. ^ "Endive Define Endive at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  2. ^ "Chicory and Endive". Innvista. 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  3. ^ "Endive Archives Aggie Horticulture". Plantanswers.tamu.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  4. ^ Anderson, B. (2001), The Foods of Italy: The Quality of Life, Italian Trade Commission, p. 147 
  5. ^ Kasper, L.R. (1999), The Italian Country Table, Scribner, ISBN 9780684813257 
  6. ^ DuPont, M. S., Day, A. J., Bennett, R. N., Mellon, F. A., Kroon, P. A., Absorption of kaempferol from endive, a source of kaempferol-3-glucuronide, in humans, Eur J Clin Nutr 2004 Jun;58(6):947-54

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