An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium
providing summaries of information from either all branches of
knowledge or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias
are divided into articles or entries that are often arranged
alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic
Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than
those in most dictionaries. Generally speaking, unlike dictionary
entries which focus on linguistic information about words, such as
their meaning, pronunciation, use, and grammatical forms, encyclopedia
articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in
the article’s title.
Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years and have evolved
considerably since that time as to language (written in a major
international or a vernacular language), size (few or many volumes),
intent (presentation of a global or a limited range of knowledge),
cultural perceptions (authoritative, ideological, didactic,
utilitarian), authorship (qualifications, style), readership
(education level, background, interests, capabilities), and the
technologies available for their production and distribution
(hand-written manuscripts, small or large print runs, internet
production). As a valued source of reliable information compiled by
experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries,
schools and other educational institutions.
The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 20th century
has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship, readership, and
variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of
what an encyclopedia is and the relevance of applying
to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling
and evaluating print encyclopedias.
1.1 Two Greek words misunderstood as one
1.2 Sixteenth century usage of the compounded word
1.3 The suffix -p(a)edia
1.4 Contemporary usage
3.1 Ancient times
3.2 Middle Ages
3.4 18th–19th centuries
3.5 20th century
3.6 21st century
4 See also
7 External links
Look up encyclopedia, encyclopaedia, or encyclopedic in Wiktionary,
the free dictionary.
Indeed, the purpose of an encyclopedia is to collect knowledge
disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the
men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after
us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to
the centuries to come; and so that our offspring, becoming better
instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous and happy, and
that we should not die without having rendered a service to the human
race in the future years to come.
Two Greek words misunderstood as one
The word encyclopedia comes from the
Koine Greek ἐγκύκλιος
παιδεία, transliterated enkyklios paideia, meaning "general
education" from enkyklios (ἐγκύκλιος), meaning "circular,
recurrent, required regularly, general" and paideia
(παιδεία), meaning "education, rearing of a child"; together,
the phrase literally translates as "complete instruction" or "complete
knowledge". However, the two separate words were reduced to a
single word due to a scribal error by copyists of a Latin
manuscript edition of
Quintillian in 1470. The copyists took this
phrase to be a single Greek word, enkyklopaidia, with the same
meaning, and this spurious Greek word became the New
"encyclopaedia", which in turn came into English. Because of this
compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have often, and
incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors
Quintillian and Pliny
described an ancient genre.
Title page of Skalich's Encyclopaedia, seu orbis disciplinarum, tam
sacrarum quam prophanarum, epistemon from 1559, first clear use of the
word encyclopaedia in the title.
Sixteenth century usage of the compounded word
In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to how to
use this new word. As several titles illustrate, there was not a
settled notion about its spelling nor its status as a noun. For
example: Jacobus Philomusus's Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam
exhibens (1508); Johannes Aventinus's
doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae
index ac divisio; Joachimus Fortius Ringelbergius's Lucubrationes vel
potius absolutissima kyklopaideia (1538, 1541); Paul Skalich's
Encyclopaediae sen orbis disciplinarum epistemon (1559); Gregor
Reisch's Margarita philosophica (1503, retitled Encyclopaedia in
1583); and Samuel Eisenmenger's Cyclopaedia Paracelsica (1585). It
is only with
Pavao Skalić and his Encyclopediae seu orbis
disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon (Encyclopaedia,
Knowledge of the World of Disciplines, Basel, 1559) that the term
became first recognized as a noun.
There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the
compounded word. In approximately 1490, Franciscus Puccius wrote a
letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellanea, calling it an
encyclopedia. More commonly,
François Rabelais is cited for his
use of the term in Pantagruel (1532).
The suffix -p(a)edia
Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -p(a)edia, to
mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. For example
Banglapedia (on matters relevant for Bangladesh).
Today in English, the word is most commonly spelled encyclopedia,
though encyclopaedia (from encyclopædia) is also used in Britain.
The modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th
century. Historically, both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been
researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content
experts, but they are significantly different in structure. A
dictionary is a linguistic work which primarily focuses on
alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words
and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered
around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary typically provides limited information, analysis or
background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it
may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning,
significance or limitations of a term, and how the term relates to a
broader field of knowledge. An encyclopedia is, theoretically, not
written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to
convince its reader of its own veracity.
To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is typically not
limited to simple definitions, and is not limited to defining an
individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject
or discipline. In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms
for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive
meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated
knowledge on that subject. An encyclopedia article also often includes
many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics.
Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its
scope, its method of organization, and its method of production:
Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every
field (the English-language
Encyclopædia Britannica and German
Brockhaus are well-known examples). General encyclopedias may contain
guides on how to do a variety of things, as well as embedded
dictionaries and gazetteers. There are also
encyclopedias that cover a wide variety of topics from a particular
cultural, ethnic, or national perspective, such as the Great Soviet
Encyclopedia or Encyclopaedia Judaica.
Works of encyclopedic scope aim to convey the important accumulated
knowledge for their subject domain, such as an encyclopedia of
medicine, philosophy, or law. Works vary in the breadth of material
and the depth of discussion, depending on the target audience.
Some systematic method of organization is essential to making an
encyclopedia usable for reference. There have historically been two
main methods of organizing printed encyclopedias: the alphabetical
method (consisting of a number of separate articles, organized in
alphabetical order) and organization by hierarchical categories. The
former method is today the more common, especially for general works.
The fluidity of electronic media, however, allows new possibilities
for multiple methods of organization of the same content. Further,
electronic media offer new capabilities for search, indexing and cross
reference. The epigraph from
Horace on the title page of the 18th
Encyclopédie suggests the importance of the structure of an
encyclopedia: "What grace may be added to commonplace matters by the
power of order and connection."
As modern multimedia and the information age have evolved, new methods
have emerged for the collection, verification, summation, and
presentation of information of all kinds. Projects such as
Everything2, Encarta, h2g2, and are examples of new forms of
the encyclopedia as information retrieval becomes simpler. The method
of production for an encyclopedia historically has been supported in
both for-profit and non-profit contexts. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia
mentioned above was entirely state sponsored, while the Britannica was
supported as a for-profit institution. By comparison, is
supported by volunteers contributing in a non-profit environment under
the organization of the Wikimedia Foundation.
Some works entitled "dictionaries" are actually similar to
encyclopedias, especially those concerned with a particular field
(such as the
Dictionary of the Middle Ages, the
Dictionary of American
Naval Fighting Ships, and Black's
Law Dictionary). The Macquarie
Dictionary, Australia's national dictionary, became an encyclopedic
dictionary after its first edition in recognition of the use of proper
nouns in common communication, and the words derived from such proper
There are some broad differences between encyclopedias and
dictionaries. Most noticeably, encyclopedia articles are longer,
fuller and more thorough than entries in most general-purpose
dictionaries. There are differences in content as well.
Generally speaking, dictionaries provide linguistic information about
words themselves, while encyclopedias focus more on the thing for
which those words stand. Thus, while dictionary entries
are inextricably fixed to the word described, encyclopedia articles
can be given a different entry name. As such, dictionary entries are
not fully translatable into other languages, but encyclopedia articles
In practice, however, the distinction is not concrete, as there is no
clear-cut difference between factual, "encyclopedic" information and
linguistic information such as appears in dictionaries.
Thus encyclopedias may contain material that is also found in
dictionaries, and vice versa. In particular, dictionary entries
often contain factual information about the thing named by the
Main article: History of encyclopedias
Encyclopedias have progressed from written form in antiquity, to print
in modern times. Today they can also be distributed and displayed
Naturalis Historiæ, 1669 edition, title page
One of the earliest encyclopedic works to have survived to modern
times is the
Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder, a Roman statesman
living in the first century AD. He compiled a work of 37 chapters
covering natural history, architecture, medicine, geography, geology,
and other aspects of the world around him. He stated in the preface
that he had compiled 20,000 facts from 2000 works by over 200 authors,
and added many others from his own experience. The work was published
around AD 77–79, although Pliny probably never finished editing the
work before his death in the eruption of
Vesuvius in AD 79.
Isidore of Seville, one of the greatest scholars of the early Middle
Ages, is widely recognized for writing the first encyclopedia of the
Middle Ages, the
Etymologiae (The Etymologies) or Origines (around
630), in which he compiled a sizable portion of the learning available
at his time, both ancient and contemporary. The work has 448 chapters
in 20 volumes, and is valuable because of the quotes and fragments of
texts by other authors that would have been lost had he not collected
The most popular encyclopedia of the
Carolingian Age was the De
universo or De rerum naturis by Rabanus Maurus, written about 830; it
was based on Etymologiae.
The encyclopedia of Suda, a massive 10th-century Byzantine
encyclopedia, had 30 000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources
that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian
compilers. The text was arranged alphabetically with some slight
deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet.
The early Muslim compilations of knowledge in the Middle Ages included
many comprehensive works. Around year 960, the
Brethren of Purity
Brethren of Purity of
Basra were engaged in their
Encyclopedia of the Brethren of
Purity. Notable works include Abu Bakr al-Razi's encyclopedia of
Mutazilite Al-Kindi's prolific output of 270 books, and
Ibn Sina's medical encyclopedia, which was a standard reference work
for centuries. Also notable are works of universal history (or
sociology) from Asharites, al-Tabri, al-Masudi, Tabari's History of
the Prophets and Kings, Ibn Rustah, al-Athir, and Ibn Khaldun, whose
Muqadimmah contains cautions regarding trust in written records that
remain wholly applicable today.
The enormous encyclopedic work in China of the Four Great Books of
Song, compiled by the 11th century AD during the early Song dynasty
(960–1279), was a massive literary undertaking for the time. The
last encyclopedia of the four, the Prime Tortoise of the Record
Bureau, amounted to 9.4 million
Chinese characters in 1000 written
In late medieval Europe, several authors had the ambition of compiling
the sum of human knowledge in a certain field or overall, for example
Bartholomew of England, Vincent of Beauvais, Radulfus Ardens, Sydrac,
Brunetto Latini, Giovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire. Some were
Hildegard of Bingen
Hildegard of Bingen and Herrad of Landsberg. The most
successful of those publications were the Speculum maius (Great
Vincent of Beauvais
Vincent of Beauvais and the De proprietatibus rerum (On the
Properties of Things) by Bartholomew of England. The latter was
translated (or adapted) into French, Provençal, Italian, English,
Flemish, Anglo-Norman, Spanish, and German during the Middle Ages.
Both were written in the middle of the 13th century. No medieval
encyclopedia bore the title Encyclopaedia – they were often called
On nature (De natura, De naturis rerum), Mirror (Speculum maius,
Speculum universale), Treasure (Trésor).
Anatomy in Margarita Philosophica, 1565
Medieval encyclopedias were all hand-copied and thus available mostly
to wealthy patrons or monastic men of learning; they were expensive,
and usually written for those extending knowledge rather than those
During the Renaissance, the creation of printing allowed a wider
diffusion of encyclopedias and every scholar could have his or her own
copy. The De expetendis et fugiendis rebus by
Giorgio Valla was
posthumously printed in 1501 by
Aldo Manuzio in Venice. This work
followed the traditional scheme of liberal arts. However, Valla added
the translation of ancient Greek works on mathematics (firstly by
Archimedes), newly discovered and translated. The Margarita
Philosophica by Gregor Reisch, printed in 1503, was a complete
encyclopedia explaining the seven liberal arts.
The term encyclopaedia was coined by 16th-century humanists who
misread copies of their texts of Pliny and Quintilian, and combined
the two Greek words "enkyklios paideia" into one word,
έγκυκλοπαιδεία. The phrase enkyklios paideia
(ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία) was used by Plutarch and the
Encyclopedia came from him.
The first work titled in this way was the
doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae
index ac divisio written by
Johannes Aventinus in 1517.[citation
The English physician and philosopher, Sir
Thomas Browne used the word
'encyclopaedia' in 1646 in the preface to the reader to define his
Pseudodoxia Epidemica, a major work of the 17th-century scientific
revolution. Browne structured his encyclopaedia upon the time-honoured
scheme of the Renaissance, the so-called 'scale of creation' which
ascends through the mineral, vegetable, animal, human, planetary, and
Pseudodoxia Epidemica was a European best-seller,
translated into French, Dutch, and German as well as
Latin it went
through no fewer than five editions, each revised and augmented, the
last edition appearing in 1672.
Financial, commercial, legal, and intellectual factors changed the
size of encyclopedias. During the Renaissance, middle classes had more
time to read and encyclopedias helped them to learn more. Publishers
wanted to increase their output so some countries like Germany started
selling books missing alphabetical sections, to publish faster. Also,
publishers could not afford all the resources by themselves, so
multiple publishers would come together with their resources to create
better encyclopedias. When publishing at the same rate became
financially impossible, they turned to subscriptions and serial
publications. This was risky for publishers because they had to find
people that would pay all upfront or make payments. When this worked,
capital would rise and there would be a steady income for
encyclopedias. Later, rivalry grew, causing copyright to occur due to
weak underdeveloped laws. Some publishers would copy another
publisher’s work to produce an encyclopedia faster and cheaper so
consumers did not have to pay a lot and they would sell more.
Encyclopedias made it to where middle-class citizens could basically
have a small library in their own house. Europeans were becoming more
curious about their society around them causing them to revolt against
The beginnings of the modern idea of the general-purpose, widely
distributed printed encyclopedia precede the 18th century
encyclopedists. However, Chambers' Cyclopaedia, or Universal
Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1728), and the
Encyclopédie of Denis
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1751 onwards), as well as
Encyclopædia Britannica and the Conversations-Lexikon, were the first
to realize the form we would recognize today, with a comprehensive
scope of topics, discussed in depth and organized in an accessible,
systematic method. Chambers, in 1728, followed the earlier lead of
Lexicon Technicum of 1704 and later editions (see also
below); this work was by its title and content "A Universal English
Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art,
but the Arts Themselves".
During the 19th and early 20th century, many smaller or less developed
languages[which?] saw their first encyclopedias, using French, German,
and English role models. While encyclopedias in larger languages,
having large markets that could support a large editorial staff,
churned out new 20-volume works in a few years and new editions with
brief intervals, such publication plans often spanned a decade or more
in smaller languages.
Popular and affordable encyclopedias such as Harmsworth's Universal
Encyclopaedia and the
Children's Encyclopaedia appeared in the early
In the United States, the 1950s and 1960s saw the introduction of
several large popular encyclopedias, often sold on installment plans.
The best known of these were
World Book and Funk and Wagnalls.
1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica, the oldest and one of
the largest contemporary English encyclopedias
The second half of the 20th century also saw the proliferation of
specialized encyclopedias that compiled topics in specific fields.
This trend has continued. Encyclopedias of at least one volume in size
now exist for most if not all academic disciplines, including such
narrow topics such as bioethics.
By the late 20th century, encyclopedias were being published on
CD-ROMs for use with personal computers. Microsoft's Encarta, launched
in 1993, was a landmark example as it had no printed equivalent.
Articles were supplemented with both video and audio files as well as
numerous high-quality images. After sixteen years, Microsoft
Encarta line of products in 2009.
Jimmy Wales and
Larry Sanger launched, a
multilingual, open-source, free Internet encyclopedia supported by the
non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Unlike commercial online
encyclopedias such as Britannica Online, which are written by experts,
is collaboratively edited by volunteers. As of 6 April 2018,
there are 5,606,272 articles in the English. There are 287
different editions of. As of February 2014, it had 18
billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors each
month. has more than 25 million accounts, out of which
there were over 118,000 active editors globally, as of August 2015. A
study by Nature in 2005 found that's science articles were
roughly comparable in accuracy to those of Encyclopædia Britannica,
containing the same number of serious errors and about 1/3 more minor
factual inaccuracies, but's writing tended to be confusing
and less readable.
Many academics, historians, teachers, and journalists reject
as a reliable source of information, and is itself not a
reliable source according to its own standards (since it's an open
wiki).[better source needed] Critics argue that
exhibits systemic bias.
is by far the largest web-based encyclopedia, but it is not
the only one in existence. There are several much smaller, usually
more specialized, encyclopedias on various themes, sometimes dedicated
to a specific geographic region or time period. One example is the
Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Bibliography of encyclopedias
History of science and technology
Lists of encyclopedias
Access related topics
Library and information science portal
^ "Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on August 3, 2007.
Glossary of Library Terms. Riverside City College, Digital
Library/Learning Resource Center. Retrieved on: November 17, 2007.
^ a b c Hartmann, R. R. K.; James, Gregory; James, Gregory (1998).
Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge. p. 48.
ISBN 0-415-14143-5. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
^ a b c Béjoint, Henri (2000). Modern Lexicography, pp. 30–31.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829951-6
^ a b "Encyclopaedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 27,
2010. An English lexicographer, H.W. Fowler, wrote in the preface to
the first edition (1911) of The Concise Oxford
Dictionary of Current
English language that a dictionary is concerned with the uses of words
and phrases and with giving information about the things for which
they stand only so far as current use of the words depends upon
knowledge of those things. The emphasis in an encyclopedia is much
more on the nature of the things for which the words and phrases
^ a b c Hartmann, R. R. K.; Gregory, James (1998).
Lexicography. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 0-415-14143-5.
Retrieved July 27, 2010. In contrast with linguistic information,
encyclopedia material is more concerned with the description of
objective realities than the words or phrases that refer to them. In
practice, however, there is no hard and fast boundary between factual
and lexical knowledge.
^ a b Cowie, Anthony Paul (2009). The Oxford History of English
Lexicography, Volume I. Oxford University Press. p. 22.
ISBN 0-415-14143-5. Retrieved August 17, 2010. An 'encyclopedia'
(encyclopaedia) usually gives more information than a dictionary; it
explains not only the words but also the things and concepts referred
to by the words.
Denis Diderot and
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
Jean le Rond d'Alembert Encyclopédie. University
of Michigan Library:Scholarly Publishing Office and DLXS. Retrieved
on: November 17, 2007
^ Ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία, Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria,
1.10.1, at Perseus Project
^ ἐγκύκλιος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek–English Lexicon, at Perseus Project
^ παιδεία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek–English Lexicon, at Perseus Project
^ According to some accounts, such as the American Heritage
Dictionary, copyists of
Latin manuscripts took this phrase to be a
single Greek word, ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία enkyklopaidia.
^ Franklin-Brown, Mary (2012). Reading the world : encyclopedic
writing in the scholastic age. Chicago London: The University of
Chicago Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780226260709.
^ König, Jason (2013). Encyclopaedism from antiquity to the
Renaissance. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 1.
^ Yeo, Richard (2001). Encyclopaedic visions : scientific
dictionaries and enlightenment culture. Cambridge New York: Cambridge
University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0521152921.
^ Harris-McCoy, Daniel (2008). Varieties of encyclopedism in the early
Roman Empire: Vitruvius, Pliny the Elder, Artemidorus (Ph.D).
University of Pennsylvania. p. 12. Retrieved January 18,
^ Harris-McCpoy 2008, p. 11–12.
^ Roest, Bert (1997). "Compilation as Theme and Praxis in Franciscan
Universal Chronicles". In Peter Binkley. Pre-Modern Encyclopaedic
Texts: Proceedings of the Second Comers Congress, Groningen, 1 –
July 4, 1996. BRILL. p. 213. ISBN 90-04-10830-0.
^ Carey, Sorcha (2003). "Two Strategies of Encyclopaedism". Pliny's
Catalogue of Culture: Art and Empire in the Natural History. Oxford
University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-19-925913-5.
^ "encyclopaedia" (online). Oxford English
Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
^ a b c Hartmann, R. R. K.; James, Gregory; James, Gregory (1998).
Dictionary of Lexicography. Routledge:
48–49. ISBN 0-415-14143-5. Retrieved July 27, 2010. Usually
these two aspects overlap – encyclopedic information being difficult
to distinguish from linguistic information – and dictionaries
attempt to capture both in the explanation of a meaning...
^ a b c Béjoint, Henri (2000). Modern Lexicography. Oxford University
Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-19-829951-6. The two types, as we have
seen, are not easily differentiated; encyclopedias contain information
that is also to be found in dictionaries, and vice versa.
^ Naturalis Historia
^ P.D. Wightman (1953), The Growth of Scientific Ideas
^ Monique Paulmier-Foucart, "Medieval Encyclopaedias", in André
Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, James Clarke & Co,
^ See "Encyclopedia" in
Dictionary of the Middle Ages.
^ έγκυκλοπαιδεία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A
Greek–English Lexicon, at Perseus Project: "f. l. [= falsa lectio,
Latin for "false reading"] for ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία"
^ Loveland, J. (2012). "Why Encyclopedias Got Bigger … and Smaller".
Information & Culture. 47 (2): 233–254.
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Encarta to be Discontinued. MSN Encarta.
Archived from the original on October 31, 2009.
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"survives research test". BBC News. December 15, 2005.
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Information Communication Technology in Cultural
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Encyclopedias.
Wikisource has original works on the topic: Encyclopedias
Encyclopaedia and Hypertext
Internet Accuracy Project – Biographical errors in encyclopedias and
Encyclopedia – Diderot's article on the
Encyclopedia from the
De expetendis et fugiendis rebus – First
Errors and inconsistencies in several printed reference books and
encyclopedias Archived July 18, 2001, at the Wayback Machine.
Digital encyclopedias put the world at your fingertips – CNET
Encyclopedias online University of Wisconsin – Stout listing by
Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, with the 1753 supplement
Encyclopædia Americana, 1851,
Francis Lieber ed. (Boston: Mussey
& Co.) at the University of Michigan Making of America site
Encyclopædia Britannica, articles and illustrations from 9th ed.,
1875–89, and 10th ed., 1902–03.
Texts on Wikisource:
"Cyclopædia". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
"Encyclopædia". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
"Encyclopædia". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
"Encyclopædia". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
"Cyclopædia". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
BNF: cb12043290b (d