The Info List - Encyclopædia Britannica

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for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. , is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia . It is written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors, who have included 110 Nobel Prize winners and five American presidents . The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition; digital content and distribution has continued since then.

The _Britannica_ is the oldest English-language encyclopaedia still in production. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh
, as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, and by its fourth edition (1801–1810) it had expanded to 20 volumes. Its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th (1875–1889) and 11th editions (1911) are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the _Britannica_ shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the _Britannica_ became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule. In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, and would focus instead on _ Encyclopædia Britannica Online _.

The 15th edition has a three-part structure: a 12-volume _Micropædia _ of short articles (generally fewer than 750 words), a 17-volume _ Macropædia
_ of long articles (two to 310 pages), and a single _ Propædia _ volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge. The _Micropædia_ is meant for quick fact-checking and as a guide to the _Macropædia_; readers are advised to study the _Propædia_ outline to understand a subject's context and to find more detailed articles. Over 70 years, the size of the _Britannica_ has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States
United States
since 1901, the _Britannica_ has for the most part maintained British English spelling .


* 1 Present status

* 1.1 Print version * 1.2 Related printed material * 1.3 Optical disc, online, and mobile versions

* 2 Personnel and management

* 2.1 Contributors * 2.2 Staff * 2.3 Editorial advisors * 2.4 Corporate structure

* 3 Competition

* 3.1 Print encyclopaedias * 3.2 Digital encyclopaedias on optical media * 3.3 Internet encyclopedias

* 4 Critical and popular assessments

* 4.1 Reputation * 4.2 Awards * 4.3 Coverage of topics * 4.4 Criticism of editorial decisions * 4.5 Other criticisms

* 5 History

* 5.1 Editions

* 5.1.1 1768–1826 * 5.1.2 1827–1901 * 5.1.3 1901–1973 * 5.1.4 1974–1994 * 5.1.5 1994–present

* 5.2 Dedications

* 6 Edition summary * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links



_ 15th edition of the Britannica_. The initial volume with the green spine is the _ Propædia _; the red-spined and black-spined volumes are the _ Micropædia _ and the _ Macropædia
_, respectively. The last three volumes are the 2002 Book of the Year (black spine) and the two-volume index (cyan spine).

Since 1985, the _Britannica_ has had four parts: the _ Micropædia _, the _ Macropædia
_, the _ Propædia _, and a two-volume index. The _Britannica'_s articles are found in the _Micro-_ and _Macropædia_, which encompass 12 and 17 volumes, respectively, each volume having roughly one thousand pages. The 2007 _Macropædia_ has 699 in-depth articles, ranging in length from 2 to 310 pages and having references and named contributors. In contrast, the 2007 _Micropædia_ has roughly 65,000 articles, the vast majority (about 97%) of which contain fewer than 750 words, no references, and no named contributors. The _Micropædia_ articles are intended for quick fact-checking and to help in finding more thorough information in the _Macropædia_. The _Macropædia_ articles are meant both as authoritative, well-written articles on their subjects and as storehouses of information not covered elsewhere. The longest article (310 pages) is on the United States, and resulted from the merger of the articles on the individual states. The 2013 edition of _Britannica_ contained approximately forty thousand articles.

Information can be found in the _Britannica_ by following the cross-references in the _Micropædia_ and _Macropædia_; however, these are sparse, averaging one cross-reference per page. Hence, readers are recommended to consult instead the alphabetical index or the _Propædia_, which organises the _Britannica'_s contents by topic.

The core of the _Propædia_ is its "Outline of Knowledge", which aims to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge. Accordingly, the Outline is consulted by the _Britannica'_s editors to decide which articles should be included in the _Micro-_ and _Macropædia_. The Outline is also intended to be a study guide, to put subjects in their proper perspective, and to suggest a series of _Britannica_ articles for the student wishing to learn a topic in depth. However, libraries have found that it is scarcely used, and reviewers have recommended that it be dropped from the encyclopaedia. The _Propædia_ also has color transparencies of human anatomy and several appendices listing the staff members, advisors, and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica.

Taken together, the _Micropædia_ and _Macropædia_ comprise roughly 40 million words and 24,000 images. The two-volume index has 2,350 pages, listing the 228,274 topics covered in the _Britannica_, together with 474,675 subentries under those topics. The _Britannica_ generally prefers British spelling over American ; for example, it uses _colour_ (not _color_), _centre_ (not _center_), and _encyclopaedia_ (not _encyclopedia_). However, there are exceptions to this rule, such as _defense_ rather than _defence_. Common alternative spellings are provided with cross-references such as "Color: _see_ Colour."

Since 1936, the articles of the _Britannica_ have been revised on a regular schedule, with at least 10% of them considered for revision each year. According to one Britannica website, 46% of its articles were revised over the past three years; however, according to another Britannica web-site, only 35% of the articles were revised.

The alphabetisation of articles in the _Micropædia_ and _Macropædia_ follows strict rules. Diacritical marks and non-English letters are ignored, while numerical entries such as "1812, War of " are alphabetised as if the number had been written out ("Eighteen-twelve, War of"). Articles with identical names are ordered first by persons, then by places, then by things. Rulers with identical names are organised first alphabetically by country and then by chronology; thus, Charles III of France precedes Charles I of England , listed in _Britannica_ as the ruler of Great Britain and Ireland. (That is, they are alphabetised as if their titles were "Charles, France, 3" and "Charles, Great Britain and Ireland, 1".) Similarly, places that share names are organised alphabetically by country, then by ever-smaller political divisions.

In March 2012, the company announced that the 2010 edition would be the last printed version. This was announced as a move by the company to adapt to the times and focus on its future using digital distribution. The peak year for the printed encyclopaedia was 1990 when 120,000 sets were sold, but it dropped to 40,000 in 1996. 12,000 sets of the 2010 edition were printed, of which 8,000 had been sold as of 2012 . By late April 2012, the remaining copies of the 2010 edition had sold out at Britannica's online store. As of 2016, a replica of Britannica's 1768 first edition is sold on the online store.


_Britannica Junior_ was first published in 1934 as 12 volumes. It was expanded to 15 volumes in 1947, and renamed _Britannica Junior Encyclopædia_ in 1963. It was taken off the market after the 1984 printing. Children's Britannica

A British _Children's Britannica_ edited by John Armitage was issued in London in 1960. Its contents were determined largely by the eleven-plus standardised tests given in Britain. Britannica introduced the _Children's Britannica_ to the U.S. market in 1988, aimed at ages 7 to 14.

In 1961 a 16 volume _Young Children's Encyclopaedia_ was issued for children just learning to read.

_My First Britannica_ is aimed at children ages six to twelve, and the _Britannica Discovery Library_ is for children aged three to six (issued 1974 to 1991).

There have been and are several abridged _Britannica_ encyclopaedias. The single-volume _Britannica Concise Encyclopædia_ has 28,000 short articles condensing the larger 32-volume _Britannica_; there are authorized translations in languages such as Chinese and Vietnamese . _Compton's by Britannica_, first published in 2007, incorporating the former _Compton\'s Encyclopedia _, is aimed at 10- to 17-year-olds and consists of 26 volumes and 11,000 pages.

Since 1938, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. has published annually a _Book of the Year_ covering the past year's events. A given edition of the _Book of the Year_ is named in terms of the year of its publication, though the edition actually covers the events of the previous year. Articles dating back to the 1994 edition are included online. The company also publishes several specialised reference works, such as _Shakespeare: The Essential Guide to the Life and Works of the Bard_ (Wiley, 2006).


The _ Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2012 DVD_ contains over 100,000 articles. This includes regular _Britannica_ articles, as well as others drawn from the _Britannica Student Encyclopædia_, and the _Britannica Elementary Encyclopædia._ The package includes a range of supplementary content including maps, videos, sound clips, animations and web links. It also offers study tools and dictionary and thesaurus entries from Merriam-Webster .

_Britannica_ Online is a website with more than 120,000 articles and is updated regularly. It has daily features, updates and links to news reports from _The New York Times_ and the BBC . As of 2009 , roughly 60% of Encyclopædia Britannica's revenue came from online operations, of which around 15% came from subscriptions to the consumer version of the websites. As of 2006 , subscriptions were available on a yearly, monthly or weekly basis. Special
subscription plans are offered to schools, colleges and libraries; such institutional subscribers constitute an important part of Britannica's business. Beginning in early 2007, the _Britannica_ made articles freely available if they are hyperlinked from an external site. Non-subscribers are served pop-ups and advertising.

On 20 February 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced that it was working with mobile phone search company AskMeNow to launch a mobile encyclopaedia. Users will be able to send a question via text message , and AskMeNow will search _Britannica'_s 28,000-article concise encyclopaedia to return an answer to the query. Daily topical features sent directly to users' mobile phones are also planned. On 3 June 2008, an initiative to facilitate collaboration between online expert and amateur scholarly contributors for Britannica's online content (in the spirit of a wiki ), with editorial oversight from Britannica staff, was announced. Approved contributions would be credited, though contributing automatically grants Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. perpetual, irrevocable license to those contributions.

On 22 January 2009, Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz , announced that the company would be accepting edits and additions to the online _Britannica_ website from the public. The published edition of the encyclopaedia will not be affected by the changes. Individuals wishing to edit the _Britannica_ website will have to register under their real name and address prior to editing or submitting their content. All edits submitted will be reviewed and checked and will have to be approved by the encyclopaedia's professional staff. Contributions from non-academic users will sit in a separate section from the expert-generated _Britannica_ content, as will content submitted by non-_Britannica_ scholars. Articles written by users, if vetted and approved, will also only be available in a special section of the website, separate from the professional articles. Official _Britannica_ material would carry a "Britannica Checked" stamp, to distinguish it from the user-generated content.

On 14 September 2010, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced a partnership with mobile phone development company Concentric Sky to launch a series of iPhone products aimed at the K-12 market. On 20 July 2011, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced that Concentric Sky had ported the Britannica Kids product line to Intel's Intel Atom -based Netbooks and on 26 October 2011 that it had launched its encyclopedia as an iPad app . In 2010, Brittannica released Brittanica ImageQuest, a database of images.

In March 2012, it was announced that the company would cease printing the encyclopaedia set, and that it would focus more on its online version.



The 2007 print version of the _Britannica_ has 4,411 contributors, many eminent in their fields, such as Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman , astronomer Carl Sagan , and surgeon Michael DeBakey
Michael DeBakey
. Roughly a quarter of the contributors are deceased, some as long ago as 1947 ( Alfred North Whitehead ), while another quarter are retired or emeritus . Most (approximately 98%) contribute to only a single article; however, 64 contributed to three articles, 23 contributed to four articles, 10 contributed to five articles, and 8 contributed to more than five articles. An exceptionally prolific contributor is Christine Sutton of the University of Oxford , who contributed 24 articles on particle physics .

While _Britannica'_s authors have included writers such as Albert Einstein , Marie Curie
Marie Curie
, and Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
, as well as notable independent encyclopaedists such as Isaac Asimov , some have been criticised for lack of expertise:

With a temerity almost appalling, ranges over nearly the whole field of European history, political, social, ecclesiastical... The grievance is that lacks authority. This, too—this reliance on editorial energy instead of on ripe special learning—may, alas, be also counted an "Americanizing": for certainly nothing has so cheapened the scholarship of our American encyclopaedias. — Prof. George L. Burr , in the _American Historical Review_ (1911)


Portrait of Thomas Spencer Baynes
Thomas Spencer Baynes
, editor of the 9th edition. Painted in 1888, it now hangs in the Senate Room of the University of St Andrews in Scotland.

As of 2007 in the fifteenth edition of _Britannica_, Dale Hoiberg , a sinologist , was listed as _Britannica's_ Senior Vice President and editor-in-chief. Among his predecessors as editors-in-chief were Hugh Chisholm (1902–1924), James Louis Garvin (1926–1932), Franklin Henry Hooper (1932–1938), Walter Yust (1938–1960), Harry Ashmore (1960–1963), Warren E. Preece (1964–1968, 1969–1975), Sir William Haley (1968–1969), Philip W. Goetz (1979–1991), and Robert McHenry (1992–1997). As of 2007 Anita Wolff was listed as the Deputy Editor and Theodore Pappas as Executive Editor. Prior Executive Editors include John V. Dodge (1950–1964) and Philip W. Goetz.

Paul T. Armstrong remains the longest working employee of Encyclopædia Britannica. He began his career there in 1934, eventually earning the positions of Treasurer, Vice President, and Chief Financial Officer in his 58 years with the company, before retiring in 1992.

The 2007 editorial staff of the _Britannica_ included five Senior Editors and nine Associate Editors, supervised by Dale Hoiberg and four others. The editorial staff helped to write the articles of the _ Micropædia _ and some sections of the _ Macropædia
_. The preparation and publication of the _Encyclopædia Britannica_ required trained staff. According to the final page of the 2007 _ Propædia _, the staff were organised into ten departments:

* Editorial staff (19 editors and 1 executive assistant) * Art and Cartography (9 employees) * Compositional Technology and Design (4 employees) * Copy Department (12 employees) * Editorial and Publishing Technologies (5 employees) * Information Management (9 employees) * Media Asset Management and Production Control (4 employees) * Reference Librarians (3 employees) * World Data (5 employees) * Manufacturing (1 employee)

Some of these departments were organised hierarchically . For example, the copy editors were divided into 4 copy editors, 2 senior copy editors, 4 supervisors, plus a coordinator and a director. Similarly, the Editorial department was headed by Dale Hoiberg and assisted by four others; they oversaw the work of five senior editors, nine associate editors, and one executive assistant.


The _Britannica_ has an Editorial Board of Advisors, which includes 12 distinguished scholars: non-fiction author Nicholas Carr , religion scholar Wendy Doniger , political economist Benjamin M. Friedman , Council on Foreign Relations President Emeritus
Leslie H. Gelb , computer scientist David Gelernter , Physics Nobel laureate Murray Gell-Mann , Carnegie Corporation of New York President Vartan Gregorian , philosopher Thomas Nagel , cognitive scientist Donald Norman , musicologist Don Michael Randel , Stewart Sutherland, Baron Sutherland of Houndwood , President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh , and cultural anthropologist Michael Wesch
Michael Wesch

The _ Propædia _ and its _Outline of Knowledge_ were produced by dozens of editorial advisors under the direction of Mortimer J. Adler . Roughly half of these advisors have since died, including some of the Outline's chief architects — Rene Dubos (d. 1982), Loren Eiseley (d. 1977), Harold D. Lasswell (d. 1978), Mark Van Doren
Mark Van Doren
(d. 1972), Peter Ritchie Calder (d. 1982) and Mortimer J. Adler (d. 2001). The _Propædia_ also lists just under 4,000 advisors who were consulted for the unsigned _ Micropædia _ articles.


In January 1996, the _Britannica_ was purchased from the Benton Foundation by billionaire Swiss financier Jacqui Safra , who serves as its current Chair of the Board. In 1997, Don Yannias , a long-time associate and investment advisor of Safra, became CEO of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. In 1999, a new company, Britannica.com Inc. , was created to develop digital versions of the _Britannica_; Yannias assumed the role of CEO in the new company, while his former position at the parent company remained vacant for two years. Yannias' tenure at Britannica.com Inc. was marked by missteps, considerable lay-offs, and financial losses. In 2001, Yannias was replaced by Ilan Yeshua , who reunited the leadership of the two companies. Yannias later returned to investment management, but remains on the _Britannica_′s Board of Directors.

In 2003, former management consultant Jorge Aguilar-Cauz was appointed President of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Cauz is the senior executive and reports directly to the _Britannica's_ Board of Directors. Cauz has been pursuing alliances with other companies and extending the _Britannica_ brand to new educational and reference products, continuing the strategy pioneered by former CEO Elkan Harrison Powell in the mid-1930s.

Under Safra's ownership, the company has experienced financial difficulties, and has responded by reducing the price of its products and implementing drastic cost cuts. According to a 2003 report in the _ New York Post _, the _Britannica_ management has eliminated employee 401(k) accounts and encouraged the use of free images. These changes have had negative impacts, as freelance contributors have waited up to six months for checks and the _Britannica_ staff have gone years without pay rises.


As the _Britannica_ is a general encyclopaedia, it does not seek to compete with specialised encyclopaedias such as the _ Encyclopaedia of Mathematics _ or the _ Dictionary of the Middle Ages _, which can devote much more space to their chosen topics. In its first years, the _Britannica'_s main competitor was the general encyclopaedia of Ephraim Chambers and, soon thereafter, _Rees\'s Cyclopædia _ and Coleridge\'s _ Encyclopædia Metropolitana _. In the 20th century, successful competitors included _Collier\'s Encyclopedia _, the _ Encyclopedia Americana _, and the _ World Book Encyclopedia _. Nevertheless, from the 9th edition onwards, the _Britannica_ was widely considered to have the greatest authority of any general English language encyclopaedia, especially because of its broad coverage and eminent authors. The print version of the _Britannica_ was significantly more expensive than its competitors.

Since the early 1990s, the _Britannica_ has faced new challenges from digital information sources. The Internet, facilitated by the development of search engines , has grown into a common source of information for many people, and provides easy access to reliable original sources and expert opinions, thanks in part to initiatives such as Google Books , MIT 's release of its educational materials and the open PubMed Central library of the National Library of Medicine . In general, the Internet tends to provide more current coverage than print media, due to the ease with which material on the Internet can be updated. In rapidly changing fields such as science, technology, politics, culture and modern history, the _Britannica_ has struggled to stay up-to-date, a problem first analysed systematically by its former editor Walter Yust . Eventually, the Britannica turned to focus more on its online edition.


The _Encyclopædia Britannica_ has been compared with other print encyclopaedias, both qualitatively and quantitatively. A well-known comparison is that of Kenneth Kister , who gave a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the _Britannica_ with two comparable encyclopaedias, _Collier\'s Encyclopedia _ and the _Encyclopedia Americana _. For the quantitative analysis, ten articles were selected at random—circumcision , Charles Drew , Galileo
, Philip Glass , heart disease , IQ , panda bear , sexual harassment , Shroud of Turin and Uzbekistan
—and letter grades of A–D or F were awarded in four categories: coverage, accuracy, clarity, and recency. In all four categories and for all three encyclopaedias, the four average grades fell between B− and B+ , chiefly because none of the encyclopaedias had an article on sexual harassment in 1994. In the accuracy category, the _Britannica_ received one "D" and seven "A"s, _Encyclopedia Americana_ received eight "A"s, and _Collier's_ received one "D" and seven "A"s; thus, _Britannica_ received an average score of 92% for accuracy to _Americana_'s 95% and _Collier's_ 92%. In the timeliness category, _Britannica_ averaged an 86% to _Americana'_s 90% and _Collier's_ 85%.


The most notable competitor of the _Britannica_ among CD/DVD-ROM digital encyclopaedias was _ Encarta _, now discontinued, a modern, multimedia encyclopaedia that incorporated three print encyclopaedias: _Funk the United Kingdom-related articles are updated less often, maps of the United States
United States
are more detailed than those of other countries, and it lacks a UK dictionary. Like the _Britannica_, _Encarta_ was available online by subscription, although some content could be accessed free.


The dominant internet encyclopaedia and main alternative to _Britannica_ is the multilingual, Web -based, free-content encyclopaedia, . The key differences between the two lie in accessibility; the model of participation they bring to an encyclopedic project ; their respective style sheets and editorial policies; relative ages; the number of subjects treated; the number of languages in which articles are written and made available; and their underlying economic models: unlike Britannica, is a not-for-profit and is not connected with traditional profit- and contract-based publishing distribution networks.

The 699 printed _ Macropædia
_ articles are generally written by identified contributors, and the roughly 65,000 printed _ Micropædia _ articles are the work of the editorial staff and identified outside consultants. Thus, a _Britannica_ article either has known authorship or a set of possible authors (the editorial staff). With the exception of the editorial staff, most of the _Britannica'_s contributors are experts in their field—some are Nobel laureates. By contrast, the articles of are written by people of unknown degrees of expertise: most do not claim any particular expertise, and of those who do, many are anonymous and have no verifiable credentials. It is for this lack of institutional vetting, or certification, that former _Britannica_ editor-in-chief Robert McHenry notes his belief that cannot hope to rival the _Britannica_ in accuracy.

In 2005, the journal _Nature_ chose articles from both websites in a wide range of science topics and sent them to what it called "relevant" field experts for peer review. The experts then compared the competing articles—one from each site on a given topic—side by side, but were not told which article came from which site. _Nature_ got back 42 usable reviews.

In the end, the journal found just eight serious errors, such as general misunderstandings of vital concepts: four from each site. It also discovered many factual errors, omissions or misleading statements: 162 in and 123 in _Britannica_, an average of 3.86 mistakes per article for and 2.92 for _Britannica_. Although _Britannica_ was revealed as the more accurate encyclopedia, with lesser errors, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. in its detailed 20-page rebuttal called _Nature'_s study flawed and misleading and called for a "prompt" retraction. It noted that two of the articles in the study were taken from a _Britannica_ yearbook and not the encyclopaedia, and another two were from _Compton's Encyclopedia_ (called the _Britannica Student Encyclopedia_ on the company's website). The rebuttal went on to mention that some of the articles presented to reviewers were combinations of several articles, and that other articles were merely excerpts but were penalised for factual omissions. The company also noted that several of what _Nature_ called errors were minor spelling variations, and that others were matters of interpretation. _Nature_ defended its story and declined to retract, stating that, as it was comparing with the web version of _Britannica_, it used whatever relevant material was available on _Britannica_'s website.

Interviewed in February 2009, the managing director of _Britannica UK_ said:

is a fun site to use and has a lot of interesting entries on there, but their approach wouldn't work for _Encyclopædia Britannica_. My job is to create more awareness of our very different approaches to publishing in the public mind. They're a chisel, we're a drill, and you need to have the correct tool for the job.



A copperplate by Andrew Bell from the 1st edition .

Since the 3rd edition, the _Britannica_ has enjoyed a popular and critical reputation for general excellence. The 3rd and the 9th editions were pirated for sale in the United States, beginning with _Dobson\'s Encyclopaedia _. On the release of the 14th edition, _Time _ magazine dubbed the _Britannica_ the "Patriarch of the Library". In a related advertisement, naturalist William Beebe was quoted as saying that the _Britannica_ was "beyond comparison because there is no competitor." References to the _Britannica_ can be found throughout English literature , most notably in one of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 's favourite Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
stories, " The Red-Headed League ". The tale was highlighted by the Lord Mayor of London , Gilbert Inglefield, at the bicentennial of the _Britannica_ .

The _Britannica_ has a reputation for summarising knowledge. To further their education, some people have devoted themselves to reading the entire _Britannica_, taking anywhere from three to 22 years to do so. When Fat\'h Ali became the Shah of Persia in 1797, he was given a set of the _Britannica's_ 3rd edition, which he read completely; after this feat, he extended his royal title to include "Most Formidable Lord and Master of the _Encyclopædia Britannica_". Writer George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
claimed to have read the complete 9th edition—except for the science articles —and Richard Evelyn Byrd took the _Britannica_ as reading material for his five-month stay at the South Pole
South Pole
in 1934, while Philip Beaver read it during a sailing expedition. More recently, A.J. Jacobs , an editor at _Esquire _ magazine, read the entire 2002 version of the 15th edition, describing his experiences in the well-received 2004 book, _The Know-It-All: One Man\'s Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World _. Only two people are known to have read two independent editions: the author C. S. Forester and Amos Urban Shirk , an American businessman, who read the 11th and 14th editions, devoting roughly three hours per night for four and a half years to read the 11th. Several editors-in-chief of the _Britannica_ are likely to have read their editions completely, such as William Smellie (1st edition), William Robertson Smith (9th edition), and Walter Yust (14th edition).


The CD/DVD-ROM version of the _Britannica_, _Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite _, received the 2004 Distinguished Achievement Award from the Association of Educational Publishers . On 15 July 2009, _Encyclopædia Britannica_ was awarded a spot as one of "Top Ten Superbrands in the UK" by a panel of more than 2,000 independent reviewers, as reported by the BBC.


Topics are chosen in part by reference to the _ Propædia _ "Outline of Knowledge". The bulk of the _Britannica_ is devoted to geography (26% of the _ Macropædia
_), biography (14%), biology and medicine (11%), literature (7%), physics and astronomy (6%), religion (5%), art (4%), Western philosophy (4%), and law (3%). A complementary study of the _ Micropædia _ found that geography accounted for 25% of articles, science 18%, social sciences 17%, biography 17%, and all other humanities 25%. Writing in 1992, one reviewer judged that the "range, depth, and catholicity of coverage are unsurpassed by any other general Encyclopaedia."

The _Britannica_ does not cover topics in equivalent detail; for example, the whole of Buddhism
and most other religions is covered in a single _ Macropædia
_ article, whereas 14 articles are devoted to Christianity, comprising nearly half of all religion articles. However, the _Britannica_ has been lauded as the _least_ biased of general Encyclopaedias marketed to Western readers and praised for its biographies of important women of all eras.

It can be stated without fear of contradiction that the 15th edition of the _Britannica_ accords non-Western cultural, social, and scientific developments more notice than any general English-language encyclopedia currently on the market. —  Kenneth Kister , in _Kister's Best Encyclopedias_ (1994)


On rare occasions, the _Britannica_ was criticised for its editorial choices. Given its roughly constant size, the encyclopaedia has needed to reduce or eliminate some topics to accommodate others, resulting in controversial decisions. The initial 15th edition (1974–1985) was faulted for having reduced or eliminated coverage of children's literature, military decorations , and the French poet Joachim du Bellay ; editorial mistakes were also alleged, such as inconsistent sorting of Japanese biographies. Its elimination of the index was condemned, as was the apparently arbitrary division of articles into the _ Micropædia _ and _ Macropædia
_. Summing up, one critic called the initial 15th edition a "qualified failure... cares more for juggling its format than for preserving." More recently, reviewers from the American Library Association were surprised to find that most educational articles had been eliminated from the 1992 _Macropædia_, along with the article on psychology .

Some very few _Britannica_-appointed contributors are mistaken. A notorious instance from the _Britannica's_ early years is the rejection of Newtonian gravity by George Gleig , the chief editor of the 3rd edition (1788–1797), who wrote that gravity was caused by the classical element of fire . The _Britannica_ has also staunchly defended a scientific approach to cultural topics, as it did with William Robertson Smith 's articles on religion in the 9th edition, particularly his article stating that the Bible was not historically accurate (1875).


See also: Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition § Notable commentaries on the Eleventh Edition

The _Britannica_ has received criticism, especially as editions become outdated. It is expensive to produce a completely new edition of the _Britannica,_ and its editors delay for as long as fiscally sensible (usually about 25 years). For example, despite continuous revision, the 14th edition became outdated after 35 years (1929–1964). When American physicist Harvey Einbinder detailed its failings in his 1964 book, _The Myth of the Britannica_, the encyclopaedia was provoked to produce the 15th edition, which required 10 years of work. It is still difficult to keep the _Britannica_ current; one recent critic writes, "it is not difficult to find articles that are out-of-date or in need of revision", noting that the longer _Macropædia_ articles are more likely to be outdated than the shorter _Micropædia_ articles. Information in the _Micropædia_ is sometimes inconsistent with the corresponding _Macropædia_ article(s), mainly because of the failure to update one or the other. The bibliographies of the _Macropædia_ articles have been criticised for being more out-of-date than the articles themselves.

In 2010 an inaccurate entry about the Irish civil war was discussed in the Irish press following a decision of the Department of Education and Science to pay for online access.

Speaking of the 3rd edition (1788–1797), _Britannica_'s chief editor George Gleig wrote that "perfection seems to be incompatible with the nature of works constructed on such a plan, and embracing such a variety of subjects." In March 2006, the _Britannica_ wrote, "we in no way mean to imply that _Britannica_ is error-free; we have never made such a claim." The sentiment is expressed by its original editor, William Smellie :

With regard to errors in general, whether falling under the denomination of mental, typographical or accidental, we are conscious of being able to point out a greater number than any critic whatever. Men who are acquainted with the innumerable difficulties of attending the execution of a work of such an extensive nature will make proper allowances. To these we appeal, and shall rest satisfied with the judgment they pronounce. — William Smellie, in the Preface to the 1st edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica

However, Jorge Cauz (president of Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Inc.) asserted in 2012 that "_Britannica_ will always be factually correct."


_ Title page of the first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica_ Main article: History of the Encyclopædia Britannica

Past owners have included, in chronological order, the Edinburgh, Scotland
printers Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell, Scottish bookseller Archibald Constable , Scottish publisher A ">_ The early 19th-century editions of Encyclopædia Britannica_ included influential, original research such as Thomas Young\'s article on Egypt, which included the translation of the hieroglyphs on the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone

In the first era (1st–6th editions, 1768–1826), the _Britannica_ was managed and published by its founders, Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell , by Archibald Constable , and by others. The _Britannica_ was first published between 1768 and 1771 in Edinburgh
as the _Encyclopædia Britannica, or, A Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, compiled upon a New Plan_. In part, it was conceived in reaction to the French _ Encyclopédie _ of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d\'Alembert (published 1751–72), which had been inspired by Chambers\'s _Cyclopaedia_ (first edition 1728).

The _Britannica_ of this period was primarily a Scottish enterprise, and it is one of the most enduring legacies of the Scottish Enlightenment . In this era, the _Britannica_ moved from being a three-volume set (1st edition) compiled by one young editor—William Smellie —to a 20-volume set written by numerous authorities. Several other encyclopaedias competed throughout this period, among them editions of Abraham Rees 's _Cyclopædia_ and Coleridge\'s _ Encyclopædia Metropolitana _ and David Brewster 's _Edinburgh Encyclopædia _.


During the second era (7th–9th editions, 1827–1901), the _Britannica_ was managed by the Edinburgh
publishing firm A ">_ U.S. advertisement for the 11th edition from the May 1913 issue of National Geographic Magazine
National Geographic Magazine

In the third era (10th–14th editions, 1901–73), the _Britannica_ was managed by American businessmen who introduced direct marketing and door-to-door sales. The American owners gradually simplified articles, making them less scholarly for a mass market. The 10th edition was a nine-volume supplement to the 9th, but the 11th edition was a completely new work, and is still praised for excellence; its owner, Horace Hooper , lavished enormous effort on its perfection.

When Hooper fell into financial difficulties, the _Britannica_ was managed by Sears Roebuck for 18 years (1920–23, 1928–43). In 1932, the vice-president of Sears, Elkan Harrison Powell , assumed presidency of the _Britannica_; in 1936, he began the policy of continuous revision. This was a departure from earlier practice, in which the articles were not changed until a new edition was produced, at roughly 25-year intervals, some articles unchanged from earlier editions. Powell developed new educational products that built upon the _Britannica's_ reputation. _ A wooden shipping crate for the 14th edition of the Britannica_

In 1943, Sears
donated the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
to the University of Chicago . William Benton , then a vice president of the University, provided the working capital for its operation. The stock was divided between Benton and the University, with the University holding an option on the stock. Benton became Chairman of the Board and managed the _Britannica_ until his death in 1973. Benton set up the Benton Foundation , which managed the _Britannica_ until 1996. In 1968, near the end of this era, the _Britannica_ celebrated its bicentennial .


In the fourth era (1974–94), the _Britannica_ introduced its 15th edition, which was re-organised into three parts: the _ Micropædia _, the _ Macropædia
_, and the _ Propædia _. Under Mortimer J. Adler (member of the Board of Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
since its inception in 1949, and its chair from 1974; director of editorial planning for the 15th edition of _Britannica_ from 1965), the _Britannica_ sought not only to be a good reference work and educational tool, but to systematise all human knowledge. The absence of a separate index and the grouping of articles into parallel encyclopaedias (the _Micro-_ and _Macropædia_) provoked a "firestorm of criticism" of the initial 15th edition. In response, the 15th edition was completely re-organised and indexed for a re-release in 1985. This second version of the 15th edition continued to be published and revised until the 2010 print version. The official title of the 15th edition is the _New Encyclopædia Britannica_, although it has also been promoted as _Britannica 3_.

On 9 March 1976 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission entered an opinion and order enjoining Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. from using: a) deceptive advertising practices in recruiting sales agents and obtaining sales leads, and b) deceptive sales practices in the door-to-door presentations of its sales agents.


Advertisement for the 9th edition (1898)

In the fifth era (1994–present), digital versions have been developed and released on optical media and online. In 1996, the _Britannica_ was bought by Jacqui Safra at well below its estimated value, owing to the company's financial difficulties. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. split in 1999. One part retained the company name and developed the print version, and the other, Britannica.com Inc. , developed digital versions. Since 2001, the two companies have shared a CEO, Ilan Yeshua , who has continued Powell's strategy of introducing new products with the _Britannica_ name. In March 2012, Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz , announced that it would not produce any new print editions of the encyclopaedia, with the 2010 15th edition being the last. The company will focus only on the online edition and other educational tools.

_Britannica_'s final print edition was in 2010, a 32-volume set. _Britannica Global Edition_ was also printed in 2010. It contained 30 volumes and 18,251 pages, with 8,500 photographs, maps, flags, and illustrations in smaller "compact" volumes. It contained over 40,000 articles written by scholars from across the world, including Nobel Prize winners. Unlike the 15th edition, it did not contain Macro- and Micropædia sections, but ran A through Z as all editions up to the 14th had. The following is _Britannica_'s description of the work:

The editors of _Encyclopædia Britannica_, the world standard in reference since 1768, present the _Britannica Global Edition_. Developed specifically to provide comprehensive and global coverage of the world around us, this unique product contains thousands of timely, relevant, and essential articles drawn from the _Encyclopædia Britannica_ itself, as well as from the _Britannica Concise Encyclopedia_, the _Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions_, and Compton's by Britannica. Written by international experts and scholars, the articles in this collection reflect the standards that have been the hallmark of the leading English-language encyclopedia for over 240 years.


The _Britannica_ was dedicated to the reigning British monarch from 1788 to 1901 and then, upon its sale to an American partnership, to the British monarch and the President of the United States. Thus, the 11th edition is "dedicated by Permission to His Majesty George the Fifth , King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India , and to William Howard Taft , President of the United States
President of the United States
of America." The order of the dedications has changed with the relative power of the United States and Britain, and with relative sales; the 1954 version of the 14th edition is "Dedicated by Permission to the Heads of the Two English-Speaking Peoples, Dwight David Eisenhower , President of the United States
United States
of America, and Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth the Second ." Consistent with this tradition, the 2007 version of the current 15th edition was "dedicated by permission to the current President of the United States
United States
of America, George W. Bush , and Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II," while the 2010 version of the current 15th edition is "dedicated by permission to Barack Obama
Barack Obama
, President of the United States of America, and Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II."


Main article: History of the Encyclopædia Britannica


1ST 1768–1771 3 volumes, 2,391 pages. The numbers were bound in three equally sized volumes covering Aa–Bzo, Caaba–Lythrum, and Macao–Zyglophyllum; an estimated 3,000 sets were eventually sold, priced at 12 pounds sterling apiece. pages, 160 plates 3,000 William Smellie Largely the work of one editor, Smellie; 3,000 sets sold; 30 articles longer than three pages

2ND 1777–1784 10 volumes, 8,595 pages, 340 plates 1,500 James Tytler Largely the work of one editor, Tytler; 150 long articles; pagination errors; all maps under "Geography" article; 1,500 sets sold

3RD 1788–1797 18 volumes, 14,579 pages, 542 plates 10,000 or 13,000 Colin Macfarquhar and George Gleig £ 42,000 profit on 10,000 copies sold; first dedication to monarch; pirated by Moore in Dublin and Thomas Dobson in Philadelphia

SUPPLEMENT TO 3RD 1801, revised in 1803 2 volumes, 1,624 pages, 50 plates

George Gleig Copyright owned by Thomas Bonar

4TH 1801–1810 20 volumes, 16,033 pages, 581 plates 4,000 James Millar Authors first allowed to retain copyright. Material in the supplement to 3rd not incorporated due to copyright issues.

5TH 1815–1817 20 volumes, 16,017 pages, 582 plates

James Millar Reprint of the 4th edition. Financial losses by Millar and Andrew Bell's heirs; EB rights sold to Archibald Constable

SUPPLEMENT TO 5TH 1816–1824 6 volumes, 4,933 pages, 125 plates1 10,500 Macvey Napier Famous contributors recruited, such as Sir Humphry Davy , Sir Walter Scott , Malthus

6TH 1820–1823 20 volumes

Charles Maclaren Reprint of the 4th and 5th editions with modern font. Constable went bankrupt on 19 January 1826; EB rights eventually secured by Adam Black

7TH 1830–1842 21 volumes, 17,101 pages, 506 plates, plus a 187-page index volume 5,000 Macvey Napier , assisted by James Browne , LLD Widening network of famous contributors, such as Sir David Brewster , Thomas de Quincey
Thomas de Quincey
, Antonio Panizzi ; 5,000 sets sold

8TH 1853–1860 21 volumes, 17,957 pages, 402 plates; plus a 239-page index volume, published 18612 8,000 Thomas Stewart Traill Many long articles were copied from the 7th edition; 344 contributors including William Thomson ; authorized American sets printed by Little, Brown in Boston; 8,000 sets sold altogether

9TH 1875–1889 24 volumes, plus a 499-page index volume labeled Volume 25 55,000 authorized plus 500,000 pirated sets Thomas Spencer Baynes
Thomas Spencer Baynes
(1875–80); then W. Robertson Smith Some carry-over from 8th edition, but mostly a new work; high point of scholarship; 10,000 sets sold by Britannica and 45,000 authorized sets made in USA by Little, Brown in Boston and Schribners' Sons in NY, but pirated widely (500,000 sets) in the U.S.3

10th, supplement to 9th 1902–1903 11 volumes, plus the 24 volumes of the 9th. Volume 34 containing 124 detailed country maps with index of 250,000 names 4 70,000 Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace and Hugh Chisholm in London; Arthur T. Hadley high-pressure sales methods

11TH 1910–1911 28 volumes, plus volume 29 index 1,000,000 Hugh Chisholm in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Another high point of scholarship and writing; more articles than the 9th, but shorter and simpler; financial difficulties for owner, Horace Everett Hooper ; EB rights sold to Sears Roebuck in 1920

12th, supplement to 11th 1921–1922 3 volumes with own index, plus the 29 volumes of the 11th5

Hugh Chisholm in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Summarised state of the world before, during, and after World War I

13th, supplement to 11th 1926 3 volumes with own index, plus the 29 volumes of the 11th6

James Louis Garvin in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Replaced 12th edition volumes; improved perspective of the events of 1910–1926

14TH 1929–1933 24 volumes 7

James Louis Garvin in London, Franklin Henry Hooper in New York City Publication just before Great Depression was financially catastrophic

REVISED 14TH 1933–1973 24 volumes 7

Franklin Henry Hooper until 1938; then Walter Yust , Harry Ashmore , Warren E. Preece, William Haley Began continuous revision in 1936: every article revised at least twice every decade

15TH 1974–1984 30 volumes 8

Warren E. Preece, then Philip W. Goetz Introduced three-part structure; division of articles into _ Micropædia _ and _ Macropædia
_; _ Propædia _ Outline of Knowledge; separate index eliminated

1985–2010 32 volumes 9

Philip W. Goetz, then Robert McHenry , currently Dale Hoiberg Restored two-volume index; some _Micropædia_ and _Macropædia_ articles merged; slightly longer overall; new versions were issued every few years. Last printed edition.


1_Supplement to the fourth, fifth, and sixth editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica. With preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciences._

2 The 7th to 14th editions included a separate index volume.

3 The 9th edition featured articles by notables of the day, such as James Maxwell on electricity and magnetism, and William Thomson (who became Lord Kelvin) on heat.

4 The 10th edition included a maps volume and a cumulative index volume for the 9th and 10th edition volumes: _the new volumes, constituting, in combination with the existing volumes of the 9th ed., the 10th ed. ... and also supplying a new, distinctive, and independent library of reference dealing with recent events and developments_

5 _Vols. 30–32 ... the New volumes constituting, in combination with the twenty-nine volumes of the eleventh edition, the twelfth edition_

6 This supplement replaced the previous supplement: _The three new supplementary volumes constituting, with the volumes of the latest standard edition, the thirteenth edition._

7 At this point Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
began almost annual revisions. New revisions of the 14th edition appeared every year between 1929 and 1973 with the exceptions of 1931, 1934 and 1935.

8 Annual revisions were published every year between 1974 and 2007 with the exceptions of 1996, 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2006. The 15th edition (introduced as "Britannica 3") was published in three parts: a 10-volume _Micropædia_ (which contained short articles and served as an index), a 19-volume _Macropædia_, plus the _Propædia_ (see text).

9 In 1985, the system was modified by adding a separate two-volume index; the _Macropædia_ articles were further consolidated into fewer, larger ones (for example, the previously separate articles about the 50 U.S. states were all included into the " United States
United States
of America" article), with some medium-length articles moved to the _Micropædia_. The Micropædia had 12 vols. and the Macropædia

The first CD-ROM edition was issued in 1994. At that time also an online version was offered for paid subscription. In 1999 this was offered free, and no revised print versions appeared. The experiment was ended in 2001 and a new printed set was issued in 2001.


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Encarta Premium 2007: Software". Retrieved 21 November 2006. * ^ _Encarta\'s Encyclopedia Article Center_. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2007. * ^ Bill Tancer (1 May 2007). "Look Who\'s Using". _Time _. Retrieved 1 December 2007. The sheer volume of content is partly responsible for the site's dominance as an online reference. When compared to the top 3,200 educational reference sites in the US, is No. 1, attracting 24.3% of all visits to the category . Cf. Bill Tancer (Global Manager, Hitwise), "Wikipedia, Search and School Homework" Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine ., _ Hitwise _, 1 March 2007. * ^ Alex Woodson (8 July 2007). "remains go-to site for online news". Reuters. Retrieved 16 December 2007. Online encyclopedia has added about 20 million unique monthly visitors in the past year, making it the top online news and information destination, according to Nielsen//NetRatings. * ^ _A_ _B_ Giles, J. (2005). "Internet encyclopaedias go head to head: Jimmy Wales' comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries". _Nature _. 438 (7070): 900–1. Bibcode :2005Natur.438..900G. PMID 16355180 . doi :10.1038/438900a . * ^ McHenry, Robert (15 November 2004). "The Faith-Based Encyclopedia". _TCS Daily_. * ^ Terdiman, Daniel. "Study: as accurate as Britannica". _Staff Writer, CNET News_. CNET News. Retrieved 5 July 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Fatally Flawed – Refuting the recent study on encyclopedic accuracy by the journal Nature" (PDF). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. March 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2011. * ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: a response" (PDF). _Nature_ (Press release). 23 March 2006. Retrieved 21 October 2006. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ Kogan, Herman (1958). _The Great EB: The Story of the Encyclopædia Britannica_. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press . LCCN 58008379 . * ^ Arner, Robert D. (1991). _Dobson's Encyclopaedia: The Publisher, Text, and Publication of America's First Britannica, 1789–1803_. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3092-2 . * ^ "Patriarch Revised". _Time _. XIV (13). 23 September 1929. pp. 66–69. * ^ "A Completely New Encyclopaedia (_sic_) Britannica". _Time _. XIV (12). 16 September 1929. pp. 2–3. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Banquet at Guildhall in the City of London, Tuesday 15 October 1968: Celebrating the 200th Anniversary of the_ Encyclopædia Britannica _and the 25th Anniversary of the Honorable William Benton as its Chair and Publisher_. United Kingdom: Encyclopædia Britannica International, Ltd. 1968. * ^ "Reader". _The New Yorker_. 9. 3 March 1934. p. 17. * ^ "2004 Distinguished Achievement Awards Winners: Technology". Association of Educational Publishers . 1 August 2003. Archived from the original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2007. * ^ "Top Ten Superbrands 2009–2010". BBC. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009. * ^ Lang, JP (1992). _Reference Sources for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries_ (5th ed.). Chicago: American Library Association. p. 34. ISBN 0-8389-3406-4 . * ^ _The New Encyclopædia Britannica_ (15th edition, _Macropædia _ ed.). 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Prescott, Peter S. (8 July 1974). "The Fifteenth Britannica". _Newsweek_: 71–72.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Baker, John F. (14 January 1974). "A New Britannica Is Born". _ Publishers Weekly _. pp. 64–65. * Wolff, Geoffrey (June 1974). "Britannica 3, History of". _The Atlantic_ . pp. 37–47. * Cole, Dorothy Ethlyn (June 1974). "Britannica 3 as a Reference Tool: A Review". Wilson Library Bulletin. pp. 821–825. _Britannica 3_ is difficult to use ... the division of content between _Micropædia_ and _Macropædia_ makes it necessary to consult another volume in the majority of cases; indeed, it was our experience that even simple searches might involve eight or nine volumes. * Davi s, Robert Gorham (1 December 1974). "Subject: The Universe". _ The New York Times Book Review _. pp. 98–100. * Hazo, Robert G. (9 March 1975). "The Guest Word". _The New York Times Book Review _. p. 31. * McCracken, Samuel (February 1976). "The Scandal of 'Britannica 3'". Commentary . pp. 63–68. This arrangement has nothing to recommend it except commercial novelty. * Waite, Dennis V. (21 June 1976). "Encyclopædia Britannica: EB 3, Two Years Later". _ Publishers Weekly _. pp. 44–45. * Wolff, Geoffrey (November 1976). "Britannica 3, Failures of". _The Atlantic _. pp. 107–110. It is called the _Micropædia_, for 'little knowledge', and little knowledge is what it provides. It has proved to be grotesquely inadequate as an index, radically constricting the utility of the _Macropædia_. * ^ According to Kister (1994), the initial 15th edition (1974) required over $32 million to produce. * ^ Einbinder, Harvey (1964). _The Myth of the Britannica_. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-384-14050-9 . * ^ Cunningham, Grainne (3 February 2010). "Britannica errors spark unholy row". _ Irish Independent _. Retrieved 30 August 2010. * ^ Sheehy, Clodagh (4 February 2010). "Are they taking the Mick? It\'s the encyclopedia that thinks the Civil War was between the north and south". _Evening Herald_ (Dublin). * ^ _Supplement to the Encyclopædia or Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Miscellaneous Literature_. 1803. pp. iv. * ^ Day, Peter (17 December 1997). " Encyclopaedia Britannica changes to survive". _BBC News_. Retrieved 27 March 2007. Sales plummeted from 100,000 a year to just 20,000. * ^ "Encyclopedias and Dictionaries". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. 18 (15th ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. pp. 257–286. * ^ Herman, Arthur (2002). _How the Scots Invented the Modern World _. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-80999-0 . * ^ Krapp, Philip; Balou, Patricia K. (1992). _Collier's Encyclopedia_. 9. New York: Macmillan Educational Company. p. 135. LCCN 91061165 . The _Britannica's_ 1st edition is described as "deplorably inaccurate and unscientific" in places. * ^ On editions of the _Britannica_ through 1803 see Kafker and Loveland, eds, _Early Britannica_, * ^ Cousin, John William (1910). "_ Baynes, Thomas Spencer". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature _. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Wikisource * ^ _ Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Editor\'s Advertisement". Encyclopædia Britannica_. 1 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. * ^ _ Baynes, T.S., ed. (1875–1889). "Prefatory Notice". Encyclopædia Britannica_ (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. * ^ Chicago Tribune, 22 February 1945 * ^ Chicago Tribune, 28 January 1943 * ^ Mortimer J. Adler, _A Guidebook to Learning: for the lifelong pursuit of wisdom_. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York, 1986. p.88 * ^ "In the Matter of Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. et al., pp.421-541" (PDF). * ^ Pepitone, Julianne (13 March 2012). "Encyclopedia Britannica to stop printing books". CNN. Retrieved 14 March 2012. * ^ _Encyclopædia Britannica_ (11th ed.). 1910. p. 3. * ^ _The New Encyclopædia Britannica_ (15th edition, _Propædia_ ed.). p. 3. * ^ _The New Encyclopædia Britannica_, _Propædia: Outline of Knowledge and Guide to the Britannica_, 15th edition, 2010. * ^ Vol. I has viii, 697, (i) pages, but 10 unpaginated pages are added between p. 586 and 587. Vol. II has (iii), 1009, (ii) pages, but page numbers 175-176 as well as page numbers 425-426 were used twice; additionally page numbers 311-410 were not used. Vol. III has (iii), 953, (i) pages, but page numbers 679-878 were not used. See: Frank A. Kafker and Jeff Loveland, _The Early Britannica: the growth of an outstanding encyclopedia_, Voltaire Foundation, Oxford, 2009, p. 22 * ^ Writings of Archibald Constable, as quoted on p. 58 of Frank Kafker and Jeff Loveland (eds), _The Early Britannica_, Oxford University Press, 2009. Constable estimated in 1812 that there had been 3,500 copies printed, but revised his estimate to 3,000 in 1821. * ^ According to Smellie, it was 10,000, as quoted by Robert Kerr in his "Memoirs of William Smellie." Archibald Constable was quoted as saying the production started at 5,000 and concluded at 13,000. All this information is found in the 14th edition of _Britannica_, Volume 8, in the article "Encyclopedia" on page 374. * ^ This is stated in the 9th edition of _Britannica_ in Volume VIII in the article "Encyclopedia". * ^ in the 14th edition of _Britannica_, Volume 8, in the article "Encyclopedia" on page 376, it gives the numbers of 10,000 sets sold by Britannica plus 45,000 genuine American reprints by Scribner's Sons, and "several hundred thousand sets of mutilated and fraudulent 9th editions were sold..." Most sources estimate there were 500,000 pirated sets. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Encyclopædia Britannica_ 15 ed. Chicago : Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
2007 interior flap


* Boyles, Denis. (2016) _Everything Explained That Is Explainable: On the Creation of the_ Encyclopædia Britannica_'s Celebrated Eleventh Edition, 1910-1911_ (2016) online review * Einbinder, Harvey (1964). _The Myth of the Britannica_. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-384-14050-9 . * Jacobs, Arnold Stephen, Jr. (2004). _The Know-It-All: One Man's Humble Quest to Become the Smartest Person in the World_. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-5062-7 . * Kister, Kenneth F. (1994). _Kister's Best Encyclopedias: A Comparative Guide to General and Specialized Encyclopedias_ (2nd ed.). Phoenix, Arizona: Oryx Press. ISBN 978-0-89774-744-8 . * Kogan, Herman (1958). _The Great EB: The Story of the Encyclopædia Britannica_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. LCCN 58008379 . * Lee, Timothy. _Techdirt Interviews Britannica President Jorge Cauz_, Techdirt.com, 2 June 2008 * Greenstein, Shane, and Michelle Devereux (2006). "The Crisis at Encyclopædia Britannica" case history, Kellogg School of Management
Kellogg School of Management
, Northwestern University .


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