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Emperor
Emperor
of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte
House of Bonaparte
starting when Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor
Emperor
on 14 May 1804 by the French Senate
French Senate
and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon. The title emphasized that the emperor ruled over "the French people" (the nation) and not over France (the republic). The old formula of "King of France" indicated that the king owned France as a personal possession. The new term indicated a constitutional monarchy.[1] The title was purposefully created to preserve the appearance of the French Republic and to show that after the French Revolution, the feudal system was abandoned and a nation state was created, with equal citizens as the subjects of their emperor. (After 1 January 1809, the state was officially referred to as the French Empire.[2]) The title of " Emperor
Emperor
of the French" was supposed to demonstrate that Napoleon's coronation was not a restoration of monarchy, but an introduction of a new political system: the French Empire. Napoleon's reign lasted until 22 June 1815, when he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, exiled and imprisoned on the island of Saint Helena, where he died on 5 May 1821. His reign was interrupted by the Bourbon Restoration of 1814 and his own exile to Elba, from where he escaped less than a year later to reclaim the throne, reigning as Emperor
Emperor
for another 94 days before his defeat and final exile. Less than a year after the French coup d'état of 1851
French coup d'état of 1851
by Napoleon's nephew Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, which ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly, the Second French Republic was transformed into the Second French Empire, established by a referendum on 7 November 1852. President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected by the French people, officially became Napoleon
Napoleon
III, Emperor of the French, from the symbolic and historic date of 2 December 1852. His reign continued until 4 September 1870, after he was captured at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War. He subsequently went into exile in England, where he died on 9 January 1873. Since the early death in 1879 of Napoleon
Napoleon
III's only son, Louis Napoléon, the House of Bonaparte
House of Bonaparte
has had a number of claimants to the French throne. The current claimant is Charles, Prince
Prince
Napoléon, who became head of the House of Bonaparte
House of Bonaparte
on 3 May 1997. His position is challenged by his son, Jean-Christophe, Prince
Prince
Napoléon, who was named as heir in his late grandfather's testament.

Contents

1 Full titles

1.1 Napoleon
Napoleon
I 1.2 Napoleon
Napoleon
II 1.3 Napoleon
Napoleon
III

2 French Empire (1804–1814) 3 French Empire (Hundred Days, 1815) 4 French Empire (1852–1870) 5 See also 6 References

Full titles[edit] The Emperors of the French had various titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Bonaparte. Napoleon
Napoleon
I[edit] His Imperial and Royal Majesty Napoleon
Napoleon
I, By the Grace of God and the Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic, Emperor
Emperor
of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Co- Prince
Prince
of Andorra. Napoleon
Napoleon
II[edit] His Imperial Majesty Napoleon
Napoleon
II, By the Grace of God and the Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic, Emperor
Emperor
of the French and Co- Prince
Prince
of Andorra. Napoleon
Napoleon
III[edit] His Imperial Majesty Napoleon
Napoleon
III, By the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, Emperor
Emperor
of the French and Co- Prince
Prince
of Andorra.[3] French Empire (1804–1814)[edit] Main article: First French Empire

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Napoleon
Napoleon
I

the Great

(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51) 18 May 1804 11 April 1814 — Bonaparte

French Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)[edit] Main article: Hundred Days Regarded as a continuation of the First French Empire
First French Empire
despite the brief exile of the Emperor
Emperor
Napoleon
Napoleon
I

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Napoleon
Napoleon
I

the Great

(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51) 20 March 1815 22 June 1815 — Bonaparte

Napoleon
Napoleon
II [4] (1811-03-20)20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832(1832-07-22) (aged 21) 22 June 1815 7 July 1815 Son of Napoleon
Napoleon
I Bonaparte

French Empire (1852–1870)[edit] Main article: Second French Empire

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Napoleon
Napoleon
III (1808-04-20)20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873(1873-01-09) (aged 64) 2 December 1852 4 September 1870 Nephew of Napoleon
Napoleon
I Cousin of Napoleon
Napoleon
II Bonaparte

See also[edit]

Crown of Napoleon French Crown Jewels List of French consorts List of French monarchs

References[edit]

^ Philip Dwyer, Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
in Power (2013) p 129 ^ http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/legislation/c_republic.html ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/napoleon.htm#naptitles ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon
Napoleon
II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
Vichy France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before be

.