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EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH (French : _Empereur des Français_) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte was given the title Emperor
Emperor
on 14 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris
Paris
, in Paris
Paris
with the Crown of Napoleon
Napoleon
.

The title emphasized that the emperor ruled over "the French people", the nation, and not over France, the republic. The old formula "king of France" indicated that the king owned France as a personal possession. The new term indicated a constitutional monarchy. The title was purposefully created to preserve the appearance of the French Republic and to show that after the French Revolution the feudal system was abandoned and a nation state was created, with equal citizens as the subjects of their emperor. (After 1 January 1809, the state was officially referred to as the French Empire. ) The title of " Emperor
Emperor
of the French" was supposed to demonstrate that Napoleon's coronation was not a restoration of monarchy, but an introduction of a new political system: the French Empire . Napoleon's reign lasted until 22 June 1815 when he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
, exiled and imprisoned on the island of Saint Helena
Saint Helena
, where he died on 5 May 1821. His reign was interrupted by the Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
of 1814 and his own exile to Elba
Elba
, from where he escaped less than a year later to reclaim the throne, reigning as Emperor
Emperor
for another 94 days before his final defeat and final exile.

Less than a year following the French coup of 1851 by Napoleon's nephew Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte , which ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly , the Second French Republic was transformed into the Second French Empire
Second French Empire
, established by a referendum on 7 November 1852. President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, elected by the French people, officially became Napoleon III , Emperor
Emperor
of the French, from the symbolic and historic date of 2 December 1852.

His reign persisted to 4 September 1870, although he was captured at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War . He was then forced into exile through England until he died on 9 January 1873.

Since the early death of his only son Louis Napoléon in 1879, the House of Bonaparte has had a number of claimants to the French throne. The current claimant is Charles, Prince Napoléon , who became head of the house of Bonaparte on 3 May 1997. His position is challenged by his son Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon , who was named as heir in his late grandfather\'s testament.

CONTENTS

* 1 Full titles

* 1.1 Napoleon
Napoleon
I * 1.2 Napoleon
Napoleon
II * 1.3 Napoleon
Napoleon
III

* 2 French Empire (1804–1814) * 3 French Empire (Hundred Days, 1815) * 4 French Empire (1852–1870) * 5 See also * 6 References

FULL TITLES

The Emperors of the French had various titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Bonaparte .

NAPOLEON I

His Imperial and Royal Majesty NAPOLEON I, By the Grace of God and the Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic , Emperor
Emperor
of the French , King of Italy , Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine , Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Co- Prince
Prince
of Andorra
Andorra
.

NAPOLEON II

His Imperial Majesty NAPOLEON II, By the Grace of God and the Constitution
Constitution
of the Republic , Emperor
Emperor
of the French and Co- Prince
Prince
of Andorra
Andorra
.

NAPOLEON III

His Imperial Majesty NAPOLEON III, By the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, Emperor
Emperor
of the French and Co- Prince
Prince
of Andorra
Andorra
.

FRENCH EMPIRE (1804–1814)

Main article: First French Empire
First French Empire

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

NAPOLEON I

* _the Great_ *

(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51) 18 May 1804 11 April 1814 — Bonaparte

FRENCH EMPIRE (HUNDRED DAYS, 1815)

Main article: Hundred Days
Hundred Days

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

NAPOLEON I

* _the Great_ *

(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51) 20 March 1815 22 June 1815 — Bonaparte

NAPOLEON II

* *

(1811-03-20)20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832(1832-07-22) (aged 21) 22 June 1815 7 July 1815 Son of Napoleon
Napoleon
I Bonaparte

FRENCH EMPIRE (1852–1870)

Main article: Second French Empire
Second French Empire

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

NAPOLEON III

* *

(1808-04-20)20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873(1873-01-09) (aged 64) 2 December 1852 4 September 1870 Nephew of Napoleon
Napoleon
I Cousin of Napoleon
Napoleon
II Bonaparte

SEE ALSO

* Crown of Napoleon
Napoleon
* French Crown Jewels * List of French consorts * List of French monarchs

REFERENCES

* ^ Philip Dwyer, _Citizen Emperor: Napoleon
Napoleon
in Power_ (2013) p 129 * ^ http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/legislation/c_republic.html * ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/napoleon.htm#naptitles * ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

* v * t * e

French monarchs

* Detailed family tree * Simplified family tree

MEROVINGIANS

* Clovis I * Childebert I * Chlothar I * Charibert I * Guntram * Chilperic I * Sigebert I * Childebert II
Childebert II
* Chlothar II * Dagobert I
Dagobert I
* Sigebert II * Clovis II * Chlothar III * Childeric II
Childeric II
* Theuderic III
Theuderic III
* Clovis IV
Clovis IV
* Childebert III
Childebert III
* Dagobert III * Chilperic II
Chilperic II
* Chlothar IV * Theuderic IV * Childeric III

Carolingians , Robertians and Bosonids

* Pepin the Short * Carloman I * Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) * Louis I * Charles II * Louis II * Louis III * Carloman II * Charles the Fat * Odo _R_ * Charles III * Robert I _R_ * Rudolph _B_ * Louis IV * Lothair * Louis V

CAPET

* Hugh Capet * Robert II * Henry I * Philip I * Louis VI * Louis VII * Philip II * Louis VIII * Louis IX * Philip III * Philip IV * Louis X * John I * Philip V * Charles IV

VALOIS

* Philip VI * John II * Charles V * Charles VI * _ Henry VI of England _ * Charles VII * Louis XI * Charles VIII * Louis XII * Francis I * Henry II * Francis II * Charles IX * Henry III

BOURBON

* Henry IV * Louis XIII * Louis XIV * Louis XV * Louis XVI * _Louis XVII _

BONAPARTE (1ST EMPIRE )

* Napoleon
Napoleon
I * _ Napoleon
Napoleon
II _

BOURBON (RESTORATION )

* Louis XVIII * Charles X * _Louis XIX _ * _Henry V _

ORLéANS (JULY MONARCHY )

* Louis Philippe I

BONAPARTE (2ND EMPIRE )

* Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Debatable or disputed rulers are in _italics_

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