Emperor Zhangzong of Jin (31 August 1168 – 29 December 1208),
personal name Madage, sinicised name Wanyan Jing, was the sixth
emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China
between the 12th and 13th centuries. He reigned from 20 January 1189
to 29 December 1208.
1.1 Song invasion of the Jin
Emperor Zhangzong was the sixth emperor of the Jin dynasty. He
inherited the throne from his grandfather, Emperor Shizong and was
succeeded by Wanyan Yongji.
To some extent, Emperor Zhangzong continued his grandfather's policy
of encouraging intensive use of the
Jurchen language and promotion of
Jurchen customs. He forbade wearing of
Han Chinese clothes and
required his subjects to perform the Jurchen kowtow ceremony. He
required his meng'an and mouke (Jurchen hereditary feudal nobility) to
take an archery test if they wanted to sit for a jinshi examination.
On the other hand, he permitted Jurchens to follow
Han Chinese funeral
practices, and Tang and
Song dynasty rituals are known to have been
performed at his court in 1194.
Resuming one of the projects of the Prince of Hailing, Emperor
Zhangzong established Confucian temples in all prefectures and
counties of his empire.
Emperor Zhangzong ordered
Taiye Lake built in
Beijing for him to go
fishing. Unlike his grandfather, Emperor Zhangzong did not consider
hunting as a natural and necessary way of military training but viewed
it as recreation.
Emperor Zhangzong's favorite concubine was Li Shi'er (李師兒).
Zhangzong once romanced Concubine Li on Qiong Island (瓊島), where
Concubine Li said that the emperor was like the sun (日), while she
was the moon (月). Together, they make the character for "bright"
(明). Emperor Zhangzong in his later years began to spoil Concubine
Li and gave her family members positions in the government, while
ignoring his duties as the emperor. As such, the Jin Empire began to
decline during his reign.
Song invasion of the Jin
Main article: Jin–Song Wars § Song revanchism
When, in 1206, the troops of the Southern Song chancellor Han Tuozhou
invaded the Jin dynasty, trying to reunify China from the south,
Emperor Zhangzong's armies defeated the invaders.
The conflict began when the Song were informed of Jurchen troubles
with the rising Mongols and natural disasters. The Song began
provoking Emperor Zhangzong in 1204 and onward by orchestrating raids
on Jin settlements. The fighting continued to escalate, partly
aggravated by Song officials in support of revanchism, and war against
the Jin dynasty was officially declared on June 14, 1206.
The Song advance was impeded by Jin military successes and declining
soldier morale that forced many to desert. By the fall of 1206,
multiple towns and military bases had been captured by the Jurchens.
Neither side was willing to continue fighting, and a peace treaty was
signed on November 2, 1208. To obtain peace, the
Song dynasty had
to yield territory, pay an indemnity, and execute their hawkish
Song dynasty was obligated to pay an annual tribute
of 50,000 taels of silver and 50,000 packs of fabric. They also
delivered the severed head of the minister who had instigated the war
to the Jurchens.
Father: Hutuwa (胡土瓦), sinicised name Wanyan Yungong
(完顏允恭), Emperor Shizong's second son and heir apparent,
posthumously honoured as Emperor Xianzong (金顯宗)
Mother: Lady Tudan (徒單氏), posthumously honoured as Empress
Spouse: Lady Pucha (蒲察氏), posthumously honoured as Empress
Qinhuai (欽懷皇后), bore Wanyan Hongyu
Li Shi'er (李師兒), Consort Yuan (元妃), bore Telin
Lady Jiagu (夾谷氏), Zhaoyi (昭儀), Jiagu Qingchen's
Lady Lin (林氏), Lady Ziming (資明夫人), bore Wanyan Hongjing
Lady Jia (賈氏), Chengyu (承御)
Lady Fan (范氏), Chengyu (承御), bore the Princess of Shun
Wanyan Hongyu (完顏洪裕), Prince of Jiang (絳王)
Telin (忒鄰), Prince of Ge (葛王)
Ahulan (阿虎懶), sinicised name Wanyan Hongjing (完顏洪靖),
Prince of Jing (荊王)
Elubu (訛魯不), sinicised name
Wanyan Hongxi (完顏洪熙), Prince
of Rong (榮王)
Sagai (撒改), sinicised name Wanyan Hongyan (完顏洪衍), Prince
of Ying (英王)
Elun (訛論), sinicised name Wanyan Honghui (完顏洪輝), Prince of
Princess of Shun (順國公主)
^ a b c d e f Tao, p. 85-86
^ a b c Franke, Herbert (1994). Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke;
John King Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6,
Alien Regimes and Border States, 710–1368. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 246–249.
Tao Jingshen. The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. Univ. of
Washington Press, 1976. ISBN 0-295-95514-7.
Emperors of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Prince of Hailing
Prince Shao of Wei
Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16
Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5
Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan
→ Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC
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