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Emperor Xiaozong of Song
Emperor Xiaozong of Song
(27 November 1127 – 28 June 1194), personal name Zhao Shen, courtesy name Yuanyong, was the 11th emperor of the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in China and the second emperor of the Southern Song dynasty. He started his reign in 1162 when his adoptive father and predecessor, Emperor Gaozong, abdicated and passed the throne to him. Even though Emperor Gaozong became a Taishang Huang ("Retired Emperor") after his abdication, he remained the de facto ruler, so Emperor Xiaozong only fully took over the reins of power in 1187 after Emperor Gaozong's death. After ruling for about a year, Emperor Xiaozong followed in his predecessor's footsteps and abdicated in favour of his third son Zhao Dun (Emperor Guangzong), while he became Taishang Huang and still remained in power until his death in 1194.

Contents

1 Names 2 Life 3 Family

3.1 Spouses

3.1.1 Empresses 3.1.2 Consorts

3.2 Issue

3.2.1 Sons 3.2.2 Daughters

4 Ancestry 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Sources

Names[edit] Zhao Shen's birth name was Zhao Bocong (趙伯琮). In March 1133, after he entered the imperial palace, his name was changed to Zhao Yuan (趙瑗). In April 1160, after he was adopted by Emperor Gaozong, his name was changed to Zhao Wei (趙瑋). In July 1162, when Zhao Shen became crown prince, his name was changed again to Zhao Shen (趙眘). Zhao Shen was given the courtesy name Yuangui (元瑰) in May 1160. In July 1162, when he became crown prince, his courtesy name was changed to Yuanyong (元永). Life[edit] Zhao Shen was a seventh-generation descendant of Emperor Taizu, the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty. He was the second son of Zhao Zicheng (趙子偁; died 1143), a sixth cousin of Emperor Gaozong, the 10th Song emperor. After the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
in 1127, Emperor Gaozong's father, eldest brother and most of his close relatives were taken prisoner by the Jurchen-led Jin Empire. As Emperor Gaozong's only son, Zhao Fu (趙旉), died prematurely around the age of two, the emperor ordered his officials to start searching for other living descendants of the imperial family. Zhao Shen was discovered and adopted by Emperor Gaozong in April 1160 as a son. In July 1162, Emperor Gaozong officially designated Zhao Shen as his crown prince and heir apparent. Archery and equestrianism were required for non-military officials at the Military College in 1162 during Emperor Xiaozong's reign.[1] Family[edit] Spouses[edit] Empresses[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes

Empress Chengmu 成穆皇后 Lady Guo 郭氏 1126 1156 Guo Jian, Prince of Rong 荣王郭瑊 Lady Zhao, Madame of Shu 淑国夫人赵氏 1. Crown Prince Zhuangwen 2. Prince Huixian of Wei 3. Guangzong 4. Prince Daosu of Shao Madame of Xianning Commandery (咸宁郡夫人)

Empress Chenggong 成恭皇后 Lady Xia 夏氏 unknown 1167 Xia Xie 夏协 unknown none Yushi (御侍) Given by Empress Xiansheng to Xiaozong Madame of Qi'an Commandery (齐安郡夫人) Became Able Consort (贤妃) in 1162 Became Empress in 1163

Empress Chengsu 成肃皇后 Xie Sufang 谢苏芳 1132 1203 unknown unknown none Empress Xiansheng's maid Madame of Xian'an Commandery (咸安郡夫人) Became Wanrong (婉容) in 1162 Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃) Became Empress in 1176 Became Empress Shoucheng (寿成皇后) in 1189 Became Empress Dowager Huici (惠慈皇太后) in 1194 Became Grand Empress Dowager (太皇太后) in 1200

Consorts[edit]

Title Name Born Died Father Issue Notes

Noble Consort 贵妃 Lady Cai 蔡氏 unknown 1185 Cai Pang (蔡滂) none Hong Xiapei (红霞帔) Became Madame of Heyi Commandery (和义郡夫人) Became Wanrong (婉容) Promoted in 1183

Able Consort 贤妃 Lady Li 李氏 unknown 1183 unknown none Dianzi (典字) Became Madame of Tongyi Commandery (通义郡夫人) Became Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤) Posthumously honoured in 1183

Issue[edit] Sons[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes

1 Crown Prince Zhuangwen 庄文太子 Qi 愭 1144 1167 Empress Chengmu Became Crown Prince (皇太子) in 1165

2 Prince Huixian of Wei 魏惠宪王 Kai 恺 1146 18 Mar 1180

3 Guangzong 光宗 Dun 惇 30 Sep 1147 17 Sep 1200

4 Prince Daosu of Shao 邵悼肃王 Ke 恪 unknown unknown Posthumously honoured in 1166

Daughters[edit]

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes

1 Princess of Jia 嘉国公主 unknown unknown 1162 unknown none none Died young

2

unknown unknown unknown unknown none none Died young

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Emperor Xiaozong of Song

Zhao Congyu, Marquis of Xinxing 新兴侯赵从郁

3rd son: Zhao Shijiang, Marquis of Huayin 华阴侯赵世将

Wife: Lady Xue, Lady of Danyang Commandery 丹阳郡君薛氏

6th son: Zhao Linghua, Duke of Qing 庆国公赵令譮

Li Weixian 李惟贤

Wife: Lady Li, Madame of Shang 商国夫人李氏

1st son: Zhao Zicheng, Prince Anxi of Xiu 秀安僖王赵子偁 d. 1144

Wife: Lady Liu, Madame of Qi 齐国夫人刘氏

2nd son: Zhao Shen, Xiaozong 孝宗赵眘 1127–1194

Wife: Lady Zhang, Madame of Prince Anxi of Xiu 秀安僖王夫人张氏 d. 1167

Ancestors of Emperor Xiaozong of Song

Zhao Kuangyin, Taizu 太祖赵匡胤 927–976

4th son: Zhao Defang, Prince Kanghui of Qin 秦康惠王赵德芳 959–981

Concubine

2nd son: Zhao Weixian, Duke of Ying 英国公赵惟宪 979–1016

Jiao Jixun 焦继勋

Wife: Lady Jiao 焦氏

3rd son: Zhao Congyu

Wife: Lady He, Madame of Xu 徐国夫人和氏 991–1046

See also[edit]

Chinese emperors family tree (middle) List of emperors of the Song dynasty Architecture of the Song dynasty Culture of the Song dynasty Economy of the Song dynasty History of the Song dynasty Society of the Song dynasty Technology of the Song dynasty Jin–Song Wars

Notes[edit]

^ Emperor Xiaozong succeeded Emperor Gaozong, who abdicated on 24 July 1162. However, even after his retirement, Emperor Gaozong remained the de facto ruler until his death in November 1187. ^ Emperor Xiaozong abdicated in favour of his son, Zhao Dun (Emperor Guangzong). He then granted himself the title Taishang Huang ("Retired Emperor") and remained as the de facto ruler until his death.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Lo, Jung-pang (1 January 2012). China as a Sea Power, 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People During the Southern Song and Yuan Periods. NUS Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-9971-69-505-7. 

Sources[edit]

Toqto'a, et al., eds. (1343). History of Song. Volumes 33–35: Biography of Emperor Xiaozong. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

Emperor Xiaozong of Song House of Zhao Born: 1127 Died: 1194

Regnal titles

Preceded by Emperor Gaozong Emperor of the Song Dynasty 1162–1189 Succeeded by Emperor Guangzong

v t e

Emperors of the Song dynasty

Northern Song

Taizu Taizong Zhenzong Renzong Yingzong Shenzong Zhezong Huizong Qinzong

Southern Song

Gaozong Xiaozong Guangzong Ningzong Lizong Duzong Gong Duanzong Zhao Bing

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming → Qing → ROC / PRC

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