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VESPASIAN (/vɛsˈpeɪʒiən, vɛsˈpeɪziən/ ; Latin : Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus; 17 November AD 9 – 23 June AD 79 ) was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from AD 69 to AD 79. Vespasian
Vespasian
founded the Flavian dynasty that ruled the Empire for twenty-seven years. Vespasian
Vespasian
was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success: he was legate of Legio II Augusta during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66.

While Vespasian
Vespasian
besieged Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero
Nero
committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors . After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius
Vitellius
became the third emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt
Egypt
and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian
Vespasian
joined forces with Mucianus , the governor of Syria , and Primus , a general in Pannonia
Pannonia
, leaving his son Titus
Titus
to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius
Vitellius
was defeated, and the following day Vespasian
Vespasian
was declared Emperor by the Senate . Vespasian
Vespasian
dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college .

Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system at Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects. He began the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum
Colosseum
. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian
Vespasian
forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola , Vespasian
Vespasian
increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus
Titus
, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.

CONTENTS

* 1 Family

* 2 Military and political career

* 2.1 Early career * 2.2 Invasion of Britannia (43) * 2.3 Later political career (51–66) * 2.4 Great Jewish Revolt (66–69)

* 3 Year of the Four Emperors (69)

* 4 Emperor (69–79)

* 4.1 Aftermath of the civil war * 4.2 Arrival in Rome and gathering support * 4.3 Relationship with Barbarians * 4.4 Propaganda campaign * 4.5 Construction and conspiracies * 4.6 Roman expansion in Britain (78–79) * 4.7 Death (79)

* 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

FAMILY

LEFT: Portrait bust of Vespasian
Vespasian
wearing the civic crown , Palazzo Massimo
Palazzo Massimo
, Rome RIGHT: Portrait bust of Vespasian
Vespasian
from Ostia , 69-79 AD, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme , Rome

Vespasian
Vespasian
was born in a village north-east of Rome called Falacrinae . His family was relatively undistinguished and lacking in pedigree. His paternal grandfather, Titus
Titus
Flavius Petro, became the first to distinguish himself, rising to the rank of centurion and fighting at Pharsalus for Pompey
Pompey
in 48 BC. Subsequently he became a debt collector.

Petro's son, Titus
Titus
Flavius Sabinus , worked as a customs official in the province of Asia and became a money-lender on a small scale among the Helvetii . He gained a reputation as a scrupulous and honest "tax-farmer". Sabinus married up in status, to Vespasia Polla , whose father had risen to the rank of prefect of the camp and whose brother became a Senator .

Sabinus and Vespasia had three children, the eldest of whom, a girl, died in infancy. The elder boy, Titus
Titus
Flavius Sabinus entered public life and pursued the cursus honorum . He served in the army as a military tribune in Thrace in 36. The following year he was elected quaestor and served in Crete
Crete
and Cyrene . He rose through the ranks of Roman public office, being elected aedile on his second attempt in 39 and praetor on his first attempt in 40, taking the opportunity to ingratiate himself with the Emperor Caligula
Caligula
.

The younger boy, Vespasian, seemed far less likely to be successful, initially not wishing to pursue high public office. He followed in his brother's footsteps when driven to it by his mother's taunting. During this period he married Flavia Domitilla , the daughter of Flavius Liberalis from Ferentium and formerly the mistress of Statilius Capella , a Roman equestrian from Sabrata in Africa .

They had two sons, Titus
Titus
Flavius Vespasianus (born 39) and Titus Flavius Domitianus (born 51), and a daughter, Domitilla (born 39). His wife Domitilla and his daughter Domitilla both died before Vespasian became Emperor in 69. After the death of his wife, Vespasian's longstanding mistress, Antonia Caenis , became his wife in all but formal status, a relationship that continued until she died in 75.

MILITARY AND POLITICAL CAREER

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Vespasian
Vespasian
leading his forces against the Jewish revolt , a miniature in a 1470 illuminated manuscript version of the history of Josephus
Josephus

EARLY CAREER

In preparation for a praetorship , Vespasian
Vespasian
needed two periods of service in the minor magistracies , one military and the other public. Vespasian
Vespasian
served in the military in Thrace for about 3 years. On his return to Rome in about AD 30, he obtained a post in the vigintivirate , the minor magistracies, most probably in one of the posts in charge of street cleaning. His early performance was so unsuccessful that Emperor Caligula
Caligula
reportedly stuffed handfuls of muck down his toga to correct the uncleaned Roman streets, formally his responsibility.

During the period of the ascendancy of Sejanus , there is no record of Vespasian's significant activity in political events. After completion of a term in the vigintivirate, Vespasian
Vespasian
was entitled to stand for election as quaestor; a senatorial office. But his lack of political or family influence meant that Vespasian
Vespasian
served as quaestor in one of the provincial posts in Crete
Crete
, rather than as assistant to important men in Rome.

Next he needed to gain a praetorship, carrying the Imperium
Imperium
, but non-patricians and the less well-connected had to serve in at least one intermediary post as an aedile or tribune . Vespasian
Vespasian
failed at his first attempt to gain an aedileship but was successful in his second attempt, becoming an aedile in 38. Despite his lack of significant family connections or success in office, he achieved praetorship in either 39 or 40, at the youngest age permitted (30), during a period of political upheaval in the organisation of elections. His longstanding relationship with freedwoman Antonia Caenis , confidential secretary to the Emperor's grandmother and part of the circle of courtiers and servants around the Emperor, may have contributed to his success.

INVASION OF BRITANNIA (43)

Upon the accession of Claudius
Claudius
as emperor in 41, Vespasian
Vespasian
was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta , stationed in Germania
Germania
, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus . In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain , and he distinguished himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius . After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames , he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire
Hampshire
, Wiltshire
Wiltshire
, Dorset
Dorset
, Somerset
Somerset
, Devon and Cornwall
Cornwall
with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall
Cornwall
and the silver and lead mines of Somerset.

Vespasian
Vespasian
marched from Noviomagus Reginorum ( Chichester
Chichester
) to subdue the hostile Durotriges and Dumnonii tribes, captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts , including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset
Dorset
). He also invaded Vectis (now the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum ( Exeter
Exeter
). During this time he injured himself and had not fully recovered until he went to Egypt. These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome.

LATER POLITICAL CAREER (51–66)

The Roman Emperor Nero
Nero
sends VESPASIAN with an army to put down the Jewish revolt, 66 AD.

His success as the legate of a legion earned him a consulship in 51, after which he retired from public life, having incurred the enmity of Claudius
Claudius
' wife, Agrippina . He came out of retirement in 63 when he was sent as governor to Africa Province
Africa Province
. According to Tacitus (ii.97), his rule was "infamous and odious" but according to Suetonius (Vesp. 4), he was "upright and, highly honourable". On one occasion, Suetonius writes, Vespasian
Vespasian
was pelted with turnips .

Vespasian
Vespasian
used his time in North Africa wisely. Usually governorships were seen by ex-consuls as opportunities to extort huge amounts of money to regain the wealth they had spent on their previous political campaigns. Corruption was so rife that it was almost expected that a governor would come back from these appointments with his pockets full. However, Vespasian
Vespasian
used his time in North Africa making friends instead of money, something that would be far more valuable in the years to come. During his time in North Africa, he found himself in financial difficulties and was forced to mortgage his estates to his brother. To revive his fortunes he turned to the mule trade and gained the nickname mulio (muleteer).

Returning from Africa, Vespasian
Vespasian
toured Greece in Nero
Nero
's retinue, but lost Imperial favour after paying insufficient attention (some sources suggest he fell asleep) during one of the Emperor's recitals on the lyre , and found himself in the political wilderness.

GREAT JEWISH REVOLT (66–69)

Main article: First Jewish–Roman War Vespasian
Vespasian
sestertius , struck in 71 to celebrate the victory in the first Jewish-Roman war. The legend on the reverse says: IVDEA CAPTA , "Judaea conquered".

In 66 AD, Vespasian
Vespasian
was appointed to suppress the Jewish revolt underway in Judea . The fighting there had killed the previous governor and routed Cestius Gallus , the governor of Syria , when he tried to restore order. Two legions, with eight cavalry squadrons and ten auxiliary cohorts, were therefore dispatched under the command of Vespasian
Vespasian
while his elder son, Titus, arrived from Alexandria
Alexandria
with another.

During this time he became the patron of Flavius Josephus
Josephus
, a Jewish resistance leader captured at the Siege of Yodfat , who would later write his people's history in Greek. Ultimately, thousands of Jews were killed and the Romans destroyed many towns in re-establishing control over Judea; they also took Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70. Vespasian
Vespasian
is remembered by Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, as a fair and humane official, in contrast with the notorious Herod Agrippa II whom Josephus
Josephus
goes to great lengths to demonize.

While under the emperor's patronage, Josephus
Josephus
wrote that after the Roman Legio X Fretensis , accompanied by Vespasian, destroyed Jericho on 21 June 68, Vespasian
Vespasian
took a group of Jews
Jews
who could not swim (possibly Essenes from Qumran ), fettered them, and threw them into the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
to test the sea's legendary buoyancy . Indeed, the captives bobbed up to the surface after being thrown in the water from the boats.

Josephus
Josephus
(as well as Tacitus ), reporting on the conclusion of the Jewish war, reported a prophecy that around the time when Jerusalem and the Temple would be taken, a man from their own nation, viz. the Messiah, would become governor of the habitable earth. Josephus, dismissing these things, said that the only governor of the habitable earth was Vespasian
Vespasian
who conquered it.

YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS (69)

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Main article: Year of the Four Emperors

ROMAN IMPERIAL DYNASTIES

YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS

CHRONOLOGY

Galba 68–69

Otho
Otho
69

Vitellius
Vitellius
69

Vespasian 69–79

SUCCESSION

Preceded by Julio-Claudian dynasty Followed by Flavian dynasty

After the death of Nero
Nero
in 68, Rome saw a succession of short-lived emperors and a year of civil wars . Galba was murdered by supporters of Otho
Otho
, who was defeated by Vitellius
Vitellius
. Otho's supporters, looking for another candidate to support, settled on Vespasian.

According to Suetonius, a prophecy ubiquitous in the Eastern provinces claimed that from Judaea would come the future rulers of the world. Vespasian
Vespasian
eventually believed that this prophecy applied to him, and found a number of omens , oracles , and portents that reinforced this belief. A map of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the Year of the Four Emperors (69). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian
Vespasian
and Gaius Licinius Mucianus .

He also found encouragement in Mucianus, the governor of Syria; and, although Vespasian
Vespasian
was a strict disciplinarian and reformer of abuses, Vespasian's soldiers were thoroughly devoted to him. All eyes in the East were now upon him. Mucianus and the Syrian legions were eager to support him. While he was at Caesarea , he was proclaimed emperor (1 July 69), first by the army in Egypt
Egypt
under Tiberius Julius Alexander , and then by his troops in Judaea (11 July according to Suetonius, 3 July according to Tacitus).

Nevertheless, Vitellius
Vitellius
, the occupant of the throne, had Rome's best troops on his side — the veteran legions of Gaul
Gaul
and the Rhineland
Rhineland
. But the feeling in Vespasian's favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia
Moesia
, Pannonia
Pannonia
, and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him the de facto master of half of the Roman world.

While Vespasian
Vespasian
himself was in Egypt
Egypt
securing its grain supply , his troops entered Italy from the northeast under the leadership of M. Antonius Primus . They defeated Vitellius's army (which had awaited him in Mevania ) at Bedriacum (or Betriacum), sacked Cremona
Cremona
and advanced on Rome. Vitellius
Vitellius
hastily arranged a peace with Antonius, but the Emperor's Praetorian Guard forced him to retain his seat. After furious fighting, Antonius' army entered Rome. In the resulting confusion, the Capitol was destroyed by fire and Vespasian's brother Sabinus was killed by a mob.

On receiving the tidings of his rival's defeat and death at Alexandria
Alexandria
, the new emperor at once forwarded supplies of urgently needed grain to Rome, along with an edict or a declaration of policy, in which he gave assurance of an entire reversal of the laws of Nero, especially those relating to treason . While in Egypt
Egypt
he visited the Temple of Serapis , where reportedly he experienced a vision . Later he was confronted by two labourers who were convinced that he possessed a divine power that could work miracles .

EMPEROR (69–79)

AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR

A bust of Vespasian, Pushkin Museum
Pushkin Museum
, Moscow.

Vespasian
Vespasian
was declared emperor by the Senate while he was in Egypt
Egypt
in December of 69 (the Egyptians had declared him emperor in June 69). In the short-term, administration of the empire was given to Mucianus who was aided by Vespasian's son, Domitian
Domitian
. Mucianus started off Vespasian's rule with tax reform that was to restore the empire's finances. After Vespasian
Vespasian
arrived in Rome in mid-70, Mucianus continued to press Vespasian
Vespasian
to collect as many taxes as possible.

Vespasian
Vespasian
and Mucianus renewed old taxes and instituted new ones, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials. The Latin proverb " Pecunia non olet " ("Money does not smell") may have been created when he had introduced a urine tax on public toilets.

In early 70 Vespasian
Vespasian
was still in Egypt, the source of Rome's grain supply, and had not yet left for Rome. According to Tacitus , his trip was delayed due to bad weather. Modern historians theorize that Vespasian
Vespasian
had been and was continuing to consolidate support from the Egyptians before departing. Stories of a divine Vespasian
Vespasian
healing people circulated in Egypt. During this period, protests erupted in Alexandria
Alexandria
over his new tax policies and grain shipments were held up. Vespasian
Vespasian
eventually restored order and grain shipments to Rome resumed.

In addition to the uprising in Egypt, unrest and civil war continued in the rest of the empire in 70. In Judea, rebellion had continued from 66. Vespasian's son, Titus
Titus
, finally subdued the rebellion with the capture of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and destruction of the Jewish Temple in 70. According to Eusebius , Vespasian
Vespasian
then ordered all descendants of the royal line of David
David
to be hunted down, causing the Jews
Jews
to be persecuted from province to province. Several modern historians have suggested that Vespasian, already having been told by Josephus
Josephus
that he was prophesied to become emperor whilst in Judaea, was probably reacting to other widely known Messianic prophecies circulating at the time, to suppress any rival claimants arising from that dynasty.

In January of the same year, an uprising occurred in Gaul
Gaul
and Germany, known as the second Batavian Rebellion
Batavian Rebellion
. This rebellion was headed by Gaius Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus . Sabinus, claiming he was descended from Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, declared himself Emperor of Gaul. The rebellion defeated and absorbed two Roman legions before it was suppressed by Vespasian's brother-in-law, Quintus Petillius Cerialis , by the end of 70.

ARRIVAL IN ROME AND GATHERING SUPPORT

In mid-70, Vespasian
Vespasian
first came to Rome. Vespasian
Vespasian
immediately embarked on a series of efforts to stay in power and prevent future revolts. He offered gifts to many in the military and much of the public. Soldiers loyal to Vitellius
Vitellius
were dismissed or punished. He also restructured the Senatorial and Equestrian orders, removing his enemies and adding his allies. Regional autonomy of Greek provinces was repealed. Additionally, he made significant attempts to control public perception of his rule.

RELATIONSHIP WITH BARBARIANS

In general Vespasian
Vespasian
enjoyed friendly relations with nearby barbarians, especially the Germanic and Dacian tribes, many of whom supported him politically in his bid for emperor.

PROPAGANDA CAMPAIGN

Roman aureus depicting Vespasian
Vespasian
as Emperor. The reverse shows the goddess Fortuna
Fortuna
.

Many modern historians note the increased amount of propaganda that appeared during Vespasian's reign. Stories of a supernatural emperor who was destined to rule circulated in the empire. Nearly one-third of all coins minted in Rome under Vespasian
Vespasian
celebrated military victory or peace. The word vindex was removed from coins so as not to remind the public of rebellious Vindex . Construction projects bore inscriptions praising Vespasian
Vespasian
and condemning previous emperors. A temple of peace was constructed in the forum as well. Vespasian approved histories written under his reign, ensuring biases against him were removed.

Vespasian
Vespasian
also gave financial rewards to writers. The ancient historians who lived through the period such as Tacitus , Suetonius , Josephus
Josephus
and Pliny the Elder speak suspiciously well of Vespasian while condemning the emperors who came before him. Tacitus admits that his status was elevated by Vespasian, Josephus
Josephus
identifies Vespasian
Vespasian
as a patron and savior, and Pliny dedicated his Natural Histories to Vespasian's son, Titus.

Those who spoke against Vespasian
Vespasian
were punished. A number of stoic philosophers were accused of corrupting students with inappropriate teachings and were expelled from Rome. Helvidius Priscus , a pro-republic philosopher, was executed for his teachings.

CONSTRUCTION AND CONSPIRACIES

Relief
Relief
depicting an animal sacrifice , from an altar of the Temple of Vespasianus in Pompeii
Pompeii

Between 71 and 79, much of Vespasian's reign is a mystery. Historians report that Vespasian
Vespasian
ordered the construction of several buildings in Rome. Additionally, he survived several conspiracies against him.

Vespasian
Vespasian
helped rebuild Rome after the civil war. He added the temple of Peace and the temple to the Deified Claudius. In 75, he erected a colossal statue of Apollo
Apollo
, begun under Nero
Nero
, and he dedicated a stage of the theater of Marcellus. He also began construction of the Colosseum
Colosseum
, using funds from the spoils of the Jewish Temple after the Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
.

Suetonius claims that Vespasian
Vespasian
was met with "constant conspiracies" against him. Only one conspiracy is known specifically, though. In 78 or 79, Eprius Marcellus and Aulus Caecina Alienus attempted to kill Vespasian. Why these men turned against Vespasian
Vespasian
is not known.

ROMAN EXPANSION IN BRITAIN (78–79)

Bust of Vespasian, c. 80 AD, Farnese Collection , Naples National Archaeological Museum

In 78, Agricola was sent to Britain , and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his way into what is now Scotland.

DEATH (79)

In his ninth consulship Vespasian
Vespasian
had a slight illness in Campania and, returning at once to Rome, he left for Aquae Cutiliae and the country around Reate , where he spent every summer; however, his illness worsened and he developed severe diarrhea .

Feeling death coming on, he reportedly called out "Vae, puto deus fio." ("Dear me, I think I'm becoming a god"). Then, according to Suetonius ' The Twelve Caesars
The Twelve Caesars
:

At last, being taken ill of a diarrhea, to such a degree that he was ready to faint, he cried out, "An emperor ought to die standing upright." In endeavouring to rise, he died in the hands of those who were helping him up, upon the eighth of the calends of July , being sixty-nine years, one month, and seven days old. — Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, "Life of Vespasian" §24

He was succeeded by his son Titus
Titus
.

LEGACY

Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum
Colosseum
, was begun by Vespasian
Vespasian
and finished by his son Titus.

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Vespasian
Vespasian
was known for his wit and his amiable manner alongside his commanding personality and military prowess. He could be liberal to impoverished Senators and equestrians and to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity. He was especially generous to men of letters and rhetors , several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as 1,000 gold pieces a year. Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favor. Pliny the Elder 's work, the Natural History , was written during Vespasian's reign, and dedicated to Vespasian's son Titus.

Vespasian
Vespasian
distrusted philosophers in general, viewing them as unmanly complainers who talked too much. It was the idle talk of philosophers, who liked to glorify the good times of the Republic , that provoked Vespasian
Vespasian
into reviving the obsolete penal laws against this profession as a precautionary measure. Only one, Helvidius Priscus , was put to death after he had repeatedly affronted the Emperor by studied insults which Vespasian
Vespasian
had initially tried to ignore. The philosopher Demetrius was banished to an island and when Vespasian heard Demetrius was still criticizing him, he sent the exiled philosopher the message: "You are doing everything to force me to kill you, but I do not slay a barking dog."

Vespasian
Vespasian
was indeed noted for mildness when dealing with political opposition. According to Suetonius, he bore the frank language of his friends, the quips of pleaders, and the impudence of the philosophers with the greatest patience. Although Licinius
Licinius
Mucianus, a man of questionable reputation as being the receiver in homosexual sex , treated the Emperor with scant respect, Vespasian
Vespasian
never criticised him publicly but privately uttered the words: "I, at least, am a man." He was also noted for his benefactions to the people. Much money was spent on public works and the restoration and beautification of Rome: a new forum, the Temple of Peace, the public baths and the great show piece, the Colosseum
Colosseum
.

Vespasian
Vespasian
debased the denarius during his reign, reducing the silver purity from 93.5% to 90% — the silver weight dropping from 2.97 grams to 2.87 grams.

In modern Romance languages , urinals are still named after him (for example, vespasiano in Italian, and vespasienne in French ), probably in reference to a tax he placed on urine collection (useful due to its ammoniac content; see Pay toilet ). Vespasian
Vespasian
appears as the king of Paltisca in Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
' Gesta Danorum , 2.1.7.

His last words are quoted in The Gambler , a 2014 remake of the 1974 James Caan
James Caan
film of the same name.

SEE ALSO

* Armazi stele of Vespasian * Flavia (gens) * Jewish Messiah claimants

NOTES

* ^ Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation : TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS IPA: * ^ Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was succeeded by his adopted son Augustus
Augustus
, but Caesar was not styled an emperor, nor was he Augustus's biological father.

REFERENCES

* ^ Levick, Vespasian, xxi & 4 * ^ Levick, Vespasian, 16. * ^ Levick, Vespasian, 29–38. * ^ Levick, Vespasian, 43. * ^ ODCW, Vespasian
Vespasian
(2007). * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 2 * ^ A B C D E F G Morgan (2006), 170–3 * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 3 * ^ A B C Levick, Vespasian. * ^ A History of Britain, Richard Dargie (2007), p. 20 * ^ A B Suetonius, Vesp. 4–5 * ^ Josephus, War of the Jews
Jews
6.5.4 * ^ Tacitus, Histories 5.13 * ^ Cassius Dio Roman History LXV.1 * ^ A B Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXVI.2 * ^ Tacitus, Histories IV * ^ Sullivan, Phillip, "A Note on Flavian Accession", The Classical Journal, 1953, p. 67-70 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.2 * ^ e.g., Paul Barnett, Jesus 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, "JEWS". * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.10 * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 8 * ^ A B C Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Vespasian 9 * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 8; Philostratus II, Life of Apollonius 5.41 * ^ McLynn, Frank (2010). Marcus Aurelius: A Life. Da Capo Press. p. 314. ISBN 9780306819162 . * ^ M. P. Charleswroth, "Flaviana", Journal of Roman Studies 27 (1938) 54–62 * ^ Jones, William "Some Thoughts on the Propaganda of Vespasian and Domitian", The Classical Journal, p. 251 * ^ Aqueduct and roads dedication speak of previous emperors' neglect, CIL vi, 1257(ILS 218) and 931 * ^ Josephus, Against Apion 9 * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 18 * ^ "Otho, Vitellius, and the Propaganda of Vespasian", The Classical Journal (1965), p. 267-269 * ^ Tacitus, Histories I.1; Josephus, The Life of Flavius Josephus 72; Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories, preface. * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.12 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.13 * ^ ALFÖLDY, GÉZA (1995). "Eine Bauinschrift Aus Dem Colosseum.". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 109: 195–226. * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 25 * ^ Suetonius, Life of Vespasian, 23:4 * ^ Suetonius at the Perseus Digital Library * ^ Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Vespasian
Vespasian
15 * ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book XVI, 13 * ^ Suetonius, Vesp. 13 * ^ Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate". Received from http://www.tulane.edu/~august/handouts/601cprin.htm. * ^ http://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/1027375/toilettes-publiques-ville-marie-autonettoyantes-vespasiennes-modernes-verifications-atmosphare

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vespasian". Encyclopædia Britannica . 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

SOURCES

Primary sources

* Tacitus, Histories, English translation * Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Vespasian, Latin text with English translation * Cassius Dio, Roman History, Books 64, 65 and 66, Latin text with English translation * Flavius Josephus, The War of the Jews, Books 2, 3 and 4, English translation

Secondary sources

* Lissner, I. (1958). "Power and Folly: The Story of the Caesars". Jonathan Cape Ltd., London. * Courtney, H. (1999). Vespasian
Vespasian
(Roman Imperial Biographies), Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16618-7 (hbk). ISBN 0-415-33866-2 (pbk.). * Morgan, G. (2006). 69 A. D. The Year of the Four Emperors. London: OUP. pp. 170–173. ISBN 9780195124682 . * Levick, B. (1999). Vespasian
Vespasian
(Roman Imperial Biographies). Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16618-7 . * Roberts, J. (ed.) (2007). 'Vespasian' in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press.

FURTHER READING

* Biography in De Imperatoribus Romanis. * Entry on Vespasian
Vespasian
in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith * Private collection of silver coins minted by Vespasian. * A. Simmons, The Cipherment of the Franks Casket. Vespasian
Vespasian
is depicted on the back side of the Franks Casket
Franks Casket
.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Vespasian