VALENTINIAN I (Latin : Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; 3 July 321
– 17 November 375), also known as VALENTINIAN THE GREAT, was
Roman emperor from 364 to 375. Upon becoming emperor he made his
Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern
provinces while Valentinian retained the west.
During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the
Quadi , and
Sarmatians . Most notable was his victory over
Alamanni in 367 at the
Battle of Solicinium . His brilliant
Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great
Conspiracy , a coordinated assault on
Roman Britain by
Picts , Scots ,
Saxons . Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct
campaigns across both the
Danube rivers. Valentinian rebuilt
and improved the fortifications along the frontiers, even building
fortresses in enemy territory.
Due to the successful nature of his reign and the rapid decline of
the empire after his death, he is often considered to be the "last
great western emperor". He founded the Valentinian
Dynasty , with his
Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of
* 1 Early life
* 2 Service under Constantius and Julian
* 3 Rise to power
* 4 Emperor
* 4.1 Campaigns in
Gaul and Germania
* 4.2 The
* 4.3 Revolt in Africa and crises on the
* 4.3.1 Death
* 5 Reputation
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Primary sources
* 8.2 Secondary accounts
* 9 External links
Solidus of emperor Valentinian I.
Valentinian was born in 321 at
Cibalae in southern
Croatia ). Valentinian and his younger brother Valens
were the sons of Gratianus Major , a prominent commander during the
reigns of emperors Constantine I and
Constans I . He and his brother
grew up on the family estate where they were educated in a variety of
subjects, including painting and sculpting.
Gratian the Elder was promoted to
Comes Africae in the late 320s or
early 330s, and the young Valentinian accompanied his father to
Gratian was soon accused of embezzlement and was
forced to retire. Valentinian joined the army in the late 330s and
later probably acquired the position of protector domesticus .
Gratian was later recalled during the early 340s and was made comes of
Britannia . After holding this post, Gratianus retired to the family
estate in Cibalae.
Constans I was assassinated by agents of the usurper
Magnentius , a commander in
Gaul proclaimed emperor by his soldiers.
Constantius II , older brother of
Constans and emperor in the East,
promptly set forth towards
Magnentius with a large army. The
following year the two emperors met in Pannonia. The ensuing Battle of
Mursa Major resulted in a costly victory for Constantius. Two years
later he defeated
Magnentius again in southern
Gaul at the Battle of
Mons Seleucus . Magnentius, now realizing the futility of continuing
his revolt, committed suicide in August that year; making Constantius
sole ruler of the empire. It was around this time that Constantius
confiscated Gratianus' property, for supposedly showing hospitality to
Magnentius when he was in Pannonia. Despite his father's fall from
favor, Valentinian does not seem to have been adversely affected at
this time, making it unlikely he ever fought for the usurper. It is
known that Valentinian was in the region during the conflict, but what
involvement he had in the war, if any, is unknown.
SERVICE UNDER CONSTANTIUS AND JULIAN
The conflict between
Magnentius and Constantius had allowed the
Franks to take advantage of the confusion and cross the
Rhine , attacking several important settlements and fortifications.
In 355, after deposing his cousin Gallus but still feeling the crises
of the empire too much for one emperor to handle, Constantius raised
his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar. With the situation in Gaul
rapidly deteriorating, Julian was made at least nominal commander of
one of the two main armies in Gaul,
Barbatio being commander of the
other. Constantius devised a strategy where Julian and
operate in a pincer movement against the Alamanni. However, a band of
Alamanni slipped past Julian and
Barbatio and attacked
). Julian sent the tribunes Valentinian and
Bainobaudes to watch the
road the raiders would have to return by. However, their efforts were
Barbatio and his tribune Cella . The Alamann king
Chnodomarius took advantage of the situation and attacked the Romans
in detail, inflicting heavy losses.
Barbatio complained to
Constantius and the debacle was blamed on Valentinian and Bainobaudes,
who were cashiered from the army.
With his career in ruins, Valentinian returned to his new family
Sirmium . Two years later his first son
Gratian was born by
Marina Severa . Valentinian's actions become uncertain
around this time, but he may have been exiled for refusing to do
sacrifice to Julian.
RISE TO POWER
At the news of Julian's death on a campaign against the Sassanids,
the army hastily declared a commander, Jovian , emperor. The army
still found itself beleaguered by Persian attacks, forcing Jovian to
accept humiliating peace terms. Jovian's authority within the empire
was still insecure, so he sent a notary Procopius and the tribune
Memoridus west to announce his accession. During Jovian's reign
Valentinian was promoted to tribune of a Scutarii (elite infantry)
regiment, and was dispatched to Ancyra. Jovian's rule would be short
– only eight months – and before he could even consolidate his
Constantinople he died en route between
Ancyra and Nicaea
. His death was attributed to either assassination by poisoning or
accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Jovian is remembered mostly for
restoring Christianity to its previous favored status under
Constantine and his sons.
The army marched to Nicaea, and a meeting of civil and military
officials was convened to choose a new emperor. Two names were
proposed: Aequitius, a tribune of the first Scutarii, and Januarius, a
relative of Jovian's in charge of military supplies in Illyricum. Both
were rejected; Aequitius as too rough and boorish, Januarius because
he was too far away. As a man well qualified and at hand, the
assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian and sent messengers to inform
him in Ancyra.
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Valentinian accepted the acclamation on 26 February 364. As he
prepared to make his accession speech the soldiers threatened to riot,
apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian
reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. According to
Ammianus the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor
and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. To further
prevent a succession crisis he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. His
decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move
to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern
portion of the Empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured
the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would
remain in the east to protect their interests.
Valentinian selected his brother
Valens as co-
Constantinople on 28 March 364. This was done over the objections of
Dagalaifus, the magister equitum . Ammianus makes it clear that Valens
was subordinate to his brother. The remainder of 364 was spent
delegating administrative duties and military commands. Valentinian
retained the services of Dagalaifus and promoted Aequitius to Comes
Valens was given the
Prefecture of Oriens , governed by
Salutius . Valentinian gained control of Italy ,
Gaul , Africa
, and Illyricum .
Valens resided in Constantinople, while
Valentinian’s court was at Milan.
CAMPAIGNS IN GAUL AND GERMANIA
The emperor depicted in the
Colossus of Barletta
Colossus of Barletta could very well
be Valentinian I.
In 365 the
Alamanni crossed the
Rhine and invaded Gaul.
Simultaneously, Procopius – the last scion of the Constantinian
dynasty – began his revolt against
Valens in the east. According to
Ammianus, Valentinian received news of both the
Procopius' revolt on 1 November while on his way to
Paris . He
initially sent Dagalaifus to fight the
Alamanni while he himself made
preparations to march east and help Valens. After receiving counsel
from his court and deputations from the leading Gallic cities begging
him to stay and protect Gaul, he decided to remain in
Gaul and fight
the Alamanni. Valentinian advanced to
Durocortorum and sent two
generals, Charietto and Severianus, against the invaders. Both
generals were promptly defeated and killed. In 366, Dagalaifus was
sent against the
Alamanni but he was also ineffective. Late in the
campaigning season Dagalaifus was replaced by Jovinus, a general from
the court of Valentinian. After several battles Jovinus pushed the
Alamanni out of
Gaul and was awarded the consulate the following year
for his efforts.
In early 367 Valentinian was distracted from launching a punitive
expedition against the
Alamanni due to crises in Britain and northern
Alamanni promptly re-crossed the
Rhine and plundered
Moguntiacum . Valentinian succeeded in arranging the assassination of
Vithicabius, an Alamannic leader, but Valentinian was more determined
to bring the
Alamanni under Roman hegemony. Valentinian spent the
entire winter of 367 gathering a massive army for a spring offensive.
He summoned the
Comes Italiae Sebastianus, with the Italian and
Illyrian legions, to join Jovinus and Severus, the magister peditum .
In the spring of 368 Valentinian, his eight-year-old son
the army crossed the
Rhine and Main rivers into Alamannic territory.
They did not encounter any resistance initially – burning any
dwellings or food stores they found along the way. Finally,
Valentinian fought the
Alamanni in the
Battle of Solicinium ; the
Romans were victorious but suffered heavy casualties. A temporary
peace was reached and Valentinian returned to
Trier for the winter.
During 369, Valentinian ordered new defensive works to be constructed
and old structures refurbished along the length of the Rhine’s west
bank. Boldly, he ordered the construction of a fortress across the
Rhine in the mountains near modern
Heidelberg . The
envoys to protest, but they were dismissed. The
Alamanni attacked the
fortress while it was still under construction and destroyed it.
In 370 the
Saxons renewed their attacks on northern Gaul. Nannienus,
the comes in charge of the troops in northern Gaul, urged Severus to
come to his aid. After several modest successes, a truce was called
Saxons handed over to the Romans young men fit for duty in the
Roman military – in exchange for free passage back to their
homeland. The Romans ambushed them and destroyed the entire invading
Valentinian meanwhile tried to persuade the
Burgundians – bitter
enemies of the
Alamanni – to attack
Macrian , a powerful Alamannic
chieftain. If the
Alamanni tried to flee, Valentinian would be waiting
for them with his army. Negotiations with the
Burgundians broke down
when Valentinian, in his usual high-handed manner, refused to meet
with the Burgundian envoys and personally assure them of Roman
support. Nevertheless, rumors of a Roman alliance with the Burgundians
did have the effect of scattering the
Alamanni through fear of an
imminent attack from their enemies. This event allowed the magister
equitum Theodosius to attack the
Alamanni through Raetia – taking
many Alamannic prisoners. These captured
Alamanni were settled in the
Po river valley in Italy, where they were still settled at the time
Ammianus wrote his history.
Valentinian campaigned unsuccessfully for four more years to defeat
Macrian who in 372 barely escaped capture by Theodosius. Meanwhile,
Valentinian continued to recruit heavily from
Alamanni friendly to
Rome. He sent the Alamannic king Fraomarius, along with Alamannic
troops commanded by Bitheridius and Hortarius, to Britain in order to
replenish troops there. Valentinian’s Alamannic campaigns, however,
were hampered by troubles first in Africa, and later on the Danube
river. In 374 Valentinian was forced to make peace with Macrian
because the Emperor's presence was needed to counter an invasion of
Illyricum by the
Quadi and Sarmatians.
THE GREAT CONSPIRACY
In 367, Valentinian received reports from Britain that a combined
Attacotti and Scots had killed the
Fullofaudes . At the same
time, Frankish and Saxon forces were raiding the coastal areas of
northern Gaul. The empire was in the midst of the
Great Conspiracy –
and was in danger of losing control of Britain altogether. Valentinian
set out for Britain, sending
Comes domesticorum Severus ahead of him
to investigate. Severus was not able to correct the situation and
returned to Gaul, meeting Valentinian at
Samarobriva . Valentinian
then sent Jovinus to Britain and promoted Severus to magister peditum.
It was at this time that Valentinian fell ill and a battle for
succession broke out between Severus, a representative of the army,
and Rusticus Julianus, magister memoriae and a representative of the
Gallic nobility. Valentinian soon recovered however and appointed his
Gratian as his co-
Augustus in the west. Ammianus remarks that such
an action was unprecedented. Jovinus quickly returned saying that he
needed more men to take care of the situation. In 368 Valentinian
appointed Theodosius as the new
Comes Britanniarum with instructions
to return Britain to Roman rule. Meanwhile, Severus and Jovinus were
to accompany the emperor on his campaign against the Alamanni.
Theodosius arrived in 368 with the Batavi ,
Heruli , Jovii and
Victores legions. Landing at
Rutupiæ , he proceeded to Londinium
restoring order to southern Britain. Later, he rallied the remaining
garrison which was originally stationed in Britain; it was apparent
the units had lost their cohesiveness when
Fullofaudes and Nectaridus
had been defeated. Theodosius sent for Civilis to be installed as the
new vicarius of the diocese and
Dulcitius as an additional general. In
369, Theodosius set about reconquering the areas north of
putting down the revolt of Valentinus , the brother-in-law of a
vicarius Maximinus . Subsequently, Theodosius restored the rest of
Britain to the empire and rebuilt many fortifications – renaming
northern Britain 'Valentia '. After his return in 369, Valentinian
promoted Theodosius to magister equitum in place of Jovinus.
REVOLT IN AFRICA AND CRISES ON THE DANUBE
Silver missorium (heavily worn) believed to depict Valentinian
I. The armoured and haloed emperor is flanked by infantry soldiers, he
holds a labarum in one hand and an orb surmounted by a figure of
Victory in the other, ca. 364-375
In 372, the rebellion of Firmus broke out in the still-devastated
African provinces. This rebellion was driven by the corruption of the
comes Romanus. Romanus took sides in the murderous disputes among the
legitimate and illegitimate children of Nubel, a Moorish prince and
leading Roman client in Africa. Resentment of Romanus' peculations and
his failure to defend the province from desert nomads caused some of
the provincials to revolt. Valentinian sent in Theodosius to restore
imperial control. Over the following two years Theodosius uncovered
Romanus' crimes, arrested him and his supporters, and defeated Firmus.
In 373, hostilities erupted with the
Quadi , a group of
Germanic-speaking people living on the upper Danube. Like the
Quadi were outraged that Valentinian was building
fortifications in their territory. They complained and sent
deputations that were ignored by the magister armorum per Illyricum
Aequitius. However, by 373 the construction of these forts was behind
schedule. Maximinus, now praetorian prefect of Gaul, arranged with
Aequitius to promote his son Marcellianus and put him in charge of
finishing the project. The protests of Quadic leaders continued to
delay the project, and in a fit of frustration Marcellianus murdered
the Quadic king Gabinius at a banquet ostensibly arranged for peaceful
negotiations. This roused the
Quadi to war; along with their allies
the Sarmatians. During the fall, they crossed the
Danube and began
ravaging the province of
Pannonia Valeria . The marauders could not
penetrate the fortified cities, but they heavily damaged the
unprotected countryside. Two legions were sent in but failed to
coordinate and were routed by the Sarmatians. Meanwhile, another group
Moesia , but were driven back by the son of
Theodosius, Dux Moesiae and later emperor Theodosius .
Valentinian did not receive news of these crises until late 374. The
following spring he set out from
Trier and arrived at
which was deserted. There he was met by Sarmatian envoys who begged
forgiveness for their actions. Valentinian replied that he would
investigate what had happened and act accordingly. Valentinian ignored
Marcellianus’ treacherous actions and decided to punish the Quadi.
He was accompanied by Sebastianus and Merobaudes , and spent the
summer months preparing for the campaign. In the fall he crossed the
Quadi territory. After pillaging
without opposition, he retired to Savaria to winter quarters.
Without waiting for the spring he decided to continue campaigning and
moved from Savaria to
Brigetio . Once he arrived on 17 November, he
received a deputation from the Quadi. In return for supplying fresh
recruits to the Roman army, the
Quadi were to be allowed to leave in
peace. However, before the envoys left they were granted an audience
with Valentinian. The envoys insisted that the conflict was caused by
the building of Roman forts in their lands; furthermore individual
Quadi were not necessarily bound to the rule of the chiefs
who had made treaties with the Romans – and thus might attack the
Romans at any time. The attitude of the envoys so enraged Valentinian
that he suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily
yelling at them, provoking his death on November 17, 375.
A.H.M. Jones writes that although
Valentinian I was "less of a boor"
than his chief rival for election to the imperial throne, "he was of a
violent and brutal temper, and not only uncultivated himself, but
hostile to cultivated persons", as Ammianus tells us, 'he hated the
well-dressed and educated and wealthy and well-born'. He was, however,
an able soldier and a conscientious administrator, and took an
interest in the welfare of the humbler classes, from which his father
had risen. Unfortunately his good intentions were often frustrated by
a bad choice of ministers, and an obstinate belief in their merits
despite all evidence to the contrary." According to the Encyclopædia
Britannica 1911 , he was a founder of schools, and provided medical
attendance for the poor of
Rome , by appointing a physician for each
of the fourteen districts of the city.
Valentinian was a
Christian but permitted liberal religious freedom
to all his subjects, proscribing only some forms of rituals such as
particular types of sacrifices, and banning the practice of magic.
Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical (excepting, of
course, his own excesses), Valentinian steadily set his face, even
against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief
flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself
in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of
witchcraft, some kinds of fortune-telling or magical practices."
Socrates Scholasticus gives an interesting account in his Historia
Ecclesiastica of Valentinian's marriages, that has inspired some to
call this emperor polygamous . According to the text: the empress
Justina "became known to
Marina Severa , wife of the emperor
Valentinian, and had frequent dialogue with the empress, until their
intimacy at length grew to such an extent that they were accustomed to
bathe together. When Severa saw Justina in the bath she was greatly
struck with the beauty of the virgin, and spoke of her to the emperor;
saying that the daughter of Justus was so lovely a creature, and
possessed of such symmetry of form, that she herself, though a woman,
was altogether charmed with her. The emperor, treasuring this
description by his wife in his own mind, considered with himself how
he could espouse Justina, without repudiating Severa, as she had borne
him Gratian, whom he had created
Augustus a little while before. He
accordingly framed a law, and caused it to be published throughout all
the cities, by which any man was permitted to have two lawful wives.
The law was promulgated and he married Justina, by whom he had
Valentinian the younger." (Book IV, chapt. 31.) This story is only
known to Socrates. There is no trace of any edict allowing polygamy in
the laws passed by Valentinian I, his predecessors or his successors.
This practice is unknown in all other sources of Classical Antiquity.
Valentinian I may have divorced Severa according to Roman Law, which
allowed for divorce (see Women in Ancient
Rome ). But since divorce
was not acknowledged by Christians, Socrates contemptuously describes
him as a bigamist. It is also possible that Socrates, who was a
Novatianist attempted to accuse Justina, who was an
Arianist , of
fornication, a common aspersion against other cults. Gibbon maintains
that the marriages of Valentinian were conducted successively.
According to the Antique sources of
John Malalas , the Chronicon
John of Nikiu the empress Severa was banished by
Valentinian I for conducting an illegal transaction, before he
consorted with Justina. Barnes believes this story to be an attempt to
justify the divorce of
Valentinian I without accusing the emperor.
Byzantine Empire portal
List of Byzantine emperors
* ^ In
Classical Latin , Valentinian's name would read as FLAVIVS
* ^ Philip Schaff, A Select Library of the Nicene and post Nicene
Fathers of the
Christian Church, Volume 3. Eerdmans Publishing,
University of California, 1956. p 146
* ^ Edward Kenneth Rand, Founders of the Middle Ages. Dover
Publications, University of Michigan, 1957. p 76
* ^ Michael Whitby, Mary Whitby,
Chronicon Paschale 284–628 AD.
Liverpool University Press, University of Michigan, 1989. p 51, 53
* ^ Gilbert Dagron, Emperor and priest: the imperial office in
Byzantium. Cambridge University Press, 2003. p 26
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXX.6.6
* ^ Lenski, Noel Emmanuel (2002). Failure of empire:
Valens and the
Roman state in the fourth century A.D. University of California Press.
p. 56. ISBN 978-0-520-23332-4 . Retrieved 12 October 2010.
* ^ Tomlin, R. (1973). The Emperor Valentinian I. p. 2.
* ^ Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus. 45.5
* ^ A B C D E F G Tomlin, R. (1973). The Emperor Valentinian I. p.
* ^ A B Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXX.7.3
* ^ Canduci, pg. 131
* ^ Zosimus, New History II.60
* ^ Zonaras , Extracts of History XIII.8.5–13
* ^ Eutropius , Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.11-2
* ^ Eutropius , Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.12
* ^ A B C D E F Tomlin, R. (1973). The Emperor Valentinian I. p.
* ^ Tomlin, R. (1973). The Emperor Valentinian I. p. 14.
* ^ Sources give different commands Valentinian held at the time
and vastly different places of exile:
Philostorgius says Constantius
exiled Valentinian to Thebes in Egypt , Sosomen to
Melitene in Armenia
Paschal Chronicle to
Thrace , and
Theodoret to "a
distant fort". Tomlin, p. 14.
* ^ A B Tomlin, R. (1973). The Emperor Valentinian I. p. 16.
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVI.1.4
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVI.1.5
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVI.5.9
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVI.5.12
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVI.5.13
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.1.2
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.1.4
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.2.1
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.2.10
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.10.15
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.10.16
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVII.10.17
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVIII.2.1
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVIII.2.2
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXVIII.2.8
* ^ Rike, R.L., Apex Omnium: Religion in the Res Gestae of Ammianus
(1987), pg. 91; Jones, Martindale and Morris, The Prosopography of the
Roman Empire Vol. I (1971), pgs. 615-616
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXX.5.13
* ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXX.5.14
* ^ Gibbon, Edward (2012). The History of the Decline and Fall of
the Roman Empire: Edited in Seven Volumes with Introduction, Notes,
Appendices, and Index. Cambridge University Press. p. 66. ISBN
* ^ A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social,
Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University, 1986), p. 139.
* ^ Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume
I, Chap. XXV (Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1952), p. 388.
* ^ Translated by A.C. Zenos. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers,
Second Series, Vol. 2. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.
Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890.)
* ^ Frier, Bruce W. and McGinn, Thomas A.J.: A Casebook on Roman
Family Law (American Philological Association) OUP USA 2003. Part D,
The End of Marriage
* ^ Matthew 19, 4–6.
* ^ Edward Gibbon: The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire, vol.III, p. 66, Cosimo 2008
* ^ Timothy Barnes, "
Ammianus Marcellinus and the Representation of
Historical Reality" (1998), pages 123–125
* Ammianus Marcellinus. Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt. W.
Seyfarth, ed. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1978
* Consularia Constantinopolitana. T. Mommsen ed., Monumenta
Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi. Volume 9. Berlin, 1892.
* Codex Theodosianus. T. Mommsen, P.M. Meyer, and P. Krüger, eds.
Theodosiani libri XVI cum constitutionibus Sirmondianis et leges
novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes (2 vols.). Berlin, 1905.
* Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Vol. 6. T. Mommsen, ed. Berlin,
* Epitome de Caesaribus. F.R. Pichlmayr, ed. Leipzig, 1961.
* Jerome. Chronicon. R. Helm, ed., in Malcolm Drew Donalson, A
Translation of Jerome’s Chronicon with Historical Commentary.
Lewiston, NY, 1996.
* Orosius. Adversus paganos historiarum libri septem. Z.
Zangemeister, ed. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum 5.
* Socrates. Historia Ecclesiastica. J.P. Migne ed., Patrologia
Graeca 67. Paris, 1864.
* Sozomen. Historia Ecclesiastica. J.P. Migne ed., Patrologia Graeca
67. Paris, 1864.
* Theoderet. Historia Ecclesiastica. J.P. Migne ed., Patrologia
Graeca 82. Paris, 1864.
* Zosimus. Historia nova. François Paschoud, ed. and trans.,
Zosime: Histoire Nouvelle (3 vols.). Paris, 1971–89.
* Ammian, Books 26‑30 Uchicago.edu. English summaries. Main text
* De Imperatoribus Romanis English text.
* Canduci, Alexander (2010). Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of
Rome's Immortal Emperors. Pier 9. ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8
Edward Gibbon , The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776.
* M. Grant, The Roman Emperors, 1985.
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Valentinian I.".
Encyclopædia Britannica . 27 (11th