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Emperor
Emperor
Monmu (文武天皇, Monmu-tennō, 683–707) was the 42nd emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2] Monmu's reign spanned the years from 697 through 707.[3]

Contents

1 Traditional narrative

1.1 Events of Monmu's life 1.2 Kugyō

2 Eras of Monmu's reign

2.1 Non-nengō period

3 Consorts and children 4 Ancestry 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Traditional narrative[edit] Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Throne, his personal name (imina)[4] was Karu-shinnō.[5] He was a grandson of Emperor
Emperor
Tenmu and Empress Jitō. He was the second son of Prince Kusakabe. Monmu's mother was Princess Abe, a daughter of Emperor
Emperor
Tenji. Monmu's mother would later accede to the throne herself, and she would be known as Empress Gemmei.[6] Events of Monmu's life[edit] Karu-shinnō was only six years old when his father, Crown Prince Kusakabe, died.

697: In the 10th year of Jitō-tennō 's reign (持統天皇十年), the empress abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by a grandson of Emperor
Emperor
Tenmu. Shortly thereafter, Emperor
Emperor
Monmu is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).[7]

Emperor
Emperor
Monmu ruled until his death in 707, at which point he was succeeded by his mother, Empress Genmei, who was also his first cousin once removed and his first cousin twice removed. He left a young son by Fujiwara no Miyako, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito: Obito no miko (Prince Obito), who eventually became Emperor
Emperor
Shōmu. Emperor
Emperor
Monmu's reign lasted 10 years. He died at the age of 25.[8] The actual site of Monmu's grave is known.[1] This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto
Shinto
shrine (misasagi) at Nara. The Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
designates this location as Monmu's mausoleum. It is formally named Hinokuma no Ako no oka no e no misasagi.[9] Kugyō[edit] Kugyō
Kugyō
(公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Monmu's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
included:

Daijō-daijin, Osakabe-shinnō.[5] Sadaijin Udaijin Naidaijin, Nakatomi Kamako no Muraji.[10] Dainagon, Fujiwara Fuhito.[11]

Eras of Monmu's reign[edit] Conventional modern scholarship seems to have determined that the years of Monmu's reign are encompassed within more than one era name or nengō.[12]

Taihō (era)
Taihō (era)
(701–704) Keiun
Keiun
(704–708)

Non-nengō period[edit] The initial years of Monmu's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō.[13] The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Monmu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701.

See Japanese era name – "Non-nengo periods" See Monmu period
Monmu period
(697–701).

In this context, Brown and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taiho time-frame:

"The eras that fell in this reign were: (1) the remaining seven years of Shuchō [(686+7=692?)]; and (2) Taika, which was four years long [695–698]. (The first year of this era was kinoto-hitsuji [695].) ... In the third year of the Taka era [697], Empress Jitō
Empress Jitō
yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."[5]

Consorts and children[edit] Bunin: Fujiwara no Miyako (藤原宮子) (d. 754), daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito

Prince Obito (首皇子) ( Emperor
Emperor
Shōmu) (701–756)

Hin: Ki no Kamado-no-iratsume (紀竃門娘) Hin: Ishikawa no Tone-no-iratsume (石川刀子娘)

Prince Hironari (広成皇子) Prince Hiroyo (広世皇子)

Ancestry[edit] [14]

Ancestors of Emperor
Emperor
Monmu

16. Prince Oshisakanohikohito-no-Ōe

8. Emperor
Emperor
Jomei (593–641)

17. Princess Nukate-hime (c. 570–664)

4. Emperor
Emperor
Tenmu (c. 631–686)

18. Prince Chinu

9. Empress Kōgyoku/Empress Saimei (594–661)

19. Princess Kibitsu-hime (d. 643)

2. Crown Prince Kusakabe (662–689)

20. Emperor
Emperor
Jomei (593–641)

10. Emperor
Emperor
Tenji (626–672)

21. Empress Kōgyoku/Empress Saimei (594–661)

5. Empress Jitō
Empress Jitō
(645–703)

22. Soga no Kurayamada no Ishikawa no Maro
Soga no Kurayamada no Ishikawa no Maro
(d. c. 649)

11. Soga no Ochi-no-iratsume (d. c. 651)

1. Emperor
Emperor
Monmu

6. Emperor
Emperor
Tenji (626–672)

3. Empress Genmei
Empress Genmei
(660–721)

28. Soga no Kuramaro

14. Soga no Kurayamada no Ishikawa no Maro
Soga no Kurayamada no Ishikawa no Maro
(d. c. 649)

7. Mei no Iratsume

See also[edit]

Emperor
Emperor
of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult

Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom

^ a b Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
(Kunaichō): 文武天皇 (42); retrieved 2013-8-22. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 55. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 60–63, p. 63, at Google BooksBrown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 270–271; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 137–140. ^ Brown, pp. 264; prior to Emperor
Emperor
Jomei, the personal names of the emperors were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign. ^ a b c Brown, p. 270. ^ Varley, p. 138. ^ Titsingh, p. 60; Brown, p. 270; Varley, pp. 44, 137–138; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor
Emperor
Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fishimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor
Emperor
Go-Murakami. ^ Varley, p. 140. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420. ^ Brown, p. 266. ^ Brown, p. 271. ^ Titsingh, pp. 60–63; Brown, p. 271. ^ Titsingh, p. 60. ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 27 January 2018.  (in Japanese)

References[edit]

Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial
Memorial
Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842

Regnal titles

Preceded by Empress Jitō Emperor
Emperor
of Japan: Monmu 697–707 Succeeded by Empress Genmei

v t e

Japanese monarchs

Italics mark imperial consort and regent Jingū, who is not traditionally listed. Years given as CE / AD

Legendary

Jimmu Suizei Annei Itoku Kōshō Kōan Kōrei Kōgen Kaika Sujin Suinin Keikō Seimu Chūai Jingū

Kofun

Ōjin Nintoku Richū Hanzei Ingyō Ankō Yūryaku Seinei Kenzō Ninken Buretsu Keitai Ankan Senka

Asuka

552–710

Kinmei Bidatsu Yōmei Sushun Suiko Jomei Kōgyoku Kōtoku Saimei Tenji Kōbun Tenmu Jitō Monmu Genmei

Nara

710–794

Genmei Genshō Shōmu Kōken Junnin Shōtoku Kōnin Kanmu

Heian

794–1185

Kanmu Heizei Saga Junna Ninmyō Montoku Seiwa Yōzei Kōkō Uda Daigo Suzaku Murakami Reizei En'yū Kazan Ichijō Sanjō Go-Ichijō Go-Suzaku Go-Reizei Go-Sanjō Shirakawa Horikawa Toba Sutoku Konoe Go-Shirakawa Nijō Rokujō Takakura Antoku Go-Toba

Kamakura

1185–1333

Tsuchimikado Juntoku Chūkyō Go-Horikawa Shijō Go-Saga Go-Fukakusa Kameyama Go-Uda Fushimi Go-Fushimi Go-Nijō Hanazono Go-Daigo

Northern Court

1333–1392

Kōgon Kōmyō Sukō Go-Kōgon Go-En'yū Go-Komatsu

Muromachi

1333–1573

Go-Murakami Chōkei Go-Kameyama Go-Komatsu Shōkō Go-Hanazono Go-Tsuchimikado Go-Kashiwabara Go-Nara Ōgimachi

Azuchi-Momoyama

1573–1603

Ōgimachi Go-Yōzei

Edo

1603–1868

Go-Yōzei Go-Mizunoo Meishō Go-Kōmyō Go-Sai Reigen Higashiyama Nakamikado Sakuramachi Momozono Go-Sakuramachi Go-Momozono Kōkaku Ninkō Kōmei Meiji

Empire of Japan

1868–1947

Meiji Taishō Shōwa

Japan
Japan
(Post-war Japan)

1947–present

Shōwa Akihito
Akihito
(Heisei period; Reigning Emperor)

Imperial family tree Imperial house

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 408302

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