EMPEROR KANMU (桓武天皇, _Kanmu-tennō_, 737–806) was the 50th emperor of Japan , according to the traditional order of succession . Kanmu reigned from 781 to 806.
* 1 Traditional narrative
* 1.1 Events of Kanmu\'s life * 1.2 Eras of Kanmu\'s reign
* 2 Politics * 3 Kugyō * 4 Consorts and children * 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References
Kanmu's personal name (_imina _) was Yamabe (山部). He was the eldest son of Prince Shirakabe (later known as Emperor Kōnin ), and was born prior to Shirakabe's ascension to the throne. According to the _ Shoku Nihongi _ (続日本紀), Yamabe's mother, Yamato no Niigasa (later called Takano no Niigasa ), was a 10th generation descendant of Muryeong of Baekje .
After his father became emperor, Kanmu's half-brother, Prince Osabe
was appointed to the rank of crown prince . His mother was Princess
Inoe, a daughter of
Emperor Shōmu ; but instead of Osabe, it was
Kanmu who was later named to succeed their father. After Inoe and
Prince Osabe were confined and then died in 775, Osabe's sister –
Princess Sakahito – became Kanmu's wife. Later,
when he ascended to the throne in 781, Kanmu appointed his young
Prince Sawara , whose mother was Takano no Niigasa, as crown
prince. Hikami no Kawatsugu, a son of
Kanmu had 16 empresses and consorts, and 32 imperial sons and
daughters. Among them, three sons would eventually ascend to the
Emperor Heizei ,
Emperor Saga and
Emperor Junna .
Some of his descendants (known as the _Kanmu Taira_ or _Kanmu Heishi_)
took the Taira hereditary clan title, and in later generations became
prominent warriors. Examples include
Taira no Masakado , Taira no
Kiyomori , and (with a further surname expansion) the
Kanmu is traditionally venerated at his tomb; the Imperial Household Agency designates _Kashiwabara no Misasagi_ (柏原陵, Kashiwabara Imperial Mausoleum), in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto , as the location of Kanmu's mausoleum .
EVENTS OF KANMU\'S LIFE
Kanmu was an active emperor who attempted to consolidate government hierarchies and functions. Kanmu appointed Sakanoue no Tamuramaro (758–811) to lead a military expedition against the Emishi .
* 737: Kanmu was born.
* 773: Received the title of crown prince.
* APRIL 30, 781 (_Ten\'ō 1, 3rd day of the 4th month_ ): In the
11th year of Kōnin's reign, he abdicated; and the succession was
received by his son Kanmu. Shortly thereafter,
ERAS OF KANMU\'S REIGN
The years of Kanmu's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name (_nengō_).
* _Ten\'ō _ (781–82) * _ Enryaku _ (782–806)
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Earlier Imperial sponsorship of
Meanwhile, Kanmu's armies were pushing back the boundaries of his
empire. This led to an uprising, and in 789 a substantial defeat for
Kanmu's troops. Also in 789 there was a severe drought and
famine—the streets of the capital were clogged with the sick, and
people avoiding being drafted into the military, or into forced
labour. Many disguised themselves as Buddhist priests for the same
reason. Then in 794 Kanmu suddenly shifted the capital again, this
time to Heian-kyō, which is modern day
Politically Kanmu shored up his rule by changing the syllabus of the
university. Confucian ideology still provided the _raison d'être_ for
the Imperial government. In 784 Kanmu authorised the teaching of a new
course based on the _
Spring and Autumn Annals
Kanmu also sponsored the travels of the monks
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Kanmu's reign, this apex of the _ Daijō-kan included:_
* _ Sadaijin _, Fujiwara no Uona (藤原魚名), 781–782. * _Sadaijin_, Fujiwara no Tamaro (藤原田麿), 783. * _ Udaijin _, Ōnakatomi no Kiyomaro (大中臣清麿), 771–781 * _Udaijin_, Fujiwara no Tamaro (藤原田麿), 782–783. * _Udaijin_, Fujiwara no Korekimi (藤原是公), 783–789. * _Udaijin_, Fujiwara no Tsuginawa (藤原継縄),790–796. * _Udaijin_, Miwa ōkimi or Miwa oh (神王), 798–806 * _Udaijin_, Fujiwara no Uchimaro (藤原内麻呂) (756–812), 806–812. * _ Dainagon _
When the daughter of a _chūnagon _ became the favored consort of the Crown Prince Ate (later known as Heizei_-tennō_), her father's power and position in court was affected. Kanmu disapproved of Fujiwara no Kusuko (藤原薬子, d. 810), daughter of Fujiwara no Tadanushi ; and Kanmu had her removed from his son's household.
* _ Chūnagon _, Fujiwara no Tadanushi
CONSORTS AND CHILDREN
For more details on terms related to imperial consorts, see Kōkyū § consorts .
Emperor Kanmu's Imperial family included 36 children.
* Imperial Prince Ate (安殿親王) ( Emperor Heizei ) (774–824) * Imperial Prince Kamino (賀美能親王/神野親王) (Emperor Saga ) (786–842) * Imperial Princess Koshi (高志内親王) (789–809), married to Prince Ōtomo ( Emperor Junna later)
_Bunin_: Fujiwara no Tabiko (藤原旅子) (759–788), daughter of Fujiwara no Momokawa
* Imperial Prince Ōtomo (大伴親王) ( Emperor Junna ) (786–840)
_Bunin_: Fujiwara no Yoshiko (藤原吉子) (?–807), daughter of Fujiwara no Korekimi
* Imperial Prince Iyo (伊予親王) (?–807)
_Bunin_: Tajihi no Mamune (多治比真宗) (769–823), daughter of Tajihi no Nagano (多治比長野)
* Imperial Prince Kazurahara (葛原親王) (786–853) * Imperial Princess Inaba (因幡内親王) (?–824) * Imperial Princess Anou (安濃内親王) (?–841) * Imperial Prince Sami (佐味親王) (793–825) * Imperial Prince Kaya (賀陽親王) (794–871) * Imperial Prince Ōno (大野親王/大徳親王) (798–803)
_Bunin_: Fujiwara no Oguso (藤原小屎), daughter of Fujiwara no Washitori
* Imperial Prince Manta (万多親王) (788–830)
_Nyōgo_: Tachibana no Miiko (橘御井子), daughter of Tachibana no Irii (橘入居)
* Imperial Princess Sugawara (菅原内親王) (?–825) * Imperial Princess Kara (賀楽内親王) (?–874)
_Nyōgo_: Fujiwara no Nakako (藤原仲子), daughter of Fujiwara no Ieyori (藤原家依)
_Nyōgo_: Fujiwara no _Shōshi_ (藤原正子), daughter of Fujiwara no Kiyonari (藤原清成)
_Nyōgo_: Ki no Otoio (紀乙魚) (?–840)
_Nyōgo_: Kudara no Kyōhō (百済教法) (?–840), daughter of Kudara no Shuntetsu (百済俊哲)
Court lady: Fujiwara no Kamiko (藤原上子), daughter of Fujiwara no Oguromaro (藤原小黒麻呂)
* Imperial Princess Shigeno (滋野内親王) (?–857)
Court lady: Tachibana no Tsuneko (橘常子) (788–817), daughter of Tachibana no Shimadamaro (橘島田麻呂)
* Imperial Princess Ōyake (大宅内親王) (?–849), married to Heizei
Court lady: Sakanoue no Matako (坂上全子) (?–790), daughter of Sakanoue no Karitamaro (坂上刈田麻呂)
* Imperial Princess Takatsu (高津内親王) (?–841), married to Emperor Saga
Court lady: Ki no Wakako (紀若子), daughter of Ki no Funamori (紀船守)
* Imperial Prince Asuka (明日香親王) (?–834)
Court lady: Fujiwara no Kawako (藤原河子) (?–838), daughter of Fujiwara no Ōtsugu (藤原大継)
* Imperial Prince Nakano (仲野親王) (792–867) * Imperial Princess Ate (安勅内親王) (?–855) * Imperial Princess Ōi (大井内親王) (?–865) * Imperial Princess Ki (紀内親王) (799–886) * Imperial Princess Yoshihara (善原内親王) (?–863)
Court lady: Kudara no Kyōnin (百済教仁), daughter of Kudara no Bukyō (百済武鏡)
* Imperial Prince Ōta (大田親王) (793–808)
Court lady: Fujiwara no Azumako (藤原東子) (?–816), daughter of Fujiwara no Tanetsugu (藤原種継)
* Imperial Princess Kannabi (甘南備内親王) (800–817)
Court lady: Sakanoue no Haruko (坂上春子) (?–834), daughter of Sakanoue no Tamuramaro (坂上田村麻呂)
* Imperial Prince Fujii (葛井親王) (800–850) * Princess Kasuga (春日内親王) (?–833)
Court lady: Fujiwara no _Heishi/Nanshi_ (藤原平子/南子) (?–833), daughter of Fujiwara no Takatoshi (藤原乙叡)
* Imperial Princess Ito (伊都内親王) (ca. 801–861), married to Prince Abo
Court lady: Tachubana no Tamurako (橘田村子), daughter of Tachibana no Irii (橘入居)
* Imperial Princess Ikenoe (池上内親王) (?–868)
Court lady: Kudara no Jōkyō (百済貞香), daughter of Kudara no Kyōtoku (百済教徳)
* Imperial Princess Suruga (駿河内親王) (801–820)
Court lady: Nakatomi no Toyoko (中臣豊子), daughter of Nakatomi no Ōio (中臣大魚)
* Imperial Princess Fuse (布勢内親王) (?–812), 13th Saiō in Ise Shrine, 797–806
Court lady: Kawakami no Manu (河上真奴), daughter of Nishikibe no Haruhito (錦部春人)
* Imperial Prince Sakamoto (坂本親王) (793–818)
Court lady (_Nyoju_): Tajihi no Toyotsugu (多治比豊継), daughter of Tajihi no Hironari (多治比広成)
* Nagaoka no Okanari (長岡岡成) (?–848), removed from the Imperial Family by receiving the family name from Emperor (Shisei Kōka, 賜姓降下) in 787
Court lady: Kudara no Yōkei (百済永継), daughter of Asukabe no Natomaro (飛鳥部奈止麻呂)
* Yoshimine no Yasuyo (良岑安世) (785–830), removed from the Imperial Family by receiving the family name from Emperor (Shisei Kōka, 賜姓降下) in 802
In 2001, Japan's emperor
_ Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
* ^ A_ _B_
Imperial Household Agency (_Kunaichō_): 桓武天皇
(50); retrieved 2013-8-22.
* ^ Nussbaum,
Louis-Frédéric . (2005). "Etchū" in _Japan
Encyclopedia_, p. 464; Ponsonby-Fane, Richard . (1959). _The Imperial
House of Japan,_ pp. 61–62.
* ^ Titsingh, Isaac . (1834). _Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp.
86–95_, p. 86, at
Google Books ; Brown, Delmer M. _Gukanshō,_ pp.
277–279; Varley, H. Paul . _Jinnō Shōtōki,_ pp. 148–150.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Brown, p. 277.
* ^ Titsingh, _p. 86_, p. 86, at
Google Books ; Varley, p. 149.
* ^ Watts, Jonathan. "The emperor\'s new roots: The Japanese
emperor has finally laid to rest rumours that he has Korean blood, by
admitting that it is true," _The Guardian_ (London). December 28,
* ^ Titsingh, _pp. 91–2_, p. 91, at
Google Books ; Brown, pp.
278–79; Varley, p. 272.
* ^ Brown, p. 34.
* ^ Julian dates derived from NengoCalc
* ^ 天安一年四月三日
* ^ Titsingh, _pp. 85–6_, p. 85, at
Google Books ; Brown, p. 277.
* ^ Titsingh, _p. 86_, p. 86, at
Google Books ; Varley, p. 44; a
distinct act of _senso_ is unrecognized prior to
* Brown, Delmer M. ; Ichirō Ichida (1979). The Future and the Past
(a translation and study of the
Gukanshō , an interpretive history of
Japan written in 1219). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN
* v * t * e
* _Italics_ mark imperial consort and regent Jingū, who is not traditionally listed. * Years given as CE / AD
* Jimmu * Suizei * Annei * Itoku * Kōshō * Kōan * Kōrei * Kōgen * Kaika * Sujin * Suinin * Keikō * Seimu * Chūai * _Jingū _
* Ōjin * Nintoku * Richū * Hanzei * Ingyō * Ankō * Yūryaku * Seinei * Kenzō * Ninken * Buretsu * Keitai * Ankan * Senka
* Kinmei * Bidatsu * Yōmei * Sushun * Suiko * Jomei * Kōgyoku * Kōtoku * Saimei * Tenji * Kōbun * Tenmu * Jitō * Monmu * Genmei
* Genmei * Genshō * Shōmu * Kōken * Junnin * Shōtoku * Kōnin * Kanmu
* Kanmu * Heizei * Saga * Junna * Ninmyō * Montoku * Seiwa * Yōzei * Kōkō * Uda * Daigo * Suzaku * Murakami * Reizei * En\'yū * Kazan * Ichijō * Sanjō * Go-Ichijō * Go-Suzaku * Go-Reizei * Go-Sanjō * Shirakawa * Horikawa * Toba * Sutoku * Konoe * Go-Shirakawa * Nijō * Rokujō * Takakura * Antoku * Go-Toba
* Tsuchimikado * Juntoku * Chūkyō * Go-Horikawa * Shijō * Go-Saga * Go-Fukakusa * Kameyama * Go-Uda * Fushimi * Go-Fushimi * Go-Nijō * Hanazono * Go-Daigo
* Kōgon * Kōmyō * Sukō * Go-Kōgon * Go-En\'yū * Go-Komatsu
* Go-Murakami * Chōkei * Go-Kameyama * Go-Komatsu * Shōkō * Go-Hanazono * Go-Tsuchimikado * Go-Kashiwabara * Go-Nara * Ōgimachi
* Ōgimachi * Go-Yōzei
* Go-Yōzei * Go-Mizunoo * Meishō * Go-Kōmyō * Go-Sai * Reigen * Higashiyama * Nakamikado * Sakuramachi * Momozono * Go-Sakuramachi * Go-Momozono * Kōkaku * Ninkō * Kōmei * Meiji
EMPIRE OF JAPAN
* Meiji * Taishō * Shōwa
* Imperial family tree * Imperial house
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 71274782 * LCCN : nr94029054 * ISNI : 0000 0000 5491 6111 * GND : 120776391 * SUDOC : 112857205 * NDL : 00622357
Links: ------ /wiki/Emperor_of_Japan /#cite_note-kunaicho-1 /wiki/List_of_Emperors_of_Japan /#cite_note-2 /#cite_note-3 /#Traditional_narrative /#Events_of_Kanmu.27s_life /#Eras_of_Kanmu.27s_reign /#Politics /#Kugy.C5