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Emperor
Emperor
Ichijō (一条天皇, Ichijō-tennō, July 15, 980 – July 25, 1011) was the 66th emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2] Ichijō's reign spanned the years from 986 to 1011.[3]

Contents

1 Traditional narrative 2 Events of Ichijō's life

2.1 Kugyō

3 Eras of Ichijō's reign 4 Consorts and children 5 Notes 6 References 7 See also

Traditional narrative[edit] Before he ascended to the Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Throne, his personal name (imina) was Kanehito-shinnō.[4] Kanehito-shinnō was the first son of Emperor En'yū
Emperor En'yū
and Fujiwara no Senshi, a daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie. Since there are no documented siblings, it is supposed that he was an only child. Ichijō had five Empresses or Imperial consorts and five Imperial sons and daughters.[5] Events of Ichijō's life[edit] His reign coincided with the culmination of Heian period
Heian period
culture and the apex of the power of the Fujiwara clan. In 984, he was appointed as crown prince under Emperor
Emperor
Kazan. It was rumored contemporarily that his maternal grandfather Kaneie plotted to have Kazan retire from the throne. Ichijō ascended the throne at the age of six.

July 31, 986 (Kanna 2, 22nd day of the 6th month): In the 2nd year of Emperor
Emperor
Kazan's reign (花山天皇二年), he abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by a cousin, the son of his father's younger brother.[6] August 1, 986 (Kanna 2, 23rd day of the 6th month): Emperor
Emperor
Ichijō is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).[7]

A son of Emperor
Emperor
Reizei, who was older than Ichijō, was appointed crown prince. Kaneie became the regent (Sesshō) and effectively ruled the state. After Kaneie died in 990, his first son and Ichijō's uncle Fujiwara no Michitaka was appointed regent.

March 1, 991 ( Shōryaku
Shōryaku
2, 12th day of the 2nd month): The former- Emperor En'yū
Emperor En'yū
died at the age of 33.[8] 1008 ( Kankō
Kankō
5, 8th day of the 2nd month): Kazan died at the age of 41.[9] July 16, 1011 ( Kankō
Kankō
8, 13th day of the 6th month): In the 25th year of Emperor
Emperor
Ichijō's reign (一条天皇二十五年), the emperor abdicated; and the succession (senso) was received by his cousin. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Sanjō
Emperor Sanjō
is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).[10] July 25, 1011 ( Kankō
Kankō
8, 22nd day of the 6th month): Emperor
Emperor
Ichijō died.[9]

Ichijō had two empress consorts. First was Teishi (or Fujiwara no Sadako), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka, second was Shōshi (or Akiko), a daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga, a younger brother of Michitaka. Most people thought it impossible to have two empress consorts, but Michinaga claimed that the empress held two separate titles, Chūgū and Kōgō, which were different in principle and could therefore given to two different women. The courts of both empresses were known as centers of culture. Sei Shōnagon, author of The Pillow Book, was a lady in waiting to Teishi. Murasaki Shikibu
Murasaki Shikibu
was a lady in waiting to Shoshi. There were other famous poets in the courts of the empresses. Ichijō loved literature and music. For this reason, high ranked courtiers felt the necessity for their daughter to hold cultural salons with many skillful lady poets. Particularly he was fond of the flute. Ichijō was known for his temperate character and was beloved by his subjects. During Ichijō's reign, Imperial visits were first made to the following four shrines: Kasuga, Ōharano, Matsunoo, and Kitano; and in the years which followed, Emperors traditionally made yearly Imperial visits to these shrines and to three others: Kamo, Iwashimizu and Hirano.[11]

Decorative emblems (kiri) of the Hosokawa clan are found at Ryoan-ji. Ichijō is entombed near what had been the residence of Hosokawa Katsumoto before the Ōnin War.

The actual site of Ichijō's grave is known.[1] This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto
Shinto
shrine (misasagi) at Kyoto. The Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
designates this location as Ichijō's mausoleum. It is formally named En'yū-ji no kita no misasagi.[12] Ichijō is buried amongst the "Seven Imperial Tombs" at Ryoan-ji Temple in Kyoto.[13] The mound which commemorates the Emperor
Emperor
Ichijō is today named Kinugasa-yama. The emperor's burial place would have been quite humble in the period after Ichijo died. These tombs reached their present state as a result of the 19th century restoration of imperial sepulchers (misasagi) which were ordered by Emperor
Emperor
Meiji.[14] Kugyō[edit] Kugyō
Kugyō
(公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan
Emperor of Japan
in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Kazan's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
included:

Sesshō, Fujiwara no Kaneie
Fujiwara no Kaneie
(藤原兼家), 929–990.[15] Sesshō, Fujiwara no Michitaka (藤原道隆), 953–995.[16] Kampaku, Fujiwara no Kaneie.[15] Kampaku, Fujiwara no Michikane, 961–995.[15] Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara no Kaneie.[15] Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara no Yoritada (藤原頼忠), 924–989.[17] Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara no Tametisu (藤原為光), 942–992.[17] Sadaijin, Fujiwara no Michinaga
Fujiwara no Michinaga
(藤原道長), 966–1027.[17] Udaijin, Fujiwara no Michikane (藤原道兼).[16] Naidaijin, Fujiwara no Michitaka.[16] Naidaijin, Fujiwara no Korechika (藤原伊周), 973–1010.[17] Naidaijin, Kan'in Kinsue (藤原公季), 956–1029.[8] Dainagon

Eras of Ichijō's reign[edit] The years of Ichijō's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[18]

Eien
Eien
(987–988) Eiso
Eiso
(988–990) Shōryaku
Shōryaku
(990–995) Chōtoku
Chōtoku
(995–999) Chōhō (999–1004) Kankō
Kankō
(1004–1012)

Consorts and children[edit] Empress (Kōgō): Fujiwara no Teishi/Sadako (藤原定子) (977–1001), 1st daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka (藤原道隆)

Imperial Princess Shushi (脩子内親王) (997–1049) Imperial Prince Atsuyasu (敦康親王) (999–1019) Imperial Princess Bishi (1001–1008)

Empress (Chūgū): Fujiwara no Shōshi/Akiko (藤原彰子) (988–1074), daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga
Fujiwara no Michinaga
(藤原道長); later Nyoin (女院) 'Jōtō-mon In' (上東門院)

Imperial Prince Atsuhira (敦成親王) (1008–1036) (Emperor Go-Ichijō) Imperial Prince Atsunaga (敦良親王) (1009–1045) (Emperor Go-Suzaku)

Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Gishi (藤原義子) (974–1053), daughter of Fujiwara no Kinsue (藤原公季) Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Genshi (藤原元子) (?–?), daughter of Fujiwara no Akimitsu (藤原顕光); later, married to Minamoto no Yorisada (源頼定) Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Sonshi (藤原尊子) (984–1022), daughter of Fujiwara no Michikane (藤原道兼); later, married to Fujiwara no Michitō (藤原通任) in 1015 Court lady (Mikushige-dono-no-Bettō): 4th daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka (藤原道隆の娘) (?–1002) Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom

^ a b Imperial Household Agency
Imperial Household Agency
(Kunaichō): 一条天皇 (66) ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 66–67. ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 302–307; Varley, Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 73; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 150–154., p. 150, at Google Books ^ Varley, p. 192; Brown, p. 264; prior to Emperor
Emperor
Jomei, to the personal names of the emperors were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign. ^ Brown, p. 307. ^ Titsingh, p. 149; Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor
Emperor
Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor
Emperor
Go-Murakami. ^ Brown, p. 302; Varley, p. 44. ^ a b Brown, p. 305. ^ a b Brown, p. 306. ^ Titsingh, p. 154; Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 44. ^ Brown, p. 307 n22. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 421. ^ The "Seven Imperial Tombs" at Ryoan-ji
Ryoan-ji
are the burial places of Uda, Kazan, Ichijō, Go-Suzaku, Go-Reizei, Go-Sanjō, and Horikawa. ^ Moscher, Gouverneur. (1978). Kyoto: A Contemplative Guide, pp. 277–278. ^ a b c d Brown, p. 302-303. ^ a b c Brown, p. 303. ^ a b c d Brown, p. 304. ^ Titsingh, p. 150.

References[edit]

Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323 Moscher, Gouverneur. (1978). Kyoto: A Contemplative Guide. ISBN 9780804812948; OCLC 4589403 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial
Memorial
Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842

See also[edit]

Emperor
Emperor
of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Emperor
Emperor
Go-Ichijō Seimei Shrine

Regnal titles

Preceded by Emperor
Emperor
Kazan Emperor
Emperor
of Japan: Ichijō 986–1011 Succeeded by Emperor
Emperor
Sanjō

v t e

Japanese monarchs

Italics mark imperial consort and regent Jingū, who is not traditionally listed. Years given as CE / AD

Legendary

Jimmu Suizei Annei Itoku Kōshō Kōan Kōrei Kōgen Kaika Sujin Suinin Keikō Seimu Chūai Jingū

Kofun

Ōjin Nintoku Richū Hanzei Ingyō Ankō Yūryaku Seinei Kenzō Ninken Buretsu Keitai Ankan Senka

Asuka

552–710

Kinmei Bidatsu Yōmei Sushun Suiko Jomei Kōgyoku Kōtoku Saimei Tenji Kōbun Tenmu Jitō Monmu Genmei

Nara

710–794

Genmei Genshō Shōmu Kōken Junnin Shōtoku Kōnin Kanmu

Heian

794–1185

Kanmu Heizei Saga Junna Ninmyō Montoku Seiwa Yōzei Kōkō Uda Daigo Suzaku Murakami Reizei En'yū Kazan Ichijō Sanjō Go-Ichijō Go-Suzaku Go-Reizei Go-Sanjō Shirakawa Horikawa Toba Sutoku Konoe Go-Shirakawa Nijō Rokujō Takakura Antoku Go-Toba

Kamakura

1185–1333

Tsuchimikado Juntoku Chūkyō Go-Horikawa Shijō Go-Saga Go-Fukakusa Kameyama Go-Uda Fushimi Go-Fushimi Go-Nijō Hanazono Go-Daigo

Northern Court

1333–1392

Kōgon Kōmyō Sukō Go-Kōgon Go-En'yū Go-Komatsu

Muromachi

1333–1573

Go-Murakami Chōkei Go-Kameyama Go-Komatsu Shōkō Go-Hanazono Go-Tsuchimikado Go-Kashiwabara Go-Nara Ōgimachi

Azuchi-Momoyama

1573–1603

Ōgimachi Go-Yōzei

Edo

1603–1868

Go-Yōzei Go-Mizunoo Meishō Go-Kōmyō Go-Sai Reigen Higashiyama Nakamikado Sakuramachi Momozono Go-Sakuramachi Go-Momozono Kōkaku Ninkō Kōmei Meiji

Empire of Japan

1868–1947

Meiji Taishō Shōwa

Japan
Japan
(Post-war Japan)

1947–present

Shōwa Akihito
Akihito
(Heisei period; Reigning Emperor)

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 41342345 LCCN: nb9919

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