Emirate of Granada
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) , common_languages = Official language:
Classical Arabic Classical Arabic ( ar, links=no, ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلْفُصْحَىٰ, al-ʿarabīyah al-fuṣḥā) or Quranic Arabic is the standardized literary form of the Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, ...

Other languages:
Andalusi Arabic Andalusian Arabic, also known as Andalusi Arabic, was a variety or varieties of Arabic spoken in Al-Andalus, the regions of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * frenc ...
,
Mozarabic Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a dialect continuum, continuum of related Romance languages, Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin ...
,
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco ) , ...

Berber
, Ladino , capital =
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
, religion = Majority religion:
Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () is by far the largest Islamic schools and branches, branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word ''Sunnah'', referring to the behaviour of Muhammad. The differences between Sunni a ...

Minority religions:
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...

Roman Catholicism

Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
, leader1 = Muhammad I , leader2 =
Muhammad XII ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
, year_leader1 = 1238–1273 , year_leader2 = 1487–1492 , title_leader =
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

Sultan
, today = , stat_year1 = 1314 , stat_pop1 = 200,000 , ref_pop1 = The Emirate of Granada ( ar, إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada ( es, Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an Islamic realm in southern
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...

Iberia
during the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
. It was the last independent
Muslim state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = ''Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah (community), Dawn Has Appeared") , native_name = {{lang, ar, الدولة الإسلامية''{{transl, ar, ad ...
in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on context. Beginning with foreign exploration during the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept of ''Europe'' as "the W ...

Western Europe
. Muslims had been present in the Iberian Peninsula, which they called ''
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
'', since the early eighth century. At its greatest geographical extent, Muslim-controlled territory occupied most of the peninsula and part of present-day southern
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...

France
. From the ninth to the tenth century, under the
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the '' ...
, the region was one of the most prosperous and advanced in Europe. Conflict with the northern Christian kingdoms was recurrent, while mounting civil strife led to a fragmenting of Muslim states in the early eleventh century. This marked a precipitous decline in Muslim power and facilitated the centuries-long Christian ''
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese language, Portuguese and Spanish language, Spanish for "reconquest") was a period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 781 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711, the expansion of the Christendom, Chr ...

Reconquista
.'' By 1230, the
Almohad Caliphate The Almohad Caliphate ( IPA: ; from ar, المُوَحِّدون, translit=al-Muwaḥḥidūn, lit=those who profess the unity of God) was a North African Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century. At its height, it controlled much of t ...

Almohad Caliphate
in Morocco ruled the remaining Muslim territories in southern Iberia, which roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...
,
Almería Almería (, also , ) is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of Almería, province of the same name. Abd al-Rahman III founded the Alcazaba of Almería, Alcazaba ...
, and
Málaga Málaga (, ) is a municipality of Spain, capital of the Province of Málaga , population_note = , blank_name_sec2 = Parliament , blank_info_sec2 = Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit ...
. Exploiting the Almohad's dynastic strife, the ambitious Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar rose to power and established the
Nasrid The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was the last Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religio ...
dynasty over these lands. By 1250, the emirate was the last Muslim polity in the peninsula. Although effectively a vassal of the rising Crown of Castile, for over two centuries, Granada enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity; much of the famed
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ) , DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or ., is the capital city A capital or capita ...

Alhambra
palace complex was built during this period, and the Nasrids would be the longest-lived Muslim dynasty in Iberia. Nascent Christian power in Iberia meant that Granada's existence was always precarious. In 1491, after a decade of intermittent warfare known as the
Granada War The Granada War ( es, Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, ...
, the emirate was forced to capitulate to the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with th ...
. The following year,
Muhammad XII ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile, eventually moving to North Africa in exile. This marked the end of independent Muslim rule in Iberia.


History


Tributary state

With the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese language, Portuguese and Spanish language, Spanish for "reconquest") was a period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 781 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711, the expansion of the Christendom, Chr ...

Reconquista
in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in June 1236, Mohammed I ibn Nasr aligned Granada with
Ferdinand III of Castile Ferdinand III ( es, Fernando; 1199/120130 May 1252), called the Saint (''el Santo''), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias (850–866), the kingdom began to be known as that of León. In 9 ...

Ferdinand III of Castile
in 1246, thereby making it a
tributary state Ayutthaya from its vassal states in the Malay Peninsula">Ayutthaya_Kingdom.html" ;"title="Bunga mas, a form of tribute sent to the King of Ayutthaya Kingdom">Ayutthaya from its vassal states in the Malay Peninsula A tributary state is a term f ...
, or ''
taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَ ...
'', under the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and King ...

Crown of Castile
. Granada remained a tributary state for the next 250 years, with Nasrid emirs paying tribute () to Castilian kings mostly in the form of
gold Gold is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Au (from la, aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a brightness, bright, slightly reddish yel ...

gold
from present-day
Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali (french: République du Mali; bm, ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ, Mali ka Fasojamana, ff, 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭, Renndaandi Maali), is a landlocked country ...

Mali
and
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso (, ; ) is a landlocked country in West Africa that covers an area of around and is bordered by Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwes ...

Burkina Faso
, brought to Iberia by the merchant routes in the
Sahara The Sahara (, ; ar, الصحراء الكبرى, ', 'the Greatest Desert') is a desert on the African continent Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million k ...

Sahara
. The Nasrids also provided military assistance to Castile for its other conquests. In 1306, Granada conquered
Ceuta Ceuta (, , ; ber, Sebta, script=Latn; ar, سَبْتَة, Sabtah) is a Spain, Spanish Autonomous communities of Spain#Autonomous cities, autonomous city on the north coast of Africa. Bordered by Morocco, it lies along the boundary between the ...

Ceuta
, but lost control of the city in 1309 to the
Kingdom of Fez ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing T ...

Kingdom of Fez
which was assisted by the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polity, polities or monarchy, kingdoms ruled by ...
. Granada re-captured Ceuta a year later, but again lost it in 1314. Granada again held the city from 1315 to 1327. In 1384, Granada again re-took Ceuta but lost it finally to the Kingdom of Fez in 1386. Ceuta would be taken by the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas Colonialism, colonies, Factory ( ...
in 1415 and came into the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
in 1580. Granada's peace with Castile broke down on various occasions. Granada lost territory to Castile at the
Battle of Teba The Battle of Teba took place in August 1330, in the valley below the fortress of Teba, now a town in the province of Málaga in Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous commun ...
in 1330. In 1340, Granada under Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada, Yusuf I, supported the failed Marinid dynasty, Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, which ended at the Battle of Río Salado.


Regional entrepôt

Granada's status as a tributary state and its favorable geographic location, with the Sierra Nevada (Spain), Sierra Nevada as a natural barrier, helped to prolong Nasrid rule and allowed the Emirate to prosper as a regional entrepôt with the Maghreb and the rest of Africa. The city of Granada was one of the largest cities during this time: it accepted numerous Muslim refugees expelled from Christian controlled areas, doubling the size of the city and even becoming the largest city of Europe in 1450 in terms of population. During this time there were 137 mosques in the Medina of
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
. Granada also served as a refuge for Muslims fleeing during the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese language, Portuguese and Spanish language, Spanish for "reconquest") was a period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 781 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711, the expansion of the Christendom, Chr ...

Reconquista
. Regardless of its comparative prosperity, intra-political strife was constant. Skirmishes along the border of Granada occurred frequently and the territory was gradually lost to Castile. Granada was tightly integrated into Mediterranean trade networks and heavily financed by Republic of Genoa, Genoese bankers aiming to gain control of the gold trade carried in through the Trans-Saharan trade routes. However, after Portuguese Empire, Portugal opened direct trade routes to Sub-Saharan Africa by sea in the 15th century, Granada became less important as a regional commercial center. With the Kingdom of Castile#Union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon, union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, these kingdoms set their sights on annexing Granada.


Fall of Granada

The war of Granada would offer an opportunity for Ferdinand and Isabella to harness the restless Castilian nobility against a common enemy and instill subjects with a sense of loyalty to the crown. The Emirate's attack on the Castilian frontier town of Zahara de la Sierra, Zahara in December 1481 led to a prolonged war. The
Granada War The Granada War ( es, Guerra de Granada) was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1491, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, ...
began in 1482, with Christian forces capturing Alhama de Granada in February 1482. This marked the beginning of a grinding 10-year war. The Christian force was made up of troops provided by Castilian nobles, towns, and the Hermandad, ''Santa Hermandad'', as well as Swiss mercenaries. The Catholic Church also encouraged other Christian countries to offer their troops and their finances to the war effort. Meanwhile, civil war erupted in Granada as a result of succession struggles in the Nasrid ruling house. Castile used this internal strife as an opportunity to push further into Granada. By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader,
Muhammad XII ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
, known as ''Boabdil'' to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada to Ferdinand V of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella I of Spain, Isabella, ''Los Reyes Católicos'' ("The Catholic Monarchs").


Aftermath

The Christian ousting of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula with the conquest of Granada did not extinguish the spirit of the ''Reconquista''. Isabella urged Christians to pursue a conquest of Africa. About 200,000 Muslims are thought to have emigrated to North Africa after the fall of Granada. Initially, under the Treaty of Granada, conditions of surrender, the Muslims who remained were guaranteed their property, laws, customs, and religion. This however, was not the case, causing the Muslims to rebel against their Christian rulers, culminating with Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1499–1501), an uprising in 1500. The rebellion was seen as a chance to formally end the treaty of Granada, and the rights of Muslims and Jews were withdrawn. Muslims in the area were given the choice of expulsion or conversion. In 1568–1571, the descendants of the converted Muslims Morisco revolt, revolted again, leading to their expulsion of the Moriscos, expulsion from the former Emirate to North Africa and Anatolia. For Jews as well, a period of religious tolerance under Muslim rule in Spain came to an end with their Expulsion of Jews from Spain, expulsion by the Christian monarchy in 1492.


Culture


Literature

Ibn al-Khatib was a polymath and poet of the Nasrid dynasty, Nasrid period. He authored many works in various fields, and his poetry is carved into the walls of the Alhambra palace.


Architecture

The architecture of Nasrid Granada embraced extensive surface decoration in wood stucco, and zillij tiling, as well as making use of elaborate ''muqarnas'' sculpting in many buildings. The Nasrids' most famous architectural legacy is the
Alhambra The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada Granada ( , ) , DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or ., is the capital city A capital or capita ...

Alhambra
, a hilltop palace district protected by heavy fortifications and containing some of the most famous and best-preserved palaces of western Islamic architecture, including what is known today as the Court of the Myrtles, Comares Palace and the Court of the Lions, Courtyard of the Lions. The palace complex was developed throughout the period but the most important contributions were generally made during the rule of Yusuf I of Granada, Yusuf I and Muhammad V of Granada, Muhammad V. The summer palace and gardens known as the Generalife were also created nearby, in a tradition reminiscent of the Almohad-era Agdal Gardens of Marrakesh and the Mosara Garden, Marinid Royal Gardens of Fes. Other notable buildings and structures known from this era are the Madrasa of Granada, Madrasa al-Yusufiyya (now known as the Palacio del Madraza), the Funduq al-Jadida (now known as the Corral del Carbón), parts of Granada's city walls, the Alcázar Genil, and the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo in Granada, in addition to many various other fortifications and smaller monuments across the former emirate's territory.


Music

Gharnati music () is a variety of Andalusian classical music, Andalusi music that originated in Granada and moved to North Africa where it survived to this day.


Military

Constantly under threat by both the Christian kingdoms to the north and the Muslim Marinid Sultanate to the south, the population of the Emirate of Granada developed a "siege mentality". The country consequently maintained a strong military. Its border territories were dotted with castles maintained by frontier warriors (''thagri'') led by armoured elite warriors who were influenced by and comparable to the Christian knights. However, the core of the emirate's army consisted of highly mobile light cavalry as well as light infantry. The Granadan army was ethnically and culturally mixed. A large part were recruited locally through the ''jund'' system in which families with military obligations were registered and conscripted for service. In addition, the Granadan rulers encouraged North African warriors to migrate to the country and serve as ''Ghazi (warrior), ghazi''. These immigrants were mostly Zanata Berbers and eventually organized as Volunteers of the Faith, a factually autonomous and very powerful unit within the Granadan military. The status of the Volunteers was eventually reduced by Emir Muhammad V of Granada who reformed the military, and instead strengthened the Andalusian components of the Granadan military. The smallest part of the regular Granadan military were Christians and ex-Christians who had been hired by the emirs or defected to them. These were often Spanish knights and termed Mamluks; these warriors were organized as elite bodyguards by some emirs. To augmente their army, the Granadans also hired foreign mercenaries. In regard to its organization, the Granadan military was formally headed by the emir and divided into several units. The frontier areas were possibly commanded by ''rais'', while each important frontier garrison was led by a ''shaykh khassa''. The army was divided into major divisions, each led by a ''Wali (administrative title), wali'', under whom military ''emirs'' served as leaders for 5,000 troops, followed by ''qaid'' leading 1,000, ''naqib'' leading 200, and finally ''Nazir (title), nazir'' leading eight. The Volunteers of the Faith were initially commanded by the ''shaykh al-ghuzat''. In addition, there existed a Gendarmerie-like ''shurta'' in Granada city, commanded by the ''sahib al-shurta''. The Granadan army was usually accompanied by a corps of guides (''dalil''), religious figures who tended to morale, armourers, medics, and some poets as well as orators.


List of the sultans of Granada


See also

*Nasrid dynasty *Romance of Abenamar *Taifa of Granada *List of Sunni Muslim dynasties * Border of Granada *Emirate of Córdoba


References


Works cited

* * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * * *Kennedy, Hugh (1996). ''Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus''. Longman. *O'Callaghan, Joseph F. ''The Last Crusade in the West: Castile and the Conquest of Granada''. University of Pennsylvania Press.


External links


Granada- The Last Refuge of Muslims in Spain
by Salah Zaimeche
Al-Ándalus III: el Sultanato De Granada (1232–1492) y Una Breve Reseña Sobre la Alhambra
* R.H. Shamsuddín Elía, Historia de Al-Andalus, Boletín N° 53 -08/200
''Al-Ándalus III: El Sultanato De Granada (1232–1492)''
* Nicolás Homar Vives





''Les Nasrides, Les Banû al-Ahmar à Grenade'' {{DEFAULTSORT:Emirate Of Granada Emirate of Granada, Former countries on the Iberian Peninsula, Granada Former Muslim countries in Europe Former Arab states History of Andalusia 1238 establishments in Europe 1492 disestablishments in Europe 1492 disestablishments in Spain Former countries