Emirate of Córdoba (Arabic: إمارة قرطبة, Imārah
Qurṭuba) was an independent emirate in the
Iberian Peninsula ruled
by the Umayyad dynasty with Córdoba as its capital.
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711–718, the Iberian
Peninsula was established as a province under the Umayyad Caliphate.
The rulers of this province established their capital in Córdoba and
received from the
Umayyad Caliphate the title of wali or emir.
In 756, Abd al-Rahman I, a prince of the deposed Umayyad royal family,
refused to recognize the authority of the
Abbasid Caliphate and became
an independent emir of Córdoba. He had been on the run for six years
after the Umayyads had lost the position of caliph in
Damascus in 750
to the Abbasids. Intent on regaining a position of power, he defeated
the existing Muslim rulers of the area who had defied Umayyad rule and
united various local fiefdoms into an emirate. However, this first
unification of al-Andalus under Abd al-Rahman still took more than
twenty-five years to complete (Toledo, Zaragoza, Pamplona, Barcelona).
For the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of
Córdoba, with nominal control over the rest of al-Andalus and
sometimes even parts of western North Africa, but with real control
always in question, particularly over the marches along the Christian
border, their power vacillating depending on the competence of the
individual emir. Indeed, the power of emir Abdullah ibn Muhammad
al-Umawi (circa 900), for example, did not extend beyond Córdoba
Upon the ascent to the throne of his grandson Abd al-Rahman III, who
succeeded him in 912, the political decline of the emirate was
Abd al-Rahman III
Abd al-Rahman III rapidly restored Umayyad power throughout
al-Andalus and extended it into western
North Africa as well. In 929,
to impose his authority and end the riots and conflicts that ravaged
the Iberian Peninsula, he proclaimed himself caliph of Córdoba,
elevating the emirate to a position of prestige not only in comparison
to the Abbasid caliph in
Baghdad but also the Shi'i Fatimid caliph in
Tunis, with whom he was competing for control of North Africa. The
Emirate of Cordoba gradually lost power and in 1492 Granada was
retaken by the Christians and Muslim influence dissolved.
^ Azizur Rahman, Syed (2001). The Story of Islamic Spain. Goodword
Books. p. 129. ISBN 978-81-87570-57-8. [
Emir Abdullah died
on] 16 Oct., 912 after 26 years of inglorious rule leaving his
fragmented and bankrupt kingdom to his grandson ‘Abd ar-Rahman. The
following day, the new sultan received the oath of allegiance at a
ceremony held in the "Perfect salon" (al-majils al-kamil) of the
^ Barton, 37.
^ Bouchard, Constance Brittain, Chief Consultant. (Distinguished
Professor of Medieval History, University of Akron) “Knights in
History and Legend” Firefly Books Ltd.. 2009.
ISBN 978-1-55407-480-8. Page 202
List of Umayyad