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Emilio De Bono
Emilio De Bono
(19 March 1866 – 11 January 1944) was an Italian General, fascist activist, Marshal, and member of the Fascist Grand Council (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo). De Bono fought in the Italo-Turkish War, World War I, and the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Fascist support 3 Abyssinia 4 World War II 5 Personal aspects 6 Honours 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Early life[edit] De Bono was born in Cassano d'Adda. Son of Giovanni de Bono, descendant of the Counts of Barlassina, and Elisa Bazzi. His family "suffered under the Austrian yoke" (De Bono, Laguerra, page 302). He entered the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) in 1884 as a Second Lieutenant and had worked his way up to General Staff by the start of the Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
of 1911. De Bono would later to go on to fight in World War I, where he distinguished himself against the Austrians in Gorizia
Gorizia
in 1916 and Monte Grappa
Monte Grappa
in October 1918. In 1920, he was discharged with the rank of Major General. Fascist support[edit] Main articles: March on Rome, Italian Colonial Empire, and Tripoli Grand Prix During the early 1920s, De Bono helped organize the National Fascist Party. In 1922, as one of the four Quadrumvirs, he organized and staged the "March on Rome." This event signalled the start of the Fascist regime in Italy. In the period following the march, De Bono served as Chief of Police and Commander of the Fascist Militia. In 1925, De Bono was tried for his role in the 1924 death of the leftist politician Giacomo Matteotti. He refused to implicate his superiors and was unexpectedly acquitted in 1925. Later that year, De Bono was appointed Governor of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
in Libya. In 1929, De Bono was appointed Minister of Colonial Affairs (also referred to as the Minister of Colonies). In 1932, King Victor Emmanuel and De Bono visited Eritrea
Eritrea
and found, they said, a peaceful, loyal, and contented colony.[1] Abyssinia[edit] Main article: De Bono's invasion of Abyssinia In November 1932, at Prime Minister Benito Mussolini's request, De Bono wrote a plan for an invasion of Ethiopia. The plan outlined a traditional mode of penetration: a relatively small force would move gradually southward from Eritrea, establish strong bases and then advance against increasingly weak and disorganized opponents. The invasion De Bono envisioned would be cheap, easy, safe, – and slow.[2] Mussolini separately involved the Army in planning and, over the next two years, the Army developed its own massive campaign which would involve five to six times the number of troops required by De Bono. In 1934, Mussolini pulled the uncoordinated plans together into one that emphasized the military's idea of full-scale war.[3] In 1935, De Bono became Supreme Commander of the Italian operation against Ethiopia
Ethiopia
during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. De Bono was appointed because Mussolini wanted the victory in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to be not just an Italian victory, but a Fascist one as well, hence the appointment of a well known Fascist general. In addition, he was Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the forces invading from Italian-held Eritrea, on what was known as the "northern front." De Bono had, under his direct command, a force of nine Army divisions in three corps: The Italian I Corps, the Italian II Corps, and the Eritrean Corps.[4] On 3 October, forces under De Bono's command crossed into Ethiopia from Eritrea. On 6 October his forces took Adowa, officially avenging the humiliating 1896 Italian defeat. Soon thereafter, De Bono entered the historically significant city of Axum, riding a white horse. After these initial triumphs, however, De Bono's advance slowed. On 8 November the I Corps and the Eritrean Corps captured Mek'ele. This was to be the limit of Italian advances under De Bono. Increasing world pressure on Mussolini brought a need for fast, glittering victories; he was not prepared to hear of obstacles or delays.[5] On 16 November De Bono was promoted to Marshal of Italy
Marshal of Italy
(Maresciallo d'Italia) but Mussolini grew ever more impatient with the invasion's slow progress and, 17 on December, De Bono was relieved of his command via State Telegram 13181 (Telegramma di Stato 13181), which stated that, with the capture of Mek'ele
Mek'ele
five weeks before, his mission had been accomplished. His place was taken by Marshal Pietro Badoglio, and De Bono was appointed Inspector of Overseas Troops. World War II[edit]

A photograph of De Bono taken in Rome on 21 November 1940. He is between Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and Rodolfo Graziani
Rodolfo Graziani
and is easily identified by his signature beard. Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
is to be seen, second from the left.

In 1940, De Bono commanded a southern defense corps headquartered in Sicily
Sicily
and was opposed to the Italian entry into World War II. But he kept a low profile and, in 1942, he was appointed Minister of State. On 24 and 25 July 1943, De Bono was one of the members of the Fascist Grand Council who voted to oust Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
when Dino Grandi, in collaboration with Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
and King Victor Emmanuel III, put a no-confidence motion to the vote of the Grand Council of Fascism. That led to the dictator's downfall, arrest, and imprisonment. Later in 1943, Mussolini was rescued during the Gran Sasso raid
Gran Sasso raid
and returned to power by Nazi Germany. He was set up in Northern Italy by the Germans as the " Duce
Duce
of the Nation" of a new Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or RSI). Upon his return to power, Mussolini had De Bono and others who voted against him arrested. He then had Alessandro Pavolini
Alessandro Pavolini
try them for treason at Verona
Verona
in what became known as the " Verona
Verona
trial". De Bono was convicted in a show trial.[6] On 11 January 1944, the 77-year-old De Bono was executed by firing squad at Verona. He was shot along with Galeazzo Ciano, Luciano Gottardi, Giovanni Marinelli
Giovanni Marinelli
and Carlo Pareschi. Ciano was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Mussolini's son-in-law. Gottardi was the former president of the Fascist Confederation of Industrial workers. Marinelli was the former chief of the Fascist militia and Pareschi was the former Agriculture Minister. The only person on trial who escaped from capital punishment was Tullio Cianetti, the Minister of Corporations. Cianetti was sentenced to 30 years by the RSI judges.[6] Personal aspects[edit] Religion: Like his maternal grandfather, Emilio was reportedly an atheist, as stated in his "Memoirs" in 1941: "Atheism is enlightened and rational, based on scientific principles. I, as a member of the military, admire reason, and for that I'm an atheist". Family: He had the following siblings: Edmondo, Agostino, Constanza, Gerardo and Marella. He had no sons or daughters. Honours[edit] From the article in the Italian

Knight of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
(3 October 1937) Knight Grand Cross with the Grand Cordon of the Colonial Order of the Star of Italy Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Savoy
Military Order of Savoy
(19 June 1936; Grand Officer: 10 August 1928; Commander: 19 September 1918; Knight: 28 December 1913) Grand Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
(8 April 1923; Commander: 30 December 1919; Officer: 12 January 1919; Knight: 3 April 1913) Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Order of the Crown of Italy
(1 June 1919; Commander: 13 September 1918; Officer: 13 September 1917; Knight: 7 November 1907)

See also[edit]

Second Italian-Abyssian War Tripoli Grand Prix

References[edit]

^ Mockler. Haile Sellassie's War. p.27 ^ Baer, Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations, p. 12 ^ Baer, Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations, p. 13 ^ Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
1936, p. 33 ^ Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
1936, p. 36 ^ a b Bosworth, R. J. B., Mussolini's Italy, p. 514

Sources[edit]

Baer, George W. (1976). Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations. Stanford, California: Hoover Institute Press, Stanford University. ISBN 0-8179-6591-2.  Barker, A.J. (1971). Rape of Ethiopia, 1936. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-02462-6.  Bosworth, R.J.B. (2005). Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915-1945. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-303856-6.  Mockler, Anthony (2003). Haile Sellassie's war. New York: Olive Branch Press. ISBN 978-1-56656-473-1.  Nicolle, David (1997). The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935-1936. Westminster: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-692-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emilio De Bono.

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Political offices

Preceded by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
interim Italian Minister of the Colonies 1929–1935 Succeeded by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
interim

Preceded by Giuseppe Volpi Governor of Tripolitania 1925–1929 Succeeded by Pietro Badoglio

Preceded by Ottone Gabelli Governor of Eritrea 1935 Succeeded by Pietro Badoglio

v t e

List of Italian First Marshals and Marshals of Italy

First Marshal of the Empire (Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero)

King Victor Emmanuel III Benito Mussolini

Marshals (Maresciallo d'Italia)

Regio Esercito  

Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Pietro Badoglio Enrico Caviglia Gaetano Giardino Guglielmo Pecori Giraldi Emilio De Bono Rodolfo Graziani Ugo Cavallero Ettore Bastico Umberto, Prince of Piedmont Giovanni Messe

Grand Admiral (Grande Ammiraglio)

Regia Marina  

Paolo Thaon di Revel

Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria)

Regia Aeronautica  

Italo Balbo

v t e

Italian Governors of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica

Governors of Tripolitania (1911–1934)

Raffaele Borea Ricci D'Olmo Carlo Caneva Ottavio Ragni Vincenzo Garioni Giorgio Cigliana Luigi Druetti Giulio Cesare Tassoni Giovanni Ameglio Vincenzo Garioni Vittorio Menzinger Luigi Mercatelli Giuseppe Volpi Emilio De Bono Pietro Badogliotc

Governors of Cyrenaica (1912–1935)

Ottavio Briccola Giovanni Ameglio Vincenzo Garioni Giacomo De Martino Luigi Pintor Eduardo Baccari Luigi Bongiovanni Ernesto Mombelli Attilio Teruzzi Domenico Sicilianiv Rodolfo Grazianivh Guglielmo Nasivh

tc = G. of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica. v = Deputy of the G. of Cyrenaica (G. of Tripolitania). h = Honorary since 1-1-1934.

v t e

Italian Governors of Eritrea
Eritrea
and Somaliland

Governors of Eritrea (1890–1941)

Baldassarre Orerocm Antonio Gandolficm Oreste Baratiericm Antonio Baldissera Ferdinando Martini Giuseppe Salvago Raggi Giovanni Cerrina Feroni Giacomo De Martino Camillo De Camillis Ludovico Pollera Giovanni Cerrina Feroni Jacopo Gasparini Corrado Zoli Riccardo Di Lucchesi Ottone Gabelliv Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Alfredo Guzzonip Vincenzo De Feop Giuseppe Daodicep Luigi Fruscip

Governors of Somaliland (1889–1941)

Vincenzo Filonardi Vacant (1893–1896) Vincenzo Filonardic Emilio Dulioc Giorgio Sorrentinoc Emilio Dulio Luigi Mercatellicg Giuseppe Salvago Raggicg Tommaso Carletticg Tommaso Carletti Giacomo De Martino Giovanni Cerrina Feroni Carlo Riveri Cesare Maria De Vecchi Guido Corni Maurizio Rava Rodolfo Graziani Angelo De Rubenp Ruggiero Santinip Francesco Saverio Carosellip Gustavo Pesentip Carlo De Simonep

cm=Commanders. c=Commissioners. cg=Commissioners-General. v=Vice-Governor. p=As a part of Italian East Africa

v t e

Ministers of the Italian Colonies

Ministers of the Colonies (1912–37)

Pietro Bertolini Ferdinando Martini Gaspare Colosimo Luigi Rossi Francesco Saverio Nitti Bartolomeo Meuccio Ruini Luigi Rossi Giuseppe Girardini Giovanni Amendola Luigi Federzoni Pietro Lanza di Scalea Luigi Federzoni Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Benito Mussolini Alessandro Lessona

Ministers of Italian Africa (1937–53)

Alessandro Lessona Benito Mussolini Attilio Teruzzi Melchiade Gabba Pietro Badoglio Ivanoe Bonomi Ferruccio Parri Alcide De Gasperi

Italics indicate interim minister

v t e

Members of Mussolini Cabinet

Head of government
Head of government
and duce of Fascism

Benito Mussolini

Minister of the Air Force (since 1925)

Italo Balbo

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Benito Mussolini Dino Grandi Galeazzo Ciano

Minister of agriculture (abolished in 1923)

Giuseppe De Capitani D'Arzago

Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (since 1929)

Giacomo Acerbo Edmondo Rossoni Giuseppe Tassinari Carlo Pareschi

Minister of the Colonies (abolished in 1937)

Luigi Federzoni Benito Mussolini Pietro Lanza di Scalea Emilio De Bono Alessandro Lessona

Minister of Italian Africa (since 1937)

Alessandro Lessona Benito Mussolini Attilio Teruzzi

Minister of Communications (since 1924)

Costanzo Ciano Umberto Puppini Antonio Stefano Benni Nino Host Venturi Vittorio Cini Giuseppe Peverelli

Minister of Corporations (since 1926)

Benito Mussolini Giuseppe Bottai Ferruccio Lantini Renato Ricci Carlo Tiengo Tullio Cianetti

Ministry of People's Culture (since 1937)

Dino Alfieri Alessandro Pavolini Gaetano Polverelli

Minister of the Interior

Benito Mussolini Luigi Federzoni

Minister of domestic economy

Orso Mario Corbino Cesare Nava Giuseppe Belluzzo Alessandro Martelli

Minister of domestic education

Balbino Giuliano Francesco Ercole Cesare Maria De Vecchi Giuseppe Bottai Carlo Alberto Biggini

Minister of Finance

Alberto De Stefani Giuseppe Volpi Antonio Mosconi Guido Jung Paolo Ignazio Maria Thaon di Revel Giacomo Acerbo

Minister of Justice and Affairs of Religion

Aldo Oviglio Alfredo Rocco Pietro De Francisci Arrigo Solmi Dino Grandi Alfredo De Marsico

Minister of Industry and Commerce

Teofilo Rossi

Minister of Public Works

Gabriello Carnazza Gino Sarrocchi Giovanni Giuriati Benito Mussolini Michele Bianchi Araldo di Crollalanza Luigi Razza Giuseppe Cobolli Gigli Adelchi Serena Giuseppe Gorla Zenone Benini

Minister of War

Armando Diaz Antonino Di Giorgio Benito Mussolini Pietro Gazzera Benito Mussolini

Minister of Labour and Social Security

Stefano Cavazzoni

Minister of Posts and Telegraphs

Giovanni Antonio Colonna di Cesarò Costanzo Ciano

Minister of War Production (since 6 February 1943)

Carlo Favagrossa

Minister of Public Education

Giovanni Gentile Alessandro Casati Pietro Fedele Giuseppe Belluzzo

Minister of Trades and Currencies

Felice Guarneri Raffaello Riccardi Oreste Bonomi

Minister of Press and Propaganda

Galeazzo Ciano Dino Alfieri

Minster of Freed Territories from enemies (abolished on 5 February 1923)

Giovanni Giuriati

Minister of Treasure (merged into Ministry of Finance on 31 December 1922)

Vincenzo Tangorra Alberto De Stefani

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 46799121 LCCN: nr91020876 ISNI: 0000 0001 0895 7526 GND: 118925628 SELIBR: 295388 SUDOC: 03005625X BNF: cb12154992k (data) ICC

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