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The Info List - Emilio Aguinaldo





Philippine Revolution  • Kawit revolt  • Battle of Imus  • Battle of Talisay  • Battle of Binakayan  • Battle of Pateros  • Battle of Zapote Bridge  • Battle of Silang  • Battle of Perez Dasmariñas  • Battle of Naic  • Retreat to Montalban  • Battle of Aliaga  • Battle of Alapan Spanish–American War  • Battle of Manila
Manila
(1898) Philippine-American war  • Battle of Manila
Manila
(1899)  • Battle of Marilao River

Footnotes:

^ Although Aguinaldo ran for President in 1935 on the ticket of the National Socialist party,[10] in opening his campaign he disavowed association with any political party.[11]

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
y Famy QSC PLH[d] (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈmi.ljo a.ɣiˈnal.do] : March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
(1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain
Spain
in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States
United States
during the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
(1899–1901). He was captured in Palanan, Isabela by American forces on March 23, 1901, which brought an end to his presidency. In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was later freed in a general amnesty and was subsequently exonerated.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Revolutionary and political career

2.1 Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and battles 2.2 Battle of Imus 2.3 Twin battles of Binakayan-Dalahican 2.4 Battle of Zapote Bridge 2.5 Spanish Cavite
Cavite
offensive and the Battle of Perez Dasmariñas 2.6 Tejeros Convention
Tejeros Convention
and the execution of Bonifacio 2.7 Retreat to Montalban 2.8 Biak-na-Bato 2.9 Return to the Philippines
Philippines
and the Philippine Declaration of Independence

3 First Philippine President 4 Post-presidency

4.1 American era 4.2 Post-American era 4.3 Death and legacy

5 Commemoration 6 Personal life 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life and career[edit]

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo Sr. was born on March 22, 1869 [c] in Cavite
Cavite
el Viejo (present-day Kawit), in Cavite
Cavite
province, to Carlos Jamir Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy-Aguinaldo,[d] a Tagalog Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio Sr. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as his father, Carlos J. Aguinaldo was the community's appointed gobernadorcillo (municipal governor) in the Spanish colonial administration and his grandparents Eugenio K. Aguinaldo and Maria Jamir-Aguinaldo. He studied at Colegio de San Juan de Letran but wasn't able to finish his studies due to outbreak of cholera in 1882. Emilio became the "Cabeza de Barangay" of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite
Cavite
el Viejo, when he was only 17 years old to avoid conscription. In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted. At the age of 25, Aguinaldo became Cavite
Cavite
el Viejo's first "gobernadorcillo capitan municipal" (Municipal Governor-Captain) while on a business trip in Mindoro. Revolutionary and political career[edit]

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Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
and battles[edit] Main article: Philippine Revolution

The seal of the Magdalo faction led by Baldomero B. Aquinaldo Emilio's First cousin.

On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite
Cavite
by the codename "Colon". He would later say:

"The Successful Revolution of 1896 was masonically inspired, led, and executed, and I venture to say that the first Philippine Republic of which I was its humble President, was an achievement we owe largely, to Masonry and the Masons."[14]

On March 7, 1895, Santiago Alvarez whose father was a Capitan Municipal (Mayor) of Noveleta
Noveleta
encouraged Aguinaldo to join the "Katipunan", a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force.[15](p77) Aguinaldo joined the organization and used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene. The local chapter of Katipunan
Katipunan
in Cavite
Cavite
was established and named Sangguniang Magdalo, and Aguinaldo's cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo
Baldomero Aguinaldo
was appointed leader.[16](p179) [17] The Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila).[16](p176) However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite
Cavite
rebels initially refused to join in the offensive because the lack of arms.[17] While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite
Cavite
rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.[17] Battle of Imus[edit] Main article: Battle of Imus In August 1896, as coordinated attacks broke out and sparked the revolution beginning in Manila. Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
marched from Kawit with 600 men and launched a series of skirmishes at Imus which eventually ended in open hostilities against Spanish troops stationed there. On September 1, with the aid of Captain Jose Tagle
Jose Tagle
of Imus, they laid siege against Imus Estate to draw the Spanish out. A Spanish relief column commanded by Brig. General Ernesto de Aguirre had been dispatched from Manila
Manila
to aid the beleaguered Spanish defenders of Imus. Supported only by a hundred troops and by a cavalry, Aguirre gave the impression that he had been sent out to suppress a minor disturbance. Aguinaldo and his men counter-attacked but suffered heavy losses and almost cost his own life. Despite the success, Aguirre did not press the attack and felt the inadequacy of his troops and hastened back to Manila
Manila
to get reinforcements. During the lull in the fighting, Aguinaldo's troops reorganized and prepared for another Spanish attack. On September 3, Aguirre came back with a much larger force of 3,000 men. When Spanish troops arrived at the Isabel II bridge, they were fired upon by the concealed rebels. As surprise was on the side of the revolutionaries, almost all the Spaniards that were sent there were trapped and annihilated, among them was Gen. Aguirre. Twin battles of Binakayan-Dalahican[edit] Main article: Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican Alarmed by previous siege, led by General Aguinaldo in Imus, Cavite
Cavite
in September 1896, Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas
Ramón Blanco y Erenas
ordered the 4th Battalion of Cazadores from Spain
Spain
to aid him in quelling the rebellion in Cavite. On November 3, 1896, the battalion arrived carrying a squadron of 1,328 men and some 55 officers.[18] Apart from that, Blanco ordered about 144,000 men who recently came from Cuba and Spain
Spain
to joint in suppressing the rebellion. Prior to the land attacks, Spanish naval raids were conducted on the shores of Cavite, where cannonballs were bombarded against the revolutionary fortifications in Bacoor, Noveleta, Binakayan and Cavite
Cavite
Viejo. The most fortified locations in Noveleta
Noveleta
are the Dalahican and Dagatan shores defended by Magdiwang soldiers under the command of Gen. Santiago Alvarez, while the adjacent fishing village of Binakayan in Kawit was fortified by Magdalo under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Spanish naval operations were determined to crush the fortifications in these areas, mainly because the lake around Dalahican was so strategic as it connects to the interior of Cavite. Apart from defending Binakayan, the Magdalo soldiers also kept the lower part of Dagatan up to Cavite's border near Morong province (now Rizal
Rizal
province).[19] On November 9, 1896, Spanish forces laid simultaneous attacks on the two fortified rebel strongholds with many Spaniards losing their lives. At each advancement, more Spanish soldiers were killed, including the officers. Aguinaldo then ordered his soldiers to counterattack at the right moment with the most number of men available for the engagement, and so they did. Huge numbers of Katipuneros rushed into the fight, swarming into several enemy units until one by one they were destroyed piecemeal. When the surviving Spaniards saw that their officers were killed by the defense of Binakayan, they were demoralized with many retreating back to their ships while some of them headed back to Manila, thus, terminating the attack in Binakayan. The Filipinos were in hot pursuit over the enemy, killing stragglers in the process, and it resulted in an utter rout for the Spanish and scattered them apart. The attack on Filipino positions by the Spaniards at Dalahican completely failed, suffering more than 1,000 casualties in the process, and by nightfall on November 11, the battle was over. They tried to retreat back towards Manila
Manila
at the end of the battle, but, now cut off from Manila
Manila
due to Filipino victory at Binakayan, fell back instead to Cavite
Cavite
City. Alvarez's revolutionaries, including those commanded by Aguinaldo who quickly joined the fray after Binakayan as reinforcements, pursued the retreating Spanish and for a while besieged Cavite
Cavite
City, where many Spanish soldiers surrendered to Aguinaldo. Battle of Zapote Bridge[edit] Main article: Battle of Zapote Bridge (1897) The newly appointed Governor-General Camilo de Polavieja
Camilo de Polavieja
now fully aware that the main weight of the revolution was in Cavite, decided to launch a two-pronged assault which would defeat the revolutionaries led by Aguinaldo. He ordered General José de Lachambre
José de Lachambre
with a much bigger force to march against Silang to take on the Katipuneros from the rear, while he himself will engage the Filipinos head on. On February 17, 1897, Aguinaldo ordered soldiers to plant dynamite along the bridge and place pointed bamboo sticks in the river beds below the bridge. Several hours later, 12,000 Spaniards began to cross the bridge. The trap was sprung and the dynamite was detonated, killing several Spanish troops and injuring many more. The rebels then emerged from the bushes and fought hand-to-hand, repelling consecutive waves of enemy troops charging across the river. During this fight Edilberto Evangelista was shot in the head and died. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution's hotbed, and the Aguinaldo-led Katipuneros had a string of victories there. After the battle, the demoralized Spanish soldiers retreated towards Muntinlupa. Spanish Cavite
Cavite
offensive and the Battle of Perez Dasmariñas[edit] Main article: Battle of Perez Dasmariñas On February 15, 1897 the Spaniards launched the powerful Cavite offensive to drive and crush Filipino revolutionaries under General Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
and his Magdalo forces which held numerous victories against the Spanish in the early stages of the revolution. Renewed and fully equipped with 100 cannons, 23,000 Spanish cazadores forces under Major General Jose de Lachambre
Jose de Lachambre
have seen town after town, falling back to the Crown. Starting the offensive at Pamplona, Cavite
Cavite
and Bayungyungan, Batangas, Lachambre's men would later march deep into the heart of Aguinaldo's home province. Having just won the battle of Zapote, Aguinaldo turned his attention at the new Spanish threat determined to recapture most of Cavite. Aguinaldo decided to deploy his forces at Pasong Santol that serves as a bottleneck of Perez Dasmariñas on the way to Imus rendering the Spanish lack of mobility and serving the revolutionaries with natural defensive positions. On February 19, Silang fell to the Spanish juggernaut despite attempts by Filipino forces to defend and then later, recover it. Nine days later, Spanish forces marched into Dasmariñas to reclaim the town. The week after, Spanish troops with good use of artillery pieces they brought along were on the attack again as they moved towards Aguinaldo's capital, Imus. Meanwhile, at the Tejero Convention, Aguinaldo was voted in absentia as the president of the reorganized revolutionary government. Colonel Vicente Riego de Dios was sent by the assembly to fetch Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo who was then in Pasong Santol. The General refused to come, so Crispulo was then sent to talk to his brother. He greeted and talked to his brother and explained his purpose, but Emilio was hesitant to leave his post because of the pending attack of the Spanish in Dasmariñas. In March 1897, a stalemated battle between the revolutionary army of Crispulo Aguinaldo, while taking over General Emilio Aguinaldo's leadership in battle, and the Spanish forces, led by José de Lachambre, occurred in this trail. The Filipinos' resistance was tenacious as ever, refusing to give ground but the far more disciplined Spaniards advanced steadily. Emilio Aguinaldo realizing the size of the enemy and the danger of the situation, sent Magdalo troops to reinforce the threatened salient but Supremo Andres Bonifacio summoned Magdiwang troops under Artemio Ricarte
Artemio Ricarte
to intercept the Magdalo troops to Pasong Santol thus preventing help to the revolutionary soldiers, citing he needed the soldiers elsewhere. The Spaniards pressed the offensive achieving tactical superiority which led to the massacre of the Filipino soldiers, including Aguinaldo's brother. The Spaniards only captured this salient after Crispulo was killed during the battle, and the rebels promptly broke off the engagement and reorganized inside the town. Exploiting the gap among the revolutionaries, the Spaniards decisively defeated the Magdalo forces. Tejeros Convention
Tejeros Convention
and the execution of Bonifacio[edit] Main article: Tejeros Convention Conflict within the ranks of the Katipunan
Katipunan
factions—and specifically between the Magdalo and Magdiwang—led to Bonifacio's intervention in the province of Cavite.[16](pp178–182) The rebels of Cavite
Cavite
were rumored to have made overtures about establishing a revolutionary government in place of the Katipunan.[16](p182) Though Bonifacio acknowledged the existence of the considered Katipunan
Katipunan
as a government, he acquiesced and presided over a convention held on March 22, 1897 in Tejeros, Cavite. The Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
was proclaimed, with Aguinaldo being elected as President, Mariano Trias as Vice-President, Artemio Ricarte
Artemio Ricarte
as Captain-General, Emiliano Riego de Dios as the Director of War and Andres Bonifacio
Andres Bonifacio
was elected Director of the Interior. The results were questioned by Daniel Tirona for Bonifacio's qualifications for that position, Bonifacio was insulted and declared ~ "I, as chairman of this assembly, and as President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, as all of you do not deny, declare this assembly dissolved, and I annul all that has been approved and resolved."[16](p178) Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and reasserted his authority, accusing the Magdalo faction of treason and issued orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction.[16](p188) In April 1897, Aguinaldo ordered the arrest of Bonifacio on some information alleging Bonifacio's involvement in some events at Indang.[20] After the trials Andrés and his brother Procopio were ordered to be executed by firing squad under the command of General Lazaro Macapagal on May 10, 1897 at Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite. Facts leading to Bonifacio's execution remain questionable to this day as Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
had originally opted to have the Bonifacio brothers exiled rather than executed.[21](p249) Retreat to Montalban[edit] Main article: Retreat to Montalban Having lost to the Spanish forces several weeks after the battle of Perez Dasmariñas, Aguinaldo's rear guard fought delaying action against Spanish spearheads until troops and stragglers retreated southwest of Cavite. In late May 1897, with good concealment of retreating soldiers, Aguinaldo, managed to evade the Spanish to establish a link up with Gen. Mamerto Natividad. With the revolutionaries overwhelmed in Cavite, Natividad was commissioned to look for a place of retreat. He found Biak-Na-Bato. The Spanish pursued the Katipunero forces retreating towards central Luzon, killing many of the revolutionaries. However, some of them joined General Manuel Tinio's revolutionary army in Nueva Ecija, where they decisively won the Battle of Aliaga, "The glorious Battle of the Rebellion", only a few weeks after the retreat. Biak-na-Bato[edit] Main articles: Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
and Pact of Biak-na-Bato The Spanish army launched an attack which forced the revolutionary forces under Aguinaldo into a retreat. On June 24, 1897 Aguinaldo arrived at Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel, Bulacan, and established a headquarters there, located in Biak-na-Bato National Park
Biak-na-Bato National Park
in what is now known as Aguinaldo Cave. In late October 1897, Aguinaldo convened an assembly of generals at Biak-na-Bato, where it was decided to establish a constitutional republic. A constitution patterned closely after the Cuban Constitution was drawn up by Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer. The constitution provided for the creation of a Supreme Council composed of a president, a vice president, a Secretary of War, and a Secretary of the Treasury. Aguinaldo was named president.[16](p183–184)

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
with the other revolutionaries on the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.

From March 1897, Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella, the Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines, had been encouraging prominent Filipinos to contact Aguinaldo for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. On August 9, Manila
Manila
lawyer Pedro Paterno
Pedro Paterno
met with Aguinaldo at Biak-na-Bato with a proposal for peace based on reforms and amnesty. In succeeding months, Paterno conducted shuttle diplomacy, acting as an intermediary between de Rivera and Aguinaldo. On December 14–15, 1897 Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, under which Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and "₱800,000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the amount) as an indemnity.[21](p252)[22][e] The documents were signed on December 14–15, 1897. On December 23, Aguinaldo and other revolutionary officials departed for Hong Kong
Hong Kong
to enter voluntary exile. ₱400,000, representing the first installment of the indemnity, was deposited into Hong Kong
Hong Kong
banks. While in exile, Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the so-called " Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Junta" and enlarging it into the "Supreme Council of the Nation".[21](p253) Return to the Philippines
Philippines
and the Philippine Declaration of Independence[edit] Main article: Philippine Declaration of Independence

The flag of the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
designed by Emilio Aguinaldo himself.

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
as a Field marshal
Field marshal
during the battle.

On April 25, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
began. While the war mostly focused on Cuba, the United States
United States
Navy's Asiatic Squadron
Asiatic Squadron
was in Hong Kong, and commanded by Commodore George Dewey, it sailed for the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, in the Battle of Manila
Manila
Bay, the squadron engaged and destroyed the Spanish navy's Pacific Squadron and proceeded to blockade Manila.[21](pp255–256) Several days later, Dewey agreed to transport Aguinaldo from Hong Kong
Hong Kong
to the Philippines aboard the USS McCulloch, which left Hong Kong
Hong Kong
with Aguinaldo on 16 May. arriving in Cavite
Cavite
on 19 May.[24] Aguinaldo promptly resumed command of revolutionary forces and besieged Manila.[21](pp256–257) On May 24, 1898 in Cavite, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator.[25] On May 28, 1898, Aguinaldo gathered a force of about 18,000 troops and fought against a small garrison of Spanish troops in Alapan, Imus, Cavite. The battle lasted for five hours, from 10:00 A.M. to 3:00 P.M. After the victory at Alapan, Aguinaldo unfurled the Philippine flag for the first time, and hoisted it at the Teatro Caviteño in Cavite Nuevo (present-day Cavite
Cavite
City) in front of Filipino revolutionaries and more than 300 captured Spanish troops. A group of American sailors of the US Asiatic Squadron
Asiatic Squadron
also witnessed the unfurling. Flag Day
Flag Day
is celebrated every May 28 in honor of this battle. On June 12 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain
Spain
and on June 18, he issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government.[12](p10) On June 23, Aguinaldo issued a decree replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary government, with himself as President.[12](p35)[15]:Appendix C

First Philippine President[edit] Main article: First Philippine Republic The First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution
Malolos Constitution
on January 21, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan
Bulacan
and endured until capture of Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
by the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic.

Aguinaldo boarding USS Vicksburg following his capture in 1901

On August 12, 1898, American forces captured Manila
Manila
during the Battle of Manila
Manila
and on August 14, 1898 established the United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands, with Major General Wesley Merritt
Wesley Merritt
as the first American Military Governor.[23](pp110–112) On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry. This incident was considered to be the beginning of the Philippine–American War, and culminated in the 1899 Battle of Manila
Manila
between American and Filipino forces. Superior American technology drove Filipino troops away from the city, and Aguinaldo's government had to move from one place to another as the military situation escalated.[21](pp268–270, 273–274) Aguinaldo led the resistance against the Americans but retreated to Northern Luzon. On November 13, 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
disbanded the regular Filipino army and decreed that guerrilla war would henceforth be the strategy. On March 23, 1901, with the aid of Macabebe Scouts, led by Gen. Frederick Funston, Aguinaldo was captured in his headquarters in Palanan, Isabela.[26]:507–509 One of these forces was led by Gen. Macario Sakay who established the Tagalog Republic. On April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States
United States
over the Philippines.[21](pp274–275) After the capture of Aguinaldo, some Filipino commanders continued the revolution. On July 30, 1901, General Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
issued a manifesto saying, "Forward, without ever turning back... All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests!"[21](p275) General Malvar surrendered to U.S. forces in Lipa, Batangas
Lipa, Batangas
on April 16, 1902. The war was formally ended by a unilateral proclamation of general amnesty by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
on July 4, 1902.[27] Post-presidency[edit] American era[edit] Main article: History of the Philippines
Philippines
(1898–1946)

President Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
and Obispo Máximo Gregorio Aglipay, with some Cabinet officials of the First Philippine Republic

Aguinaldo and Quezon during Flag Day, 1935.

During the American period, Aguinaldo supported groups that advocated for immediate independence and helped veterans of the struggle. He organized the Asociación de los Veteranos de la Revolución (Association of Veterans of the Revolution) to secure pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government. Displaying the Philippine flag was declared illegal by the Sedition Act of 1907. However, the Act was amended on October 30, 1919.[28] Following this, Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag, the revolution and the Declaration of Independence. As of 2015[update], his home still stands and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine. Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Philippines
was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president in the Philippine presidential election, 1935, but lost by a landslide to Manuel L. Quezon.[f] The two men formally reconciled in 1941, when President Quezon moved Flag Day
Flag Day
to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence.[28] During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
during World War II, Aguinaldo cooperated with the Japanese, making speeches, issuing articles and radio addresses in support of the Japanese—including a radio appeal to Gen. Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
on Corregidor
Corregidor
to surrender in order to "spare the innocence of the Filipino youth."[29][30](p285) He explained his action by saying, "I was just remembering the fight I led. We were outnumbered, too, in constant retreat. I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events. To me that seemed to be what was happening on Bataan, and it seemed like a good thing to stop."[31] After the combined American and Filipino troops retook the Philippines
Philippines
in 1945, Aguinaldo was arrested along with several others accused of collaboration with the Japanese, and jailed for some months in Bilibid prison.[32] He was released by presidential amnesty.[33](p2) Aguinaldo was 77 when the United States
United States
Government recognized Philippine independence in the Treaty of Manila
Manila
on July 4, 1946, in accordance with the Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
of 1934.[34] Post-American era[edit] See also: History of the Philippines
Philippines
(1946–1965) and History of the Philippines
Philippines
(1965–1986) In 1950, President Elpidio Quirino
Elpidio Quirino
appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Philippine Council of State, where he served a full term. He returned to retirement soon after, dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers' "interests and welfare". He was made an honorary Doctor of Laws, Honoris Causa, by the University of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1953. On May 12, 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12 in order to honor Aguinaldo and the Revolution of 1898 rather than the establishment of the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands
Insular Government of the Philippine Islands
by the United States.[35][36] Although in poor health by this time, Aguinaldo attended that year's Independence Day observances.[37] On August 4, 1964, Republic Act No. 4166 officially proclaimed the twelfth day of June as the Philippine Independence Day and renamed the Fourth of July holiday to "Philippine Republic Day".[38] Death and legacy[edit]

Tomb of Former President Aguinaldo in Kawit.

Aguinaldo was rushed to Veterans Memorial Medical Center
Veterans Memorial Medical Center
in Quezon City on October 5, 1962, under the care of Dra. Juana Blanco Fernandez, MD, where he stayed there for 469 days until he died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on February 6, 1964.[7] A year before his death, he donated his lot and mansion to the government. This property now serves as a shrine to "perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896".[4] In 1964, he published his book, "Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan" (Memoirs of the Revolution). A second publication was made in 1998 during the 100th year anniversary of Philippine Independence. In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
issued a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front. The back features the declaration of the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. Printing was discontinued in 1996, when it was replaced with a ₱5.00 coin one year earlier (with the last production year was stamped in 1995), whose obverse features a portrait of Aguinaldo. Commemoration[edit]

General Headquarters Building of the AFP at Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City..

Camp Aguinaldo
Camp Aguinaldo
is a military headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Philippines
named after the General Emilio Aguinaldo. In 1951, Emilio Aguinaldo College
Emilio Aguinaldo College
a private, non-sectarian institute of education located in Manila
Manila
named after Aguinaldo BRP Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. In 1985, BRP Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo (PG-140) was launched an became the lead ship of the General Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
class patrol vessel of the Philippine Navy. This ship, along with her only sistership BRP Gen. Antonio Luna (PG-141), were made in the Cavite
Cavite
Naval Ship Yard.[39] In 1985, Aguinaldo Museum
Aguinaldo Museum
is a history museum in Baguio, Philippines was established by Cristina Suntay In 1999, Aguinaldo International School Manila is a private school in Ermita, Manila
Manila
named after Aguinaldo The Aguinaldo Highway
Aguinaldo Highway
is a 6-lane, 41-kilometre (25 mi) highway passing through the busiest towns and cities of Cavite
Cavite
named after Aguinaldo The EAC Generals are the varsity teams of Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
College, they currently play at the Universities and Colleges Athletic Association (UCAA) and the National Capital Region Athletic Association (NCRAA)

Personal life[edit] On January 1, 1896, he married Hilaria del Rosario (1877–1921), this was his first wife. They had five children: Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio, Emilio "Jun" R. Aguinaldo Jr., Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo-Sunday, and Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on March 6, 1921 at the age of 44. Nine years later, on July 14, 1930, Aguinaldo married Maria Agoncillo (February 15, 1879 – May 29, 1963) at Barasoain Church. She died on May 29, 1963, a year before Aguinaldo himself.[40] His grandsons Emilio B. Aguinaldo III and Reynaldo Aguinaldo served three-terms as mayor (2007–2016) and vice-mayor of his hometown Kawit, Cavite, respectively. One of his great-grandsons, Joseph Emilio Abaya, was a member of the Philippine House of Representatives representing Cavite's first district (which contained their hometown, Kawit) from 2004 until his appointment as Secretary of Transportation and Communications in 2012, a post he served until 2016, while another great-grandson, Emilio "Orange" M. Aguinaldo IV, married ABS-CBN
ABS-CBN
news reporter Bernadette Sembrano
Bernadette Sembrano
in 2007. In popular culture[edit] 1931 an American Pre-Code documentary film Around the World in 80 Minutes with Douglas Fairbanks, Fairbanks poses and speaks for the camera as he talks with former Philippine president Emilio Aguinaldo.[41] Aguinaldo was also portrayed in various films which featured or centered on the Revolution. He was portrayed by the following actors in these films:

1992 – Raymond Alsona in Bayani. 1993 – Mike Lloren in Sakay 1997 – Joel Torre in Tirad Pass: The Story of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar. 2008 – Johnny Solomon
Johnny Solomon
in Baler. 2010 – Lance Raymundo in Ang Paglilitis ni Andres Bonifacio. 2010 – Dennis Trillo
Dennis Trillo
in official Music Video GMA Lupang Hinirang 2011 – Carlos Morales in Watawat. 2012 – Jericho Ejercito and E.R. Ejercito in El Presidente (lead role) 2013 – Nico Antonio in Katipunan. 2014 – Jun Nayra in Bonifacio: Ang Unang Pangulo. 2015 – Mon Confiado in Heneral Luna. 2018 – Mon Confiado in Goyo: Ang Batang Heneral.

See also[edit]

Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
(seated, center) and ten of the delegates to the first Assembly of Representatives.

First Philippine Republic Republic of Biak-na-Bato Philippine Revolutionary Army Katipunan Tejeros Convention Flag of the Philippines Malolos
Malolos
Congress Independence Day (Philippines) Flag Day Rizal
Rizal
Day Philippine Declaration of Independence List of Presidents of the Philippines El Presidente (film) Tagalog people Philippine Legion of Honor Quezon Service Cross

Notes[edit]

^ January 23, 1899 was the date of Aguinaldo's inauguration as President under the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
of the Malolos Constitution. Previously, he held positions as President of a Revolutionary Government from March 22, 1897 to November 2, 1897, President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic
Biak-na-Bato Republic
from November 2, 1897 to December 20, 1897, Head of a Dictatorial Government from May 24, 1898 to June 23, 1898, and President of another Revolutionary Government from June 23, 1898 to January 22, 1899.[1] ^ March 23, 1901 was the date of Aguinaldo's abduction by Swiss forces.[3] ^ a b The exact date of Aguinaldo's birthdate was March 22, 1869. It can be seen in National Historical Institute's marker in Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite.[4][5](p6)[6](p129)[7] Some sources give other dates.[8][9] ^ a b In the Philippine "Declaration of Independence" his maternal family name is given as Fami.[12](p185 Appendix A)[13] ^ The Mexican dollar at the time was worth about 50 U.S. cents[23](p126) ^ Quezon took 67.99% of the popular vote; Aguinaldo 17.54%

References[edit]

^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". Presidential Museum and Library. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012.  ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". Malacaňan Palace Presidential Museum and Library. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012.  ^ "First Philippine President Emilio F. Aguinaldo 46th Death Anniversary". Manila
Manila
Bulletin Publishing Corporation. February 5, 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ a b "EMILIO F. AGUINALDO (1869–1964)" (PDF). nhi.gov.ph. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2011.  ^ DYAL, Donald H; CARPENTER, Brian B & THOMAS, Mark A (1996). Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War (Digital library). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-28852-4.  ^ OOI, Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor (3 vols). Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576077702. OCLC 646857823.  ^ a b The year of birth on his death certificate was incorrectly typed as 1809. "Philippines, Civil Registration (Local), 1888–1983," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1971-27184-32236-46?cc=1410394&wc=9Z7H-JWG:25272501,114827101,25271303,25290201 : accessed May 2, 2014), Metropolitan Manila
Manila
> Quezon City
Quezon City
> Death certificates > 1964; citing National Census and Statistics Office, Manila. ^ "Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
(1869–1964)". aboutph.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2010.  ^ TUROT, Henri (1900). Les hommes de révolution Aguinaldo et les Philippins [Emilio Aguinaldo, first Filipino president, 1898–1901] (in French). préface par Jean Jaures; translated by Mitchell Abidor. Paris: Librairie Léopold Cerf. ISBN 978-1146599917. OCLC 838009722.  ^ "List of Presidents by tickets". The Philippine Government. PediaPress. p. 162. GGKEY:GCNPHQ24RB1.  ^ "Aguinaldo opens campaign, June 8, 1935". The Philippines
Philippines
Free Press. 8 June 1935. Retrieved 8 March 2014. I do not have any political party behind me, my party is composed of the humble sons of the people, flattered before elections and forgotten after triumph."  ^ a b c Guevara, Sulpicio, ed. (1972) [1898]. The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898–1899. English translation by Sulpicio Guevara. Manila: National Historical Commission. ISBN 9715380557. OCLC 715140.  ^ Karnow, Stanley (1989). "Emilio Aguinaldo". In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. Random House. ISBN 978-0394549750.  ^ Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
y Famy, "Famous Filipino Masons", The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippines, archived from the original on January 3, 2014, retrieved November 11, 2013  ^ a b KALAW, Maximo Manguiat (1926). The Development of Philippine Politics, 1872–1920. Manila: Oriental Commercial Co. OCLC 723615963.  ^ a b c d e f g Agoncillo, Teodoro Andal (1990). History of the Filipino People. Garotech Publishing. ISBN 978-9718711064. 8th edition; 651 pp; 22.2 x 14.4 x 3.4 cm  ^ a b c GUERRERO, Milagros; SCHUMACHER SJ, John (1998). DALISAY, Jose Y, ed. Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People. 5 Reform and Revolution. Project Director: Teresa Maria CUSTODIO. Manila
Manila
/ Pleasantville NY: Asia
Asia
Publishing Company, Limited (Reader's Digest). ISBN 9622582281. OCLC 39734321. Contents: Vol 1 The Philippine Archipelago; Vol 2 The earliest Filipinos; Vol 3 The Spanish conquest; Vol 4 Life in the colony; Vol 5 Reform and revolution; Vol 6 Under stars and stripes; Vol 7 The Japanese occupation; Vol 8 Up from the ashes; Vol 9 A nation reborn; Vol 10 A timeline of Philippine history.  ^ Annual report of Major General George W. Davis, United States
United States
Army commanding Division of the Philippines
Philippines
from October 1, 1771 to July 26, 1903. U.S. War Department. archive.org. 1903. p. 193.  ^ Alvarez 1992, p. 49[citation not found] ^ " Artemio Ricarte
Artemio Ricarte
on the arrest and execution of Bonifacio". Gov PH. Archived from the original on 2013-06-25. Retrieved 14 September 2016. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ a b c d e f g h ZAIDE, Sonia M (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing. ISBN 978-9716420715. 2nd edition; 478 pp; 8.4 x 5.8 x 0.7 inches  ^ AGUINALDO III y FAMILY, Don Emilio, "True Version of the Philippine Revolution", Authorama Public Domain Books, retrieved November 16, 2007  chapter= ignored (help) ^ a b HALSTEAD, Murat (1898). "XII. The American Army in Manila. General Emilio Aguinaldo, during Spanish-American Regime.". The Story of the Philippines
Philippines
and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico (Project Gutenberg).  ^ Agoncillo,, Teodor A. (1990). History of the Filipino people ([8th ed.]. ed.). Quezon City: Garotech. p. 157. ISBN 978-9718711064.  ^ TITHERINGTON, Richard Handfield (1900). A history of the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
of 1898. D. Appleton and Company.  (republished by openlibrary.org)(pp357–358) ^ Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons ^ "GENERAL AMNESTY FOR THE FILIPINOS; Proclamation Issued by the President" (PDF), The New York Times, July 4, 1902, retrieved February 5, 2008  ^ a b Quezon, Manuel L. III (April 2, 2002). "History of the Philippines
Philippines
Flag". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2007.  ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo". philippine-revolution.110mb.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011.  ^ SCHRODER, William (2004). Cousins of Color. Twenty First Century Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-1-904433-13-2. [unreliable source?] ^ " Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Facts".  ^ "Emilio Aguinaldo", Encyclopædia BritannicaOnline, retrieved April 25, 2008  ^ Fredriksen, John C (2001). America's military adversaries: from colonial times to the present. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-603-3.  ^ TREATY OF GENERAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES. SIGNED AT MANILA, ON 4 JULY 1946 (PDF), United Nations, archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011, retrieved December 10, 2007  ^ Diosdado Macapagal, Proclamation No. 28 Declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day, Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, archived from the original on May 12, 2009, retrieved November 11, 2009  ^ Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
(2002), "Chapter 4. June 12 as Independence Day", KALAYAAN (PDF), Philippine Information Agency, pp. 12–15, archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2006  ^ Virata, Cesar E.A. (June 12, 1998). "Emilio Aguinaldo". Asiaweek. Retrieved October 31, 2014.  ^ AN ACT CHANGING THE DATE OF PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE DAY FROM JULY FOUR TO JUNE TWELVE, AND DECLARING JULY FOUR AS PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC DAY, FURTHER AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION TWENTY-NINE OF THE REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE, Chanrobles Law Library, August 4, 1964, retrieved November 11, 2009  ^ Opus224's Unofficial Philippine Defense Page Philippine Naval Force Recognition Guide Archived June 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Who Was Who in American History – the Military. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1975. p. 4. ISBN 0837932017.  ^ " Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Speech in Spanish". Around the World in 80 Minutes with Douglas Fairbanks. YouTube. 26 March 1931.  (video published October 4, 2012)

Further reading[edit]

Aguinaldo, Emilio (1964), Mga Gunita ng Himagsikan  Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984), Philippine History and Government, National Bookstore Printing Press [full citation needed]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Emilio Aguinaldo

The Philippine Presidency Project CAUTUSAN: Gobierno Revolucionario nang Filipinas at the Wayback Machine (archived December 11, 2007) [in Tagalog] A decree dated January 2, 1899 signed by Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
establishing a council of government. Aguinaldo: A Narrative of Filipino Ambitions at the Wayback Machine (archived February 13, 2008) Book written by American Consul Wildman of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
regarding Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
and the Filipino–American War during the early 1900s. General Emilio Aguinaldo's "Confession" at the Wayback Machine (archived May 27, 2008). [in Tagalog] Works by Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
at Internet Archive

Offices and distinctions

Political offices

New title Republic declared

President of the Philippines June 12, 1898 – April 1, 1901 Vacant Office nullified by the United States
United States
by Spain Title next held by Manuel L. Quezon

Articles related to Emilio Aguinaldo

v t e

Lists related to the Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Philippines

List of Presidents List of Vice Presidents

Presidents

Birth Longevity Lifespan Time in office Time as former president

Professional careers

Previous executive experience Inaugurations

Personal life

Education Province Religious affiliation

Candidates

Tickets Former presidents who pursued public office

Other

Elections First Ladies and Gentlemen Currency appearances Unofficial Presidents

Vice Presidents

Birth Death Time in office

Personal life

Place of primary affiliation Second Ladies and Gentlemen

Succession

Line of succession

v t e

Presidents of the Philippines

List

First Republic

Emilio Aguinaldo

Commonwealth

Manuel L. Quezon Sergio Osmeña Manuel Roxas

Second Republic

José P. Laurel

Third Republic

Manuel Roxas Elpidio Quirino Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal Ferdinand Marcos

Fourth Republic

Ferdinand Marcos Corazon Aquino

Fifth Republic

Corazon Aquino Fidel Ramos Joseph Estrada Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Benigno Aquino III Rodrigo Duterte

v t e

Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines

Andrés Bonifacio
Andrés Bonifacio
(Tagalog Republic) Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
(Tejeros, Biak-na-Bato and First Philippine Republic) Miguel Malvar
Miguel Malvar
(First Philippine Republic) Macario Sakay (Tagalog Republic)

v t e

Philippine Revolution

Battles People

Events

Prelude

Novales Revolt Palmero Conspiracy Gomburza

Concurrent

Cry of Pugad Lawin Bonifacio Plan Katagalugan (Bonifacio) Imus Assembly Tejeros Convention Republic of Biak-na-Bato

Elections Pact

Spanish–American War Declaration of Independence Malolos
Malolos
Congress República Filipina Negros Revolution Republic of Negros Republic of Zamboanga

Epilogue

Treaty of Paris Philippine–American War Katagalugan (Sacay) Moro Rebellion Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 Commonwealth of the Philippines Treaty of Manila

Organizations

American Anti-Imperialist League Aglipayan Church Katipunan La Liga Filipina Magdalo faction Magdiwang faction Philippine Constabulary Philippine Revolutionary Army Pulajanes Propaganda Movement

Documents

El filibusterismo Kartilya ng Katipunan La Solidaridad Malolos
Malolos
Constitution Mi último adiós Noli Me Tángere

Symbols

Flags of the Philippine Revolution Flag of the Philippines Lupang Hinirang Spoliarium

v t e

Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1935

Nacionalista Party

President:

Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
(won)

Vice President:

Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
(won)

National Socialist Party

President:

Emilio Aguinaldo

Vice President:

Raymundo Melliza

Other third party candidates

President:

Gregorio Aglipay Pascual Racuyal

Vice President:

Norberto Nabong

v t e

National symbols of the Philippines

Official

Arnis Coat of arms Filipino language Flag "Lupang Hinirang" "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa" Narra Philippine eagle Philippine pearl Sampaguita

Unofficial

Adobo Anahaw Bakya Balangay Barong and Baro't saya "Bayan Ko" Carabao Cariñosa Jeepney Juan de la Cruz Lechon Malacañang Palace Mango Manila Milkfish National Seal Nipa hut Tinikling Sinigang Sipa Waling-waling

National heroes

Emilio Aguinaldo Melchora Aquino Andrés Bonifacio Marcelo H. del Pilar Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat Juan Luna Apolinario Mabini José Rizal Gabriela Silang

v t e

    Quezon Service Cross recipients    

Emilio Aguinaldo Benigno Aquino Jr. Ramon Magsaysay Jesse Robredo Carlos P. Romulo

v t e

    Philippine Legion of Honor recipients    

Chief Commander (Punong Komandante)

Emilio Aguinaldo Hassanal Bolkiah Chiang Kai-shek Dwight D. Eisenhower Leonardo Espina Francisco Franco José P. Laurel Douglas MacArthur Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Sergio Osmeña Jesse Robredo Chino Roces Franklin D. Roosevelt Jaime Sin Achmad Sukarno Lorenzo Tañada Maxwell D. Taylor Claudio Teehankee

Grand Commander (Marangal na Komandante)

Gilbert Teodoro Emilio Yap Fernando Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Augusto Zóbel de Ayala II

Grand Officer (Marangal na Pinuno)

Teodoro Locsin Jr.

Commander (Komandante)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Eulogio Balao Alfredo Montelibano Sr.

Officer (Pinuno)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Manny Pacquiao

Legionnaire (Lehiyonaryo)

Escuadrón 201 Teddy Boy Locsin Edith Nourse Rogers Richard Sakakida

v t e

Cabinet of President Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
(1899–1901)

Prime Minister

Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
(January 21-May 7, 1899) Pedro Paterno
Pedro Paterno
(May 7-November 13, 1899)

Minister of Finance

Mariano Trias (January 21-May 7, 1899) Hugo Ilagan (May 7-November 13, 1899)

Minister of the Interior

Teodoro Sandiko (January 21-May 7, 1899) Severino de las Alas (May 7-November 13, 1899)

Minister of War

Baldomero Villarin (January 21-May 7, 1899) Mariano Trías (May 7-November 13, 1899)

Minister of Welfare

Gracio Gonzaga (January 21-May 7, 1899)

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Apolinario Mabini
Apolinario Mabini
(January 21-May 7, 1899) Felipe Buencamino (May 7-November 13, 1899)

Minister of Public Instruction

Aguedo Velarde (January 21-May 7,1899)

Minister of Public Works and Communications

Maximo Paterno (January 21-May 7,1899)

Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce

Leon Maria Guerrero (May 7-November 13, 1899)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 55092261 LCCN: n50040351 ISNI: 0000 0000 8384 1227 GND: 124878237 NDL: 01201647 BNE: XX1386494 SN

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