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Navan
Navan
Fort (Old Irish: Emain Macha
Macha
([ˈeṽənʲ ˈṽaxə]), Modern Irish: Eamhain Mhacha ([ˈaw̃nʲ ˈw̃axə])) is an ancient ceremonial monument near Armagh, Northern Ireland. According to tradition it was one of the great royal sites of pre-Christian Gaelic Ireland and the capital of the Ulaidh. It is a large circular hilltop enclosure—marked by a bank and ditch—inside which is a circular mound and the remains of a ring barrow. Archeological investigations show that there were once buildings on the site, including a huge roundhouse-like structure which has been likened to a temple. In a ritual act, this timber structure was filled with stones, deliberately burnt down and then covered with earth to create the mound which stands today. It is believed that Navan
Navan
was a pagan ceremonial site and was regarded as a sacred space. It features prominently in Irish mythology, especially in the tales of the Ulster
Ulster
Cycle. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, "the [Eamhain Mhacha] of myth and legend is a far grander and mysterious place than archeological excavation supports".[1] Navan
Navan
Fort is the heart of the larger ' Navan
Navan
complex', which also includes the ancient sites of Haughey's Fort
Haughey's Fort
(an earlier hilltop enclosure), the King's Stables
King's Stables
(a manmade ritual pool) and Loughnashade (a lake which has yielded votive offerings). The name Eamhain Mhacha has been interpreted as "Macha's twins" or "Macha's brooch", referring to a local goddess. 'Navan' is an anglicisation of the Irish An Eamhain.

Contents

1 Name 2 History and purpose 3 In Irish mythology 4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 Texts 8 External links

Name[edit] The Irish name of Navan
Navan
Fort is Eamhain Mhacha, from Old Irish: Emain Macha. The second element refers to the goddess Macha, for whom nearby Armagh
Armagh
(Ard Mhacha) is also named. However, the overall meaning of the name is unclear. It has been interpreted as "Macha's twins" or "Macha's pair" (possibly referring to the two features on the hilltop, or to Navan
Navan
Fort and another nearby monument),[2] or as "Macha's brooch" (possibly referring to the shape of the monument). There are tales that try to explain how the name came about. In the 2nd century AD, Greek geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
noted a place called Isamnion somewhere in southeastern Ulster. Some scholars believe this refers to Emain, and Gregory Toner has derived it from Proto-Celtic *isa-mon ("holy mound"). Others believe it refers to a place on the coast.[3] Eamhain Mhacha, and its short form An Eamhain, was anglicised as 'Owenmagh', 'Nawan' and eventually 'Navan'.[4] History and purpose[edit]

Navan
Navan
Fort seen from the outer bank, the 40-metre mound in the background

Small-scale reconstruction of the circular building which once sat on the site of the mound

Navan
Navan
Fort, sometimes called Navan
Navan
Rath, is a State Care Historic Monument in the townland of Navan. It is on a low hill about 1.6 miles (2.6 km) west of Armagh
Armagh
(at grid ref. area H847 452).[5] The site consists of a circular enclosure 250 metres (820 ft) in diameter, marked by a large bank and ditch encircling the hill. The ditch is on the inside, suggesting the earthwork was symbolic rather than defensive. Inside the enclosure two monuments are visible. North-west of centre is an earthen mound 40 metres (130 ft) in diameter and 6 metres (20 ft) high. South-east of centre is the circular impression of a ring-barrow, about 30 metres (100 ft) in diameter.[6] Flint tools and shards of pottery show activity at the site in the Neolithic
Neolithic
(c. 4000 to 2500 BC).[7] In the 8th century BC (Bronze Age), a ring of timber poles was raised at the western site, where the high mound now stands. It was 35m in diameter and surrounded by a ring ditch with an eastern entrance.[7] This ditch was 45 metres (150 ft) in diameter, 5 metres (16 ft) wide and 1 metres (3 ft) deep. In the 4th century BC (Iron Age) a new wooden structure was built on the same spot. It was a round building attached to a bigger round enclosure, making a figure-of-eight shape, both with eastern entrances. The larger ring of the figure-of-eight was 30 metres (100 ft) in diameter, the smaller about 20 metres (65 ft). The smaller building had a hearth. The structure has been interpreted as a roundhouse with an attached yard or pen, or a building with an attached enclosure for rituals. Finds suggest that at this time the site was occupied by someone of high standing such as a king, chieftain or druid.[7] They include a chape, a finely-decorated pin and the skull of a Barbary monkey, which was likely a pet that was either imported or given as a gift.[8] The structure was rebuilt several times over the following centuries.[7] In the 1st century BC, a huge timber roundhouse-like structure was built on the same spot. It was 40 metres in diameter and consisted of an outer wall and four inner rings of posts (probably holding up a roof), which circled a huge central pillar.[7] This oak pillar has been dated by dendrochronology to the year 95 BC[6]:61 and could have stood about 13 metres tall.[9] The building had a western entrance, towards the setting sun, which suggests it was not a dwelling. A ditch and bank were dug around it. There is evidence that the huge ditch and bank that encircles the hill was dug at about the same time.[10] Not long after it was built, the building was filled with thousands of stones, to a height of nearly 3 metres.[7] This stone cairn was flat-topped and split into wedges, resembling a spoked wheel when seen from above. There is some evidence that the stones came from an older monument in the area, perhaps a passage tomb.[11] The building was then deliberately burnt down before being covered in a mound of earth. It was made up of many soil types, suggesting that soil was brought from surrounding areas.[11] There is archaeological evidence for similar repeated building and burning at Tara and Dún Ailinne.[6]:24-25 It is believed that this sequence of events was a ritual act, but its meaning is unclear and there are several theories. The timber building may have been built only as a temporary structure to be burned, or it may have briefly served as a temple before its ritual destruction.[10] Scholars suggest that the event was a sacrificial offering to the gods and that the structure was symbolically given to the Otherworld by being ritually burned and buried. Dr Chris Lynn has likened it to the 'wicker man' rite allegedly carried out by the Gauls, in which a large wooden effigy is burned with a living sacrifice inside.[7][11] Dr Richard Warner suggests that the mound was made to be a conduit between this world and the Otherworld.[12] It may be an attempt to replicate an ancient burial mound (sídhe), which were believed to be portals to the Otherworld and the homes of ancestral gods.[11] He believes the mound was made as a platform on which druids would perform ceremonies and on which kings would be crowned, while drawing power and authority from the gods and ancestors.[12] It is possible that each part of the monument represents something. The stones inside the wooden structure may represent souls in the house of the dead,[7] or the souls of fallen warriors in their equivalent of Valhalla.[11] Another theory is that the monument symbolizes a union of the three main classes of society: druids (the wooden frame), warriors (the stones) and farmers (the soil).[11] The central pillar could also represent the world pillar or world tree linking the sky, the earth and the underworld.[11] The radial pattern of the stone cairn may represent the sun wheel, a symbol associated with Celtic sun or sky deities.[11] It is thought that the huge outer bank and ditch was made to mark out the hilltop as a sacred space. It could also have been seen as a way of containing the power of the Otherworld within that space.[12] Dr Lynn writes: "It seems reasonable to suggest that, in the beginning of the first century BC, Navan
Navan
was an otherworld place, the home of the gods and goddesses. It was a Celtic tribe's sanctuary, its capitol, its sacred symbol of sovereignty and cohesion".[11] In the 1st or 2nd century BC, a figure-of-eight structure was also built at the eastern site. It was similar to those at the western site and may have been built around the same time as the mound.[13] The larger ring was 30 metres (100 ft) in diameter, the smaller about 20 metres (65 ft). This figure-of-eight structure was then cleared away and replaced by another round wooden structure. It was double-walled, had a central hearth and an eastern entrance. Two graves were found just outside the entrance. This structure was in turn replaced by a ring-barrow: a round mound, usually raised over a burial, surrounded by a ditch and bank.[7] Until 1985, the site was threatened by the growth of a nearby limestone quarry. Due mostly to the efforts of the activist group Friends of Navan, a public inquiry held that year halted further quarrying, and recommended that Navan
Navan
be developed for tourism. A visitor centre, featuring artefacts and audio-visual exhibitions, was opened in 1993, but closed in 2001 for lack of funds.[14] It reopened in 2005 after the site was bought by Armagh
Armagh
City and District Council. Other significant prehistoric sites nearby include Haughey's Fort, an earlier Bronze Age hill fort two-thirds of a mile (1 km) to the west; the King's Stables, a manmade pool also dating to the Bronze Age; and Loughnashade, a natural lake which has yielded Iron Age artefacts. In Irish mythology[edit]

Reconstructed roundhouse at the Navan
Navan
Fort centre

According to Irish mythology
Irish mythology
and historical tradition it was the capital of the Ulaidh, the people who gave their name to the province of Ulster. It was supposedly founded by the goddess Macha
Macha
in the 7th or 5th century BC, and was the seat of Conchobar mac Nessa in the tales of the Ulster
Ulster
Cycle. Conchobar is said to have had three houses at Eamhain Mhacha:

the Cróeb Ruad ("Dark Red Branch", whence derives the nearby townland of Creeveroe) where the king sat; the Cróeb Derg ("Bright Red Branch"), where trophies of battle were kept, and the Téte Brecc ("Speckled Hoard") where the warriors' weapons were stored.

Many of the most famous names in Irish mythology
Irish mythology
are associated with Eamhain Mhacha and the Red Branch warriors.

Amergin the poet Cú Chulainn, the great warrior Emer, his strong-willed and beautiful bride Conall Cernach (Conall the Victorious), his foster-brother and close friend Lóegaire, another warrior Conchobar mac Nessa, king of Ulster Cathbad, the chief druid Fergus mac Róich, another great warrior and king Deirdre
Deirdre
of the Sorrows, the most beautiful woman in Ireland, and Naoise, her brave lover Leabharcham, the wise woman

In mythology, the name Eamhain Mhacha is variously explained as "Macha's twins" (so named because Macha
Macha
gave birth to twins there after being forced to compete in a chariot-race while pregnant) or "Macha's neck-brooch" (so named because Macha
Macha
marked out the bounds of the site with her brooch). The Annals of the Four Masters
Annals of the Four Masters
record that it was abandoned after it was burnt by the Three Collas in 331 AD, after they had defeated Fergus Foga, king of Ulster, in battle at Achadh Leithdheirg. In popular culture[edit]

Entrance to the Navan
Navan
Fort visitors centre

Eamhain Mhacha is the name of an Irish traditional music group formed in 2008.[15] Irish heavy metal band Waylander also has a song called "Emain Macha" on their 1998 album Reawakening Pride Once Lost. "Emain Macha" is the name of a place in the computer games Dark Age of Camelot,[16] Mabinogi and The Bard's Tale. See also[edit]

An sluagh sidhe so i nEamhuin? ("Is this a fairy host in Eamhain Mhacha?") – an Irish poem dated to the late 16th century.

References[edit]

Notes

^ MacKillop, James (2004). A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860967-4.  ^ Newman, Conor. "The making of a royal site in early Ireland". The Past in the Past: the Re-use of Ancient Monuments. Edited by Richard Bradley & Howard Williams. Routledge, 1998. p.139 ^ Warner, Richard (2013). "Ptolemy's Isamnion promontory: rehabilitation and identification". Emania – Bulletin of the Navan Research Group, Issue 21. pp.21-29 ^ Navan, Co Armagh. PlaceNamesNI. ^ " Navan
Navan
Fort" (PDF). Environment and Heritage Service NI – State Care Historic Monuments. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  ^ a b c Lynn, Chris (2003). Navan
Navan
Fort: Archaeology and Myth. Spain: Wordwell Books. ISBN 1-869857-67-4.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Andy Halpin & Conor Newman. Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide to Sites from Earliest Times to AD 1600. Oxford University Press, 2006. pp.95-98 ^ "A Barbary Ape Skull from Navan
Navan
Fort, Co. Armagh". Irish Archaeology. 19 May 2014. ^ A New History of Ireland, Vol 1. Oxford University Press, 2005. p.167 ^ a b James Patrick Mallory, David Brown & Mike Baillie (1999). "Dating Navan
Navan
Fort". Antiquity, Volume 73, Issue 280. pp.427-431 ^ a b c d e f g h i Lynn, Chris. " Navan
Navan
Fort: Home of Gods and Goddesses?". Archaeology Ireland, Volume 7, Issue 1. 1993. pp.17-21 ^ a b c Warner, Richard (2000). "Keeping out the Otherworld: The internal ditch at Navan
Navan
and other Iron Age hengiform enclosures". Emania – Bulletin of the Navan
Navan
Research Group, Issue 18. pp.39-42 ^ Mallory, James Patrick (2002). "Recent excavations and speculations on the Navan
Navan
complex". Antiquity, Volume 76, Issue 292. pp.532-541 ^ Bender, Barabara (2001). "The Politics of the Past: Emain Macha (Navan), Northern Ireland". In Layton, Robert. Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property. Routledge. pp. 199–209. ISBN 0-415-21695-8.  ^ [1] ^ Shadows Edge – DAOC – Emain – Dark Age of Camelot
Dark Age of Camelot
New Frontiers Map

Sources

Ronald Hutton, Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles, 1991

Texts[edit]

Bricriu's Feast Oxford Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Emain Macha.

Navan
Navan
Centre & Fort – Official site at Visit Armagh Navan
Navan
Fort – information at Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Environment Agency Navan
Navan
Research Group – official website "High Hopes for NI Tourist Centre" (BBC News) BBC Timelines Environment and Heritage Service page on Navan
Navan
Fort, with photos Geography in Action: Navan
Navan
Fort The Mysterious Ritual at Emain Macha
Macha
in 94BC

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Cermna Finn Sobairce Ollom Fotla Fínnachta Slánoll Géde Ollgothach Fíachu Findoilches Berngal Ailill mac Slánuill Finn mac Blatha Sírlám Airgetmar Áed Rúad, Díthorba and Cimbáeth Macha Rudraige mac Sithrigi Congal Cláiringnech Bresal Bó-Díbad Fachtna Fáthach Conchobar mac Nessa Fergus mac Róich Fedelm Noíchrothach Deichtine Cúscraid Cormac Cond Longas Findchóem Amergin mac Eccit Conall Cernach Mal mac Rochride Tipraiti Tireach Fiacha Araidhe Cáelbad Fiachnae mac Báetáin Congal Cáech Fergus mac Áedáin Máel Bressail mac Ailillo Mac Creiche

Literature

Scéla Conchobair Táin Bó Cúailnge Compert Con Culainn The Tale of Mac Da Thó's Pig Mesca Ulad Annals of Ulster

Places

Navan
Navan
Fort Hill of Tara Rosnaree County Laois Caherballykinvarga

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Airrther Bairrche Cineál Fhaghartaigh Conaille Muirtheimne Cruthin Cobha Dál Fiatach Dál mBuinne Dál nAraidi Dál nAraidi
Dál nAraidi
in Tuaiscirt Dál nAraidi
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Related articles

Ulaid Red Branch Cú Chulainn Uoluntii Cruthin Ptolemy's Geographia Ulster
Ulster
Cycle List of kings of Ulster Kings of Dál nAraidi Guinness family Gaels Milesians Irians Gaelic nobility of Ireland

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Irish mythology: the Ulster
Ulster
Cycle

Ulster

Conchobar mac Nessa Amergin mac Eccit Athirne Blaí Briugu Bricriu Cathbad Celtchar Cethern mac Fintain Conall Cernach Cruinniuc Cú Chulainn Cúscraid Deichtine Deirdre Fedelm Fedlimid Findchóem Furbaide Láeg Leabharcham Lóegaire Búadach Mugain Neas Naoise Sencha Súaltam

Ulster
Ulster
exiles

Cormac Cond Longas Dubthach Dóeltenga Fergus mac Roích

Connacht

Medb Ailill Finn Ailill mac Máta Bélchú Cet mac Mágach Etarcomol Ferdiad Findabair Flidais Fráech Mac Cécht Nera

Munster

Cú Roí Conganchnes mac Dedad Lugaid mac Con Roí

Others

Achall Aífe Bláthnat Conaire Mór Cairbre Nia Fer Connla Dáire mac Fiachna Emer Éogan mac Durthacht Erc mac Cairpri Fedelm Fir Fálgae Forgall Monach Garb mac Stairn Lugaid Riab nDerg Mesgegra Nechtan Scéne Scáthach Uathach

Supernatural figures

Aengus Bébinn Boann Dáire Étaín Fand Flidais Lí Ban Lug Macha Manannán mac Lir Midir Morrígan Nemain

Creatures

Donn Cuailnge and Finnbhennach Liath Macha
Macha
and Dub Sainglend

Weapons

Caladbolg Fragarach Gáe Bulg Lúin of Celtchar

Locations

Brú na Bóinne Cruachan Cuailghe Dealga Dún Flidhais Eamhain Mhacha Magh Meall Teamhair

Texts

Aided Óenfhir Aífe Compert Con Culainn Fled Bricrenn Mac Da Thó's Pig Mesca Ulad Scéla Conchobair Serglige Con Culainn Táin Bó Cúailnge Táin Bó Flidhais Tochmarc Emire Tochmarc Étaíne Togail Bruidne Dá Derga

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Navan
Fort

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House Hockley Lodge Killeavy Castle The Manor House, Loughgall Raughlan Richhill Castle Tynan
Tynan
Abbey Umgola

Transport and industry

The Barn Museum, Lurgan Craigmore Viaduct MacNeill's Egyptian Arch

See also

.