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ELSTREE /ˈɛlztri/ is a village in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
, England, on the former A5 road, which followed the course of Watling Street
Watling Street
, approximately thirteen miles northwest of central London
London
. In 2011, its population was 5,110. It forms part of the civil parish of Elstree and Borehamwood , originally known simply as Elstree.

The village often lends its shorter name to businesses and amenities in the adjacent town of Borehamwood
Borehamwood
, and the names of Elstree
Elstree
and Borehamwood
Borehamwood
are used interchangeably. Elstree
Elstree
is perhaps best known for the Elstree
Elstree
Film Studios , where a number of famous British films were made, and the BBC Elstree Centre , where the TV soap opera EastEnders
EastEnders
is made; these are both located in Borehamwood.

The local newspaper is the Borehamwood
Borehamwood
and Elstree
Elstree
Times. Together with Borehamwood, the village is twinned with Offenburg in Germany and Fontenay-aux-Roses in France.

CONTENTS

* 1 Transport

* 1.1 Elstree
Elstree
& Borehamwood
Borehamwood
railway station * 1.2 Road links * 1.3 Elstree
Elstree
Aerodrome * 1.4 London
London
Transport works * 1.5 Elstree
Elstree
Grange

* 2 Buildings

* 2.1 Grade II listed buildings * 2.2 Laura Ashley The Manor Hotel * 2.3 Other buildings * 2.4 Schools * 2.5 Earlier schools

* 3 Recreation

* 3.1 Sport * 3.2 Leisure * 3.3 Business and local services * 3.4 Synagogues * 3.5 Parks * 3.6 Elstree
Elstree
Reservoir

* 4 Climate

* 5 History

* 5.1 Etymology * 5.2 5th century: Battle of Ailestreu (Elstree) * 5.3 16th – 18th centuries

* 6 Murders

* 6.1 Martha Ray murder * 6.2 The Elstree
Elstree
murder of William Weare * 6.3 The Elstree
Elstree
murder of Eliza Ebborn

* 7 Administrative districts

* 7.1 Elstree Rural District

* 8 Clubs, societies and organisations * 9 References in the media * 10 Notable residents * 11 References

* 12 Bibliography

* 12.1 Books * 12.2 Journals

* 13 External links

TRANSPORT

ELSTREE "> 27 March 1954 Northbound steam train passing through Elstree
Elstree
& Borehamwood
Borehamwood
railway station.

Elstree
Elstree
655 m) paved runway, suitable most for light aircraft and turbine powered G A aircraft. It also is one of the main helicopter centres for North London
London
and is extending its provision in this area. In the early 1930s it was a grass landing strip for the local Aldenham House country club. A concrete runway was put down during World War II , and Wellington Bombers were modified here.

On 29 November 1975, retired F1 race car driver and Embassy Hill car owner Graham Hill
Graham Hill
and his racing driver Tony Brise were piloting a twin-engine six-seat Piper PA-23-250 Aztec (N6645Y) from France to London
London
with four additional team members aboard. All six were killed when it crashed and burned in heavy fog on Arkley Golf Course, 3 miles (5 km) short of the runway.

LONDON TRANSPORT WORKS

London
London
Transport's Aldenham Works was sited on the edge of Elstree close to the A41; it was opened in 1956, closed in 1986, and demolished in 1996. It is now a large business park.

ELSTREE GRANGE

Originally a 19th-century steam ship owned by the Houlder Brothers , the town also lends its name to a series of ships called the Elstree Grange (rebuilt 1916, 1944, 1979), at one time sunk during the Second World War .

BUILDINGS

GRADE II LISTED BUILDINGS

Holly Bush public house (15th century) House at Elstree designed by E.J. May , and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887.

Elstree
Elstree
is home to a number of Grade II listed buildings , including some at Grade II* (particularly important buildings), such as:

* Holly Bush public house (15th century) * Aldenham House and stable block (c.1672) * The Leys, built in 1901 by Scottish architect and designer, George Henry Walton .

LAURA ASHLEY THE MANOR HOTEL

Laura Ashley The Manor Hotel, formerly known as the Edgwarebury Hotel, is located on Barnet Lane, and operated by Corus Hotels . The Tudor-style building dates back to 1540, was converted into a hotel in the 1960s, and has featured in many TV and film productions, such as the 1968 Hammer Horror classic, The Devil Rides Out . Notable guests have included Peter Sellers
Peter Sellers
, Tom Cruise , John Cleese
John Cleese
and Stanley Kubrick . It was the country home of armaments manufacturer and First Baronet Sir (Arthur) Trevor Dawson , (1866–1931).

OTHER BUILDINGS

A house in Elstree
Elstree
designed by architect Edward John May (1853–1941) was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1887. St Nicholas Parish Church was designed by English architect Philip Charles Hardwick .

SCHOOLS

Elstree
Elstree
is home to Aldenham School , and Haberdashers\' Aske\'s Boys\' School , both independent public schools (ie. fee-paying), Haberdashers\' Aske\'s School for Girls , and St Nicholas Church of England
England
V.A Primary School.

EARLIER SCHOOLS

Since the 1780s, a private school has been located in Elstree.

Elstree School , a boys' preparatory school, was located in Elstree from 1848 until 1938 before moving to Woolhampton , Berkshire
Berkshire
before the outbreak of the Second World War
Second World War
.

Hillside School was located in Elstree
Elstree
between 1874 and 1886, before eventually becoming Dorset House School in 1905, (not to be confused with Hillside School in nearby Borehamwood.)

RECREATION

SPORT

Elstree
Elstree
Cricket Club was formed in 1878, but no longer play in the Herts Saracens League. 18-hole Radlett Park Golf Club was founded in 1984, having recently being renamed from Elstree
Elstree
Golf The Shtiebel, an ultra-orthodox synagogue, and The Liberal Synagogue Elstree, just south of St. Nicholas' Church.

PARKS

Tykes Water bridge

Aldenham Country Park is both a recreational facility and a breeding centre for rare livestock . Section 15 of the London
London
Loop walk passes by. In 1873 nearby Tykes Water stream was dammed in order to create Tykes Water lake. Tykes Water Bridge features in the open credits to the Peter Cushing
Peter Cushing
and Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
film, Dracula A.D. 1972 , and used in several episodes of the Diana Rigg and Linda Thorson seasons of The Avengers , including the final Thorson opening titles.

ELSTREE RESERVOIR

The dam was built in 1795 by French prisoners of war. English watercolour landscape painter John Hassell writes: "At the top of Stanmore Hill we enter on Bushy Heath, and at some distance on the right in the valley catch a view of the celebrated reservoir, the property of the Grand Junction Company, on Aidenham Common, at the foot of the village of Elstree. This noble sheet of water occupies a space of considerable extent on the verge of Aidenham Common, which thirty years ago was a barren waste; here the improvements in agriculture are indeed conspicuous, for at this place a poor, sandy, meagre, wretched soil has now by good husbandry been converted into rich pasturage. "The reservoir has all the appearance of a lake; and when the timber that surrounds it shall have arrived at maturity, it will be a most delightful spot. From this immense sbeet of water, in event of drought or a deficiency of upland waters, the lower parts of the Grand Junction and the Paddington Canals can have an immediate supply. The feeder from this reservoir enters the main stream near Rickmansworth, above Batchworth Mills, and supplies the millers' below with 300 locks of water, to whose interest the Duke of Northumberland is a perpetual trustee."

In 1886, the Photographic Society of Great Britain featured an exhibition of photos of Elstree
Elstree
Reservoir by Edgar Clifton. During World War I
World War I
, then Major Keith Caldwell with No. 74 Squadron RAF, used Elstree
Elstree
Reservoir for target practice. In 1918, one of the pilots accidentally killed a local resident when his machine gun misfired.

CLIMATE

CLIMATE DATA FOR ELSTREE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6 (43) 7 (45) 9 (48) 12 (54) 16 (61) 18 (64) 22 (72) 22 (72) 18 (64) 14 (57) 9 (48) 7 (45) 13.3 (56.1)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1 (34) 1 (34) 2 (36) 4 (39) 6 (43) 9 (48) 11 (52) 11 (52) 10 (50) 7 (45) 3 (37) 2 (36) 5.6 (42.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 69.6 (2.74) 47.2 (1.858) 54.1 (2.13) 53.1 (2.091) 49.8 (1.961) 60.5 (2.382) 41.1 (1.618) 53.6 (2.11) 61.0 (2.402) 74.4 (2.929) 66.0 (2.598) 67.6 (2.661) 698 (27.48)

Source: Monthly averages for Borehamwood
Borehamwood
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The Weather Channel'.' Retrieved 15 October 2011

HISTORY

Elstree
Elstree
War Memorial, Elstree
Elstree
Hill North

ETYMOLOGY

The name "Elstree" derives from the Anglo-Saxon phrase "Tidwulf's Tree", which is mentioned as "Tidulfres treow" in an 11–12th-century manuscript of an A.D. 786 charter. It is thought that "the "T" being lost in the wrong division of 'aet Tidwulfes treo'" (meaning "at Tidwulf's Tree").

In 1723, topographer John Norden noted in his book Speculum Britanniae , that in the country of Hartfordshire (sic) was one "Elstre or Eglestre". In an earlier edition, he writes: "ELSTREE n. 20. in OFFAES grant EAGLESTRE Nemus aquilinum: a place wherit may be thought Eagles bredd in time past, for though it be nowe hilly and heathy – it hath beene replenished with stately trees, fit for such fowle to breede and harbour in. It is parcell of the libertie of S. Albans.

Nemus aquilinum is the Latin for "grove of eagles".

Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe
author, Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
wrote in his 1748 travel guide that: "Idlestrey or Elstre, is a Village on the Roman Watling-street, on the very Edge of Middlesex; but it is chiefly noted for its Situation, near Brockly-hill, by Stanmore, which affords a lovely View cross Middlesex, over the Thames, into Surry."

In 1811, topographer Daniel Lysons
Daniel Lysons
writes: "The name of this place has been variously written; — Eaglestree, Elstree, Ilstrye, Idlestrye, etc. Norden says that it is called, in Offa's grant to the Abbey of St. Alban's, Eaglestree, that is, says he, "Nemus aquilinum, a 'place where it may be thought that eagles bred in time past'." It has been derived also from Idel-street, i.e. the noble road; and Ill-street, the decayed road. May it not have been, rather, a corruption of Eald-street, the old road, i.e. the ancient Watling-street , upon which it is situated?"

5TH CENTURY: BATTLE OF AILESTREU (ELSTREE)

In the 5th century, British warlord Vortigern
Vortigern
and his two sons, Vortimer and Catigern , took part in the Battle of Elstree, then called the Battle of Ailestreu, where the Saxon Horsa was killed. It's possible there is confusion with the Battle of Aylesbury . George Moberly writes: " Nennius , M.H.B. p. 69, calls the place of battle where Hors fell Episford; Britannicè 'Sathenegabail' = the Saxon battle. The Saxon Chronicle, ad a. 455, calls it Ægæles-threp, and Henry of Huntingdon , M.H.B. p. 708, Ailestreu. This would naturally be Elstree, of which name there is a place in Herts; but Beda 's description of its situation has caused it rather to be referred to Aylesford in Kent, near which is a small village called Horsted."

16TH – 18TH CENTURIES

The Manor of Elstree
Elstree
was formerly included in the Manor of Parkbury, and belonged to the Abbey of St. Albans . On the Dissolution of the Monasteries , it was granted by Henry VIII
Henry VIII
, to Anthony Denny (1501–1549).

In 1607, Anthony Denny's grandson Edward Denny sold part of the estate, with all manorial rights, to Robert Briscoe, who sold it the same year to Sir Baptist Hicks . Part of the estate became the Manor of Boreham, and was sold to Edward Beauchamp. It remained with the Beauchamp-Proctor family until 1748, when it was sold to James West , M.P. for St. Albans, who, in or about 1751, alienated it to a Mr Gulston of Widdial. Gulston then sold it to a Mr Pigfatt, a gunsmith, who, within a few years, conveyed it to Thomas Jemmet. In 1774 it was purchased from Mr Jemmet by the late George Byng , M.P. for Middlesex, who passed it on to his son, by which time the estate was called the Manor of Boreham.

In 1776, the House of Lords granted: "An Act for dividing and closing the Common or Waste Ground, called Boreham Wood Common, in the Parish of Elstree
Elstree
otherwise Idletree, in the County of Hertford."

In 1796 topographer Daniel Lysons
Daniel Lysons
writes: "The parish of Elstree contains about 3,000 acres of land, which is divided between arable and pasture nearly in an equal proportion. The soil is, for the most part, clay. Boreham Wood, a waste of nearly 700 acres, was inclosed about the year 1778, and is now in culture. This parish pays the sum of £151 11s 0d to the land-tax, which is raised by a rate of about 1s 9d in the pound".

MURDERS

The burial of William Weare at the parish church in Elstree.

MARTHA RAY MURDER

The Elstree
Elstree
Murder of Eliza Ebborn on 17 August 1882 by George Stratton, as illustrated in The Illustrated Police News Saturday, 11 November 1882

In 1779, Martha Ray (c. 1742–1779), singer and mistress of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich , was buried in the parish church (illustrated, right) after she had been shot dead by the Rev. James Hackman , Rector of Wiveton in Norfolk
Norfolk
.

THE ELSTREE MURDER OF WILLIAM WEARE

In 1823 Elstree
Elstree
became notorious for the Elstree
Elstree
murder of William Weare, killed in Radlett and the body disposed of in a pond in Elstree by John Thurtell. The incident was recalled by Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
in his Weekly Journal. An inquest of the deceased was held on 31 October by county coroner Benjamin Rooke at the local Artichoke public house.

THE ELSTREE MURDER OF ELIZA EBBORN

On 17 August 1882, Eliza Ebborn of Watford
Watford
was murdered by 24-year-old shoemaker George Stratton, who was subsequently sentenced to death. She was buried at Elstree
Elstree
Parish Church.

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS

Elstree Rural District armorial bearings (1957–1974)

Elstree
Elstree
used to be in the Hundred of Cashio, also known as the Liberty of St Albans .

ELSTREE RURAL DISTRICT

From 1941 to 1974, Elstree Rural District was the local government area, before being abolished and merged with Hertsmere . On 20 March 1957, Armorial Bearings were granted. The arms and crest are described as follows: The background of royal ermine, represents the royal visits to and associations with the district, principally the visit of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
and his court to Tyttenhanger in 1525 to avoid the "sweatinge sicknesse" and the visits of Charles II to Salisbury Hall in Shenley. The oak tree with the Saxon crown represents Saxon Elstree – "Tidwulf's tree" – around which the district has grown. The tree also represents Boreham Wood and the district's woodlands, the gold acorns symbolize growth and prosperity. The waves at the base represent the River Colne, Aldenham Reservoir and link with the waves in the arms of the Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
CC and the Greater London
London
Council.The gold saltire on blue is from the arms of the Abbey of St. Albans, the manor of Elstree
Elstree
came into the possession of the Abbey in 1188, and Tyttenhanger in Ridge stands on the site of a former possession of the Abbey, and the whole area lies in the Liberty of St. Albans. The scallop shells, the badge of pilgrims, recalls their passage along Watling Street
Watling Street
through Elstree
Elstree
to St. Albans. The hart is from one of the supporters of the County Council arms, wearing a mural crown, symbol of civic government. The spool of film (unique in civic heraldry) recalls the industry which had made the name of Elstree
Elstree
and Boreham Wood so widely known in modern times. The motto is taken from the wall of Shenley Cage, and also links with the County motto "Trust and fear not". "

CLUBS, SOCIETIES AND ORGANISATIONS

* Elstree
Elstree
And Boreham Wood History Society, (inc. Elstree
Elstree
and Borehamwood
Borehamwood
Museum) * Elstree, Borehamwood
Borehamwood
& Radlett mencap Society. * Elstree
Elstree
Golf -webkit-column-width: 16em; column-width: 16em;"> Napoleon\'s Death Mask , made in 1821 by Elstree
Elstree
resident, Francis Burton M.D., the uncle of explorer Richard Francis Burton
Richard Francis Burton

* John Baxter (1896–1975), film director and producer, lived at Aldahvu, Elstree
Elstree
* Ephraim Beauchamp (d.1728) Baronet and lord of the Manor of Boreham in the parish of Elstree. * Gerry Blattner (1913-1992 approx.), film producer and studio executive. * Ludwig Blattner (1881-1935), film producer and studio owner, lived in Elstree
Elstree
from about 1928 until his suicide at Elstree
Elstree
Golf -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B "Population Density, 2011 (QS102EW)", Neighbourhood Statistics, 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 3 February 2011 * ^ Borehamwood
Borehamwood
and Elstree
Elstree
Times (Website). This was originally the Boreham Wood and Elstree
Elstree
Post, and before that, Boreham Wood & Elstree
Elstree
Local (see British Library record) * ^ "The Borehamwood
Borehamwood
and Elstree
Elstree
Twin Town Association" website. Retrieved 22 September 2011 * ^ E. A. Labrum, Civil engineering heritage: Eastern and central England, Publisher Thomas Telford, 1994, ISBN 0-7277-1970-X , 9780727719706, 282 pages (page 197) * ^ 'Parishes: Elstree', A History of the County of Hertford: volume 2 (1908), pp. 349–351. Date accessed: 20 September 2011. Refers to "Middlesex and Herts Notes and Queries, ii, 190" * ^ Richard Riding and Grant Peerless, Elstree
Elstree
Aerodrome: The Past in Pictures, The History Press Ltd (26 November 2003), ISBN 0-7509-3412-3 , ISBN 978-0-7509-3412-1 , 192 pages. (Back cover) * ^ John M. Houlder, C.B.E., "History of Elstree
Elstree
Aerodrome", at Firecrest Aviation Ltd website. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ "Plane crash kills driver Graham Hill". Pittsburgh Press. (Pennsylvania, U.S.). UPI. November 30, 1975. p. D-1. * ^ "Racing mourns death of Graham Hill". Milwaukee Sentinel. (Wisconsin, U.S.). UPI. December 1, 1975. p. 5, part 2. * ^ "After cheating death 20 years, Hill killed in air crash". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. (Florida, U.S.). Associated Press. December 1, 1975. p. 1C. * ^ Report of the executive committee ... adopted at the annual meeting ..., Issue 15, Publ. Newport Chamber of Commerce (Newport, England), 1899 * ^ Marine news, Volume 54, World Ship Society, 2000 (page 578) * ^ John Malcolm Slader, The fourth service: merchantmen at war, 1939–1945, Publisher Hale, 1994, ISBN 0-7090-4848-3 , ISBN 978-0-7090-4848-0 , 347 pages (page 41) * ^ "Holly Bush Public House", List entry Number: 1103589, at English Heritage. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ " Aldenham House and Stable Block", List entry Number: 1346891, at English Heritage. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ Hermann Muthesius, The English House, Volume 2, Publisher Frances Lincoln ltd, 2006, ISBN 0-7112-2688-1 , ISBN 978-0-7112-2688-3 , 768 pages (pages 188–190) * ^ "The Leys", List entry Number: 1263392, at English Heritage. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ "The Hotel". Laura Ashley Hotels. Retrieved 9 June 2014. * ^ The Edgwarebury Hotel, website. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ Derek Pykett, Freddie Francis, Simon Flynn, "Edgwarebury Corus Hotel", British Horror Film Locations, Publisher: McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3329-9 , ISBN 978-0-7864-3329-2 , 206 pages (page 156) * ^ A B Richard Davenport-Hines, ‘Dawson, Sir (Arthur) Trevor, first baronet (1866–1931)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2009 accessed 21 September 2011 * ^ M. H. Port, ‘Hardwick, Philip (1792–1870)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2008 accessed 25 September 2011 * ^ St Nicholas Church of England
England
V.A Primary School, Website. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ A B Donald P. Leinster-Mackay, The rise of the English prep school, Publisher: Taylor & Francis, 1984, ISBN 0-905273-74-5 , ISBN 978-0-905273-74-7 , 398 pages. (page 28) * ^ "Our History" Dorset House School website. Retrieved 19 September 2011 * ^ " Elstree
Elstree
Cricket Club" at hertsdirect.org website. Retrieved 22 September 2011 * ^ " Elstree
Elstree
CC" at Play Cricket website. Retrieved 22 September 2011. * ^ Saracens Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Cricket League, Elstree
Elstree
CC Club information, website. Retrieved 23 September 2011. * ^ "Welcome To Elstree
Elstree
Golf Club" at The Internet Golf Club. Retrieved 23 September 2011 * ^ Radlett Park Golf Club, website. Retrieved 23 September 2011 * ^ A B " London
London
Loop: Section 15 Hatch End
Hatch End
to Elstree" route details, at Transport for London
London
Website. Retrieved 22 September 2011 * ^ " London
London
Loop: Section 16 Elstree
Elstree
to Cockfosters" route details, at Transport for London
London
Website. Retrieved 22 September 2011 * ^ London
London
LOOP Description and Maps, at the Walk London
London
Website. Retrieved 2 September 2011 * ^ Hugh Prince, Parks in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
since 1500, Publ. Univ of Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Press, 2008, ISBN 0-9542189-9-X , 9780954218997, 334 pages (page 191) * ^ Derek Pykett, Freddie Francis, Simon Flynn, British Horror Film Locations, Publisher: McFarland, 2008, ISBN 0-7864-3329-9 , ISBN 978-0-7864-3329-2 , 206 pages (page 43) * ^ Avengers fan site by John Dineley. "On Location 4: Tyke\'s Water Lakes". Retrieved 23 September 2011. * ^ London
London
LOOP, Section 15, Hatch End
Hatch End
to Elstree
Elstree
(page 3) * ^ John Hassell, "Tour of the Grand Junction", Printed for J. Hassell, 1819. (page 11) * ^ "1886 Photographic Society of Great Britain Exhibition", Catalogue records from the annual exhibitions, Exhibitions of the Royal Photographic Society 1870–1915, Exhibition, at De Montfort University website. Retrieved 20 September 2011 * ^ Ira Jones, King of Air Fighters: The Biography of Major "Mick" Mannock, VC, DSO, MC, Casemate Publishers, 2009, ISBN 1-932033-99-8 , ISBN 978-1-932033-99-1 , 340 pages. (page 198) * ^ Flight magazine, Stanley Spooner, editor. No. 471. (No. 1, Vol. X.) 3 January 1918. (page 1014) * ^ George Salveson & Lyn Blackmore, "Excavations at Elstree
Elstree
Hill South, 1981 – 1983", Transactions of the London
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Mawer, A.; Stenton, F.M. eds., "The place-names of Hertfordshire", English Place-Name Society, 15 (1938) * ^ John Norden, Speculum Britanniæ: an historical and chorographical description of Middlesex and Hartfordshire, Published 1723 (page 5 (65)) * ^ Speculi Britaniae pars the description of Hartfordshire by Iohn Norden., London, Printed by Thomas Dawson, 1598 (page 17) * ^ Daniel Defoe, A tour through the whole island of Great Britain: Divided into circuits or journeys, Printed for S. Birt, T. Osborne, 1748. (page 175) * ^ Daniel Lysons, The Environs of London: pt.1. Surrey. Volume 1, Part 2 of The Environs of London: Being an Historical Account of the Towns, Villages, and Hamlets, Within Twelve Miles of that Capital: Interspersed with Biographical Anecdotes, Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1811. (page 767) * ^ Edw Stillingfleet, Origines Britannicae; or, the antiquities of the British churches. Publisher University Press, 1842, 582 pages (page 482) * ^ George Herbert Moberly (1837–1895), Bede, the Venerable, Saint, 673–735; Publ. 1881 Oxonii: E Typographeo Clarendoniano (page 37) * ^ A B C D E F Daniel Lysons, 'The Environs of London: Counties of Herts, Essex or, Delineations... of each county, Publ. 1808 (page 316) * ^ "The twelve churches; or, tracings along the Watling Street", Publisher Rivingtons, 1860, 56

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