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Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U.S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years[8] from 1892 until 1954. Ellis Island was opened January 1, 1892. The island was greatly expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and later a naval magazine. The island was made part of the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument in 1965 and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990. It was long considered part of New York, but a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey.[9] The south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant
Immigrant
Hospital, is closed to the general public and the object of restoration efforts spearheaded by Save Ellis Island.

Contents

1 Geography and access 2 Early history 3 Immigrant
Immigrant
inspection station

3.1 Primary inspection 3.2 Medical inspections 3.3 Eugenic influence 3.4 Detention and deportation station 3.5 Staff 3.6 Records 3.7 Notable immigrants

4 Immigration
Immigration
museum

4.1 South side of the island

5 State sovereignty dispute 6 Renovations and plans 7 Emergency services 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Sources

11 Further reading 12 External links

Geography and access[edit] Ellis Island
Ellis Island
is in Upper New York Bay, east of Liberty State Park
Liberty State Park
and north of Liberty Island, in Jersey City, New Jersey, with a small section that is part of New York City.[10][11] Largely created through land reclamation, the island has a land area of 27.5 acres (11.1 ha), most of which is part of New Jersey. The 2.74-acre (1.11 ha) natural island and contiguous areas comprise the 3.3 acres (1.3 ha) that are part of New York.[11][12] The island has been owned and administered by the federal government of the United States since 1808 and operated by the National Park Service since 1965.[13] Since the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001, the island is guarded by patrols of the United States Park Police
United States Park Police
Marine Patrol Unit. Public access is by ferry from either Communipaw Terminal
Communipaw Terminal
in Liberty State Park or from the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan. The ferry operator, Hornblower Cruises
Hornblower Cruises
and Events, also provides service to the nearby Statue of Liberty.[14] A bridge built for transporting materials and personnel during restoration projects connects Ellis Island with Liberty State Park
Liberty State Park
but is not open to the public. The city of New York and the private ferry operator at the time opposed proposals to use it or replace it with a pedestrian bridge.[15] Much of the island, including the entire south side, has been closed to the public since 1954. The renovated area on the north side was again closed to the public after Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
in October 2012.[16] The island was re-opened to the public and the museum partially re-opened on October 28, 2013, after major renovations.[17][18][19] Early history[edit] Originally much of the west shore of Upper New York Bay
Upper New York Bay
consisted of large tidal flats which hosted vast oyster banks, a major source of food for the Lenape
Lenape
population who lived in the area prior to the arrival of Dutch settlers. There were several islands which were not completely submerged at high tide. Three of them (later to be known as Liberty Island, Black Tom Island and Ellis Island) were given the name Oyster
Oyster
Islands by the settlers of New Netherland, the first European colony in the region. The oyster beds remained a major source of food for nearly three centuries.[20][21][22] Landfilling to build the railyards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad
Lehigh Valley Railroad
and the Central Railroad of New Jersey
New Jersey
eventually obliterated the oyster beds, engulfed one island, and brought the shoreline much closer to the others.[23] During the colonial period, Little Oyster
Oyster
Island was known as Dyre's, then Bucking Island. In the 1760s, after some pirates were hanged from one of the island's scrubby trees, it became known as Gibbet Island.[24] It was acquired by Samuel Ellis, a colonial New Yorker and merchant possibly from Wales, around the time of the American Revolution.[25] In 1785, he unsuccessfully attempted to sell the island:[26]

TO BE SOLD By Samuel Ellis, no. 1, Greenwich Street, at the north river near the Bear Market, That pleasant situated Island called Oyster
Oyster
Island, lying in New York Bay, near Powle's Hook, together with all its improvements which are considerable;... — Samuel Ellis advertising in Loudon's New York-Packet, January 20, 1785

The State of New York leased the island in 1794 and started to fortify it in 1795. Ownership was in question and legislation was passed for acquisition by condemnation in 1807 and then ceded to the United States in 1808.[27] Shortly thereafter the War Department established a circular stone 14-gun battery, a mortar battery (possibly of six mortars), magazine, and barracks.[28][29][30] This was part of what was later called the second system of U.S. fortifications. From 1808 until 1814 it was a federal arsenal. The fort was initially called Crown Fort, but by the end of the War of 1812
War of 1812
the battery was named Fort Gibson, after Colonel James Gibson of the 4th Regiment of Riflemen, killed in the Siege of Fort Erie
Siege of Fort Erie
during the war.[31][32] Parts of the wall foundations of the fort were uncovered while excavating for the Immigrant
Immigrant
Wall of Honor, and they are preserved with an interpretive plaque. The island remained a military post for nearly 80 years[33] before it was selected to be a federal immigration station. Immigrant
Immigrant
inspection station[edit]

Ellis Island
Ellis Island
buildings circa 1893

First Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigrant
Immigrant
Station, opened on January 1, 1892. Built of wood, it was completely destroyed by fire on June 15, 1897.

Second Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigration
Immigration
Station, opened on December 17, 1900, as seen in 1905

In the 35 years before Ellis Island
Ellis Island
opened, more than eight million immigrants arriving in New York City
New York City
had been processed by officials at Castle Garden Immigration
Immigration
Depot in Lower Manhattan, just across the bay.[33] The federal government assumed control of immigration on April 18, 1890, and Congress appropriated $75,000 to construct America's first federal immigration station on Ellis Island. Artesian wells were dug, and fill material was hauled in from incoming ships' ballast and from construction of New York City's subway tunnels, which doubled the size of Ellis Island
Ellis Island
to over six acres. While the building was under construction, the Barge Office nearby at the Battery was used for immigrant processing. The first station was a three-story-tall structure with outbuildings, built of Georgia Pine, containing the amenities thought to be necessary. It opened with fanfare on January 1, 1892.[24] Three large ships landed on the first day, and 700 immigrants passed over the docks. Almost 450,000 immigrants were processed at the station during its first year. On June 15, 1897, a fire of unknown origin, possibly caused by faulty wiring, turned the wooden structures on Ellis Island into ashes. No loss of life was reported, but most of the immigration records dating back to 1855 were destroyed. About 1.5 million immigrants had been processed at the first building during its five years of use. Plans were immediately made to build a new, fireproof immigration station. During the construction period, passenger arrivals were again processed at the Barge Office.[24] Edward Lippincott Tilton and William A. Boring won the 1897 competition to design the first phase, including the Main Building (1897–1900), Kitchen and Laundry Building (1900–01), Main Powerhouse (1900–01), and the Main Hospital Building (1900–01).[34] The present main structure was designed in French Renaissance Revival style and built of red brick with limestone trim. After it opened on December 17, 1900, the facilities proved barely able to handle the flood of immigrants that arrived in the years before World War I. In 1913, writer Louis Adamic
Louis Adamic
came to America from Slovenia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and described the night he and many other immigrants slept on bunk beds in a huge hall. Lacking a warm blanket, the young man "shivered, sleepless, all night, listening to snores" and dreams "in perhaps a dozen different languages". The facility was so large that the dining room could seat 1,000 people. It is reported the island’s first immigrant to be processed through was a teenager named Annie Moore from County Cork in Ireland.[35] After its opening, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was again expanded, and additional structures were built. By the time it closed on November 12, 1954, 12 million immigrants had been processed by the U.S. Bureau of Immigration.[33] It is estimated that 10.5 million immigrants departed for points across the United States from the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, just across a narrow strait.[36][37] Others would have used one of the other terminals along the North River (Hudson River) at that time.[38] At first, the majority of immigrants arriving through the station were Northern and Western Europeans (Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Great Britain, and the Scandinavian countries). Eventually, these groups of peoples slowed in the rates that they were coming in, and immigrants came in from Southern and Eastern Europe, including Jews. Many reasons these immigrants came to the United States included escaping political and economic oppression, as well as persecution, destitution, and violence. Other groups of peoples being processed through the station were Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Serbs, Slovaks, Greeks, Syrians, Turks, and Armenians.[8]

Arriving at Ellis, circa 1908 (Photo by Lewis Hine)

Primary inspection[edit] Between 1905 and 1914, an average of one million immigrants per year arrived in the United States. Immigration
Immigration
officials reviewed about 5,000 immigrants per day during peak times at Ellis Island.[39] Two-thirds of those individuals emigrated from eastern, southern and central Europe.[40] The peak year for immigration at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was 1907, with 1,004,756 immigrants processed. The all-time daily high occurred on April 17, 1907, when 11,747 immigrants arrived.[24] After the Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1924 was passed, which greatly restricted immigration and allowed processing at overseas embassies, the only immigrants to pass through the station were those who had problems with their immigration paperwork, displaced persons, and war refugees.[41] Today, over 100 million Americans — about one-third to 40% of the population of the United States — can trace their ancestry to immigrants who arrived in America at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
before dispersing to points all over the country.[42] Generally, those immigrants who were approved spent from two to five hours at Ellis Island. Arrivals were asked 29 questions including name, occupation, and the amount of money carried. It was important to the American government the new arrivals could support themselves and have money to get started. The average the government wanted the immigrants to have was between 18 and 25 dollars ($600 in 2015 adjusted for inflation). Those with visible health problems or diseases were sent home or held in the island's hospital facilities for long periods of time. More than 3,000 would-be immigrants died on Ellis Island
Ellis Island
while being held in the hospital facilities. Some unskilled workers were rejected because they were considered "likely to become a public charge." About 2% were denied admission to the U.S. and sent back to their countries of origin for reasons such as having a chronic contagious disease, criminal background, or insanity.[43] Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was sometimes known as "The Island of Tears" or "Heartbreak Island"[44] because of those 2% who were not admitted after the long transatlantic voyage. The Kissing Post is a wooden column outside the Registry Room, where new arrivals were greeted by their relatives and friends, typically with tears, hugs, and kisses.[45][46] During World War I, the German sabotage of the Black Tom Wharf ammunition depot damaged buildings on Ellis Island. The repairs included the Main Hall's current barrel-vaulted ceiling. Medical inspections[edit] To support the activities of the United States Bureau of Immigration, the United States Public Health Service
United States Public Health Service
operated an extensive medical service at the immigrant station, called U.S. Marine Hospital Number 43, more widely known as the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigrant
Immigrant
Hospital. It was the nation's largest marine hospital. Uniformed military surgeons staffed the medical division, which was active in the hospital wards, the Barge Office at the Battery and the Main Building. They are best known for the role they played during the line inspection, in which they employed unusual techniques such as the use of the buttonhook to examine immigrants for signs of eye diseases (particularly, trachoma) and the use of a chalk mark code. Symbols were chalked on the clothing of potentially sick immigrants following the six-second medical examination. The doctors would look at the immigrants as they climbed the stairs from the baggage area to the Great Hall. Immigrants' behavior would be studied for difficulties in getting up the staircase. Some immigrants supposedly entered the country by surreptitiously wiping the chalk marks off, or by turning their clothes inside out.[47] The symbols used were:

B – Back C – Conjunctivitis TC – Trachoma E – Eyes F – Face FT – Feet G – Goiter H – Heart K – Hernia L – Lameness N – Neck P – Physical and Lungs PG – Pregnancy S – Senility SC – Scalp
Scalp
(Favus) X – Suspected Mental defect ⓧ – Definite signs of Mental defect

U.S. Immigrant
Immigrant
Inspectors used some other symbols or marks as they interrogated immigrants in the Registry Room to determine whether to admit or detain them, including:

SI – Special
Special
Inquiry IV – Immigrant
Immigrant
Visa LPC – Likely or Liable to become a Public Charge Med. Cert. – Medical certificate issued

Eugenic influence[edit]

Play media

Film by Edison Studios
Edison Studios
showing immigrants disembarking from the steam ferryboat William Myers, July 9, 1903

Dormitory room for detained immigrants

Many of the people immigrating to America hailed from Europe, with Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Southern European immigrants being the primary groups. During this time period, eugenic ideals gained broad popularity and made heavy impact on immigration to the United States by way of exclusion of disabled and "morally defective" people.[citation needed] Eugenicists of the late 19th and early 20th century believed reproductive selection should be carried out by the state as a collective decision.[48] For many eugenicists, this was considered a patriotic duty as they held an interest in creating a greater national race. Henry Fairfield Osborn's opening words to the New York Evening Journal in 1911 were, "As a biologist as well as a patriot...," on the subject on advocating for tighter inspections of immigrants of the United States.[49] Eugenic selection occurred on two distinguishable levels:

State/Local levels which handles institutionalization and sterilization of those considered defective as well as the education of the public, marriage laws, and social pressures such as fitter family and better baby contests.[citation needed] Immigration
Immigration
control, the screening of immigrants for defects, was notably supported by Harry Laughlin, superintendent of the Eugenics Record Office from 1910 to 1939, who stated that this was where the "federal government must cooperate."[50]

At the time, it was a broadly popular idea that immigration policies had ought to be based off eugenics principles in order to help create a "superior race" in America. To do this, defective persons needed to be screened by immigration officials and denied entry on the basis of their disability.[51] Types of defects screened for included:

Physical: people who had hereditary or acquired physical disability. These included sickness and disease, deformity, lack of limbs, being abnormally tall or short, feminization, and so forth.[citation needed][49] Mental: people who showed signs or history of mental illness and intellectual disability. These included "feeblemindedness", "imbecility", depression, and other illnesses that stemmed from the brain such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy.[citation needed] Moral: people who had moral defects at the time were, but not limited to: homosexuals and those of illicit sexuality, criminals, impoverished, and other groups associated with "degeneracy" that deviated from the considered norm or American society at the time.[citation needed]

The people with moral or mental disability were of higher concern to officials and under the law, mandatorily excluded from immigrating to the United States. Persons with physical disability were under higher inspection and could be turned way on the basis of their disability. Much of this came in part of the eugenicist belief that defects were hereditary, especially those of the moral and mental nature those these were often outwardly signified by physical deformity as well.[48] In 1898, a Chicago surgeon named Eugene S. Talbot (Eugene Solomon) wrote "crime is hereditary, a tendency which is, in most cases, associated with bodily defects."[52] Likewise, George Lydston, a medicine and criminal anthropology professor, argued further in 1906 that people with "defective physique" were not just criminally associated but that defectiveness was a primary factor "in the causation of crime."[53] Between 1891 and 1930, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
reviewed over 25 million attempted immigrations. Of this 25 million, 700,000 were given certificates of disability or disease and of these 79,000 were barred from entry. Approximately 4.4% of immigrants between 1909 and 1930 were classified as disabled or diseased per with 11% being deported when this number spiked to 8.0% in the years of 1918-1919. One percent of immigrants were deported yearly due to medical causes.[54] Detention and deportation station[edit]

Radicals awaiting deportation, 1920

Immigrants being inspected, 1904

With the passing of the Emergency Quota Act
Emergency Quota Act
of 1921, the number of immigrants being allowed into the United States declined greatly. The passing of the bill ended the era of mass immigration.[8] After 1924, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
became primarily a detention and deportation processing station.[24][55] During and immediately following World War II, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was used to hold German merchant mariners and "enemy aliens"—Axis nationals detained for fear of spying, sabotage, and other fifth column activity. In December 1941, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
held 279 Japanese, 248 Germans, and 81 Italians removed from the East Coast.[56] Unlike other wartime immigration detention stations, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was designated as a permanent holding facility and was used to hold foreign nationals throughout the war.[57] A total of 7,000 Germans, Italians and Japanese would be ultimately detained at Ellis Island.[24] It was also a processing center for returning sick or wounded U.S. soldiers, and a Coast Guard training base. Ellis Island
Ellis Island
still managed to process tens of thousands of immigrants per year during this time, but many fewer than the hundreds of thousands per year who arrived before the war. After the war, immigration rapidly returned to earlier levels. The Internal Security Act of 1950
Internal Security Act of 1950
barred members of communist or fascist organizations from immigrating to the United States. Ellis Island saw detention peak at 1,500, but by 1952, after changes to immigration laws and policies, only 30 detainees remained.[24] One of the last detainees was the Indonesian Aceh
Aceh
separatist Hasan di Tiro who, while a student in New York in 1953, declared himself the "foreign minister" of the rebellious Darul Islam movement.[58] Due to this action, he was immediately stripped of his Indonesian citizenship, causing him to be imprisoned for a few months on Ellis Island as "an illegal alien."[58] Staff[edit] The station's commissioners were:[59][60]

1890–1893 Colonel John B. Weber
John B. Weber
(Republican)[61] 1893–1897 Dr. Joseph H. Senner (Democrat) 1898–1902 Thomas Fitchie (Republican) 1902–1905 William Williams (Republican) 1905–1909 Robert Watchorn (Republican) 1909–1913 William Williams (Republican), 2nd term 1914–1919 Dr. Frederic C. Howe
Frederic C. Howe
(Democrat) 1920–1921 Frederick A. Wallis (Democrat) 1921–1923 Robert E. Tod (Republican) 1923–1926 Henry C. Curran (Republican) 1926–1931 Benjamin M. Day (Republican) 1931–1934 Edward Corsi (Republican) 1934–1940 Rudolph Reimer (Democrat) 1940–1942 Byron H. Uhl (actual title: district director) 1942–1949 W. Frank Watkins (district director) 1949–1954 Edward J. Shaughnessy (district director)

Other notable officials at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
included James R. O'Beirne (assistant commissioner, 1890–93), Edward F. McSweeney (assistant commissioner, 1893-1902), Joseph E. Murray (assistant commissioner, 1902–09), Byron Uhl (assistant commissioner, 1909-1940), Dr. George W. Stoner (chief surgeon), Augustus Frederick Sherman (chief clerk), Dr. Victor Heiser (surgeon) (surgeon), Dr. Thomas W. Salmon (surgeon), Dr. Howard Knox (surgeon), Antonio Frabasilis (interpreter), Peter Mikolainis (interpreter), Maud Mosher (matron), Fiorello H. La Guardia (interpreter), Samuel Hays, (special immigrant inspector)Roman Dobler (immigrant inspector), Philip Cowen (immigrant inspector), Philip Forman (immigrant inspector, 1930s; chief of detention, deportation and parole, 1940s, 1950s) and De Jalma West (immigrant inspector). Prominent amongst the missionaries and immigrant aid workers were Rev. Michael J. Henry and Rev. Anthony J. Grogan (Irish Catholic), Rev. Gaspare Moretto (Italian Catholic), Alma E. Mathews (Methodist), Rev. Georg Doring (German Lutheran), Rev. Joseph L'Etauche (Polish Catholic), Rev. Reuben Breed (Episcopal), Michael Lodsin (Baptist), Brigadier Thomas Johnson (Salvation Army), Ludmila K. Foxlee (YWCA), Athena Marmaroff (Woman's Christian Temperance Union), Alexander Harkavy (HIAS), and Cecilia Greenstone and Cecilia Razovsky (National Council of Jewish Women). Records[edit]

Play media

Scenes at the Immigration
Immigration
Depot and a nearby dock on Ellis Island

Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1902

See also: Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Special A myth persists that government officials on Ellis Island
Ellis Island
compelled immigrants to take new names against their wishes.[62][63] In fact, no historical records bear this out. Immigration
Immigration
inspectors used the passenger lists they received from the steamship companies to process each foreigner. These were the sole immigration records for entering the country and were prepared not by the U.S. Bureau of Immigration but by steamship companies such as the Cunard Line, the White Star Line, the North German Lloyd Line, the Hamburg-Amerika Line, the Italian Steam Navigation Company, the Red Star Line, the Holland America Line, and the Austro-American Line.[64][65] The Americanization of many immigrant families' surnames was for the most part adopted by the family after the immigration process, or by the second or third generation of the family after some assimilation into American culture. However, many last names were altered slightly because of the disparity between English and other languages in the pronunciation of certain letters of the alphabet.[66] Notable immigrants[edit] Main article: List of notable Ellis Island
Ellis Island
immigrants The first immigrant to pass through Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was Annie Moore, a 17-year-old girl from Cork, Ireland, who arrived on the ship Nevada on January 1, 1892.[67] She and her two brothers were coming to America to meet their parents, who had moved to New York two years prior. She received a greeting from officials and a $10 gold coin.[68] It was the largest sum of money she had ever owned. The last person to pass through Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was Norwegian merchant seaman Arne Peterssen in 1954. Immigration
Immigration
museum[edit]

Approach to the museum building.

Ceiling of the Great Hall.

East side of the main building.

Main Building, which now houses the Immigration
Immigration
Museum

Great Hall, where immigrants were processed

See also: American Museum of Immigration The wooden structure built in 1892 to house the immigration station burned down after five years. The station's new Main Building, which now houses the Immigration
Immigration
Museum, was opened in 1900.[69] Architects Edward Lippincott Tilton
Edward Lippincott Tilton
and William Alciphron Boring
William Alciphron Boring
received a gold medal at the 1900 Paris Exposition for the building's design and constructed the building at a cost of $1.5 million.[70] The architecture competition was the second under the Tarsney Act, which had permitted private architects rather than government architects in the Treasury Department's Office of the Supervising Architect to design federal buildings.[71] After the immigration station closed in November 1954, the buildings fell into disrepair and were abandoned. Attempts at redeveloping the site were unsuccessful until its landmark status was established. On October 15, 1965, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was proclaimed a part of Statue of Liberty National Monument. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Boston-based architectural firm Finegold Alexander + Associates Inc, together with the New York architectural firm Beyer Blinder Belle, designed the restoration and adaptive use of the Beaux-Arts Main Building, one of the most symbolically important structures in American history. A construction budget of $150 million was required for this significant restoration. This money was raised by a campaign organized by the political fundraiser Wyatt A. Stewart.[72] The building reopened on September 10, 1990.[73] Exhibits include Hearing Room, Peak Immigration
Immigration
Years, the Peopling of America, Restoring a Landmark, Silent Voices, Treasures from Home, and Ellis Island Chronicles. There are also three theaters used for film and live performances.[74] On May 20, 2015, the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigration
Immigration
Museum was officially renamed the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
National Museum of Immigration, coinciding with the opening of the new Peopling of America galleries. The expansion tells the entire story of American immigration, including before and after the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
era. The Peopling of America Center was designed by ESI Design and fabricated by Hadley Exhibits, Inc. The architectural design was done by Highland Associates, with construction executed by Phelps Construction Group.[75] The Wall of Honor outside of the main building contains a partial list of immigrants processed on the island.[76] Inclusion on the list is made possible by a donation to support the facility. In 2008 the museum's library was officially named the Bob Hope Memorial Library in honor of one the station's most famous immigrants. The Ellis Island Medal of Honor is awarded annually at ceremonies on the island. South side of the island[edit]

Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Hospital

The New Ferry
Ferry
Building was built in 1936 in Art Deco style and is located in the so-called "hyphen" at the foot of the ferry basin, connecting the north and south sides of the island.

The south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public and the object of restoration efforts spearheaded by Save Ellis Island. Many of the facilities at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
were abandoned and remain unrenovated.[77] The entire south side, called by some the "sad side" of the island, is off limits to the general public. The Ellis Island Immigrant
Immigrant
Hospital operated here from early 1902 to 1930.[78][79] The foundation Save Ellis Island
Save Ellis Island
is spearheading preservation efforts. The New Ferry
Ferry
Building, built in the Art Deco style to replace an earlier one, was renovated in 2008, but remains only partially accessible to the general public.[80] As part of the National Park Service's Centennial Initiative, the south side of the island was to be the target of a project to restore the 28 buildings that have not yet been rehabilitated.[81] State sovereignty dispute[edit]

Mid-December 2014 aerial view of the area. In the foreground is Ellis Island, and behind it is Liberty State Park
Liberty State Park
and Downtown Jersey City

The circumstances which led to an exclave of New York being located within New Jersey
New Jersey
began in the colonial era, after the British takeover of New Netherland
New Netherland
in 1664. An unusual clause in the colonial land grant outlined the territory that the proprietors of New Jersey would receive as being "westward of Long Island, and Manhitas Island and bounded on the east part by the main sea, and part by Hudson's river",[82] rather than at the river's midpoint, as was common in other colonial charters.[83] Attempts were made as early as 1804 to resolve the status of the state line.[84] The City of New York
City of New York
claimed the right to regulate trade on all the waters. This was contested in Gibbons v. Ogden,[85] which decided that the regulation of interstate commerce fell under the authority of the federal government, thus influencing competition in the newly developing steam ferry service in New York Harbor. In 1830, New Jersey
New Jersey
planned to bring suit to clarify the border, but the case was never heard.[86] The matter was resolved with a compact between the states, ratified by U.S. Congress in 1834, which set the boundary line between them as the middle of the Hudson River and New York Harbor.[87] This was later confirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court in other cases which also expounded on the compact.[23][88][89] The federal government, which had bought the island in 1808, began expanding the island by land fill, to accommodate the immigration station opened in 1892. Land filling continued in stages until 1934.[90] Nine-tenths of the current area is artificial island that did not exist at the time of the interstate compact. New Jersey
New Jersey
contended that the new extensions were part of New Jersey, since they were outside New York's border and were in fact within New Jersey's border. In 1956, after the 1954 closing of the U.S. immigration station, the then Mayor of Jersey City, Bernard J. Berry, commandeered a U.S. Coast Guard cutter and led a contingent of New Jersey
New Jersey
officials on an expedition to claim the island.[91] In 1997, the state filed suit to establish its jurisdiction, leading New York City
New York City
Mayor Rudolph Giuliani to remark dramatically that his father, an Italian who immigrated through Ellis Island, never intended to go to New Jersey.[92] The border was redrawn using information based on studies using geographic information science.[93] The dispute eventually reached the Supreme Court of the United States, which ruled in New Jersey v. New York
New Jersey v. New York
523 U.S. 767 (1998), that New Jersey had jurisdiction over all portions of the island created after the original compact was approved (effectively, more than 80% of the island's present land). This caused several immediate instances of confusion: some buildings, for instance, fell into the territory of both states. New Jersey
New Jersey
and New York soon agreed to share jurisdiction of the island. It remains wholly a federal property, however, and these legal decisions do not result in either state taking any fiscal or physical responsibility for the maintenance, preservation, or improvement of any of the historic properties.[86][94][95] The ruling had no effect on the status of Liberty Island, 4.17 acres (1.69 ha) of which was created by land reclamation.[96][97] For New York State tax purposes, it is assessed as Manhattan
Manhattan
Block 1, Lot 201. Since 1998, the 22.8 acre portion of the island in New Jersey has been assessed in Jersey City as Block 21603, Lot 1.[98][99] Renovations and plans[edit] Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
designed a key plan for the island that included housing, hotels, and large domes along the edges. The co-curator of the traveling exhibit, "Never Built New York" in which it is included told AM New York, "It's pretty remarkable but at the same time it's a little bit horrifying that they could have gotten rid of Ellis Island."[100] In 1982 the National Parks Department embarked on an 8-year renovation. During that time, David Simonton was part of The Ellis Island Project: Documentation/Interpretation and captured stunning, black and white photos giving insight into immigrant's lives. Photographer Stephen Wilkes's series Ellis Island: Ghosts of Freedom (2006) captured the abandoned south side of Ellis Island.[101] Emergency services[edit]

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Emergency services on Ellis Island
Ellis Island
are provided by the following emergency divisions of the National Park Service:

Police services and security are provided for the island by the United States Park Police. Fire suppression/protection is provided by the National Park Service's Statue of Liberty/ Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Division of Safety and Emergency Management Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Fire Brigade which consists of a crew of federal NPS firefighters who are trained and certified as Structural Firefighter I, Structural Firefighter II or Wildland Firefighters. The crew also provides fire suppression response to nearby Liberty Island.

Since the nearest other National Park Service
National Park Service
Engine Company is located in Fort Hancock in Sandy Hook, New Jersey, the Statue of Liberty Fire Brigade maintains a mutual aid agreement with the Jersey City Fire Department and the New York City
New York City
Fire Department for mutual aid assistance on Ellis Island
Ellis Island
should it be required. The Statue of Liberty/ Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Division of Safety & Emergency Management staffs the fire brigade. The fire brigade is led by a Fire Captain (crew leader), two Lieutenants and has six collateral duty firefighters. Emergency Medical Services are provided by National Park Services Statue of Liberty/ Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Division of Safety and Emergency Management, which consists of a team of full-time NPS Emergency Medical Technicians and Certified First Responders. Patient transportation is coordinated with Jersey City Medical Center ambulances, but emergency response and patient care falls solely upon the National Park Service
National Park Service
Emergency Medical Technicians.

In popular culture[edit]

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Ellis Island
Ellis Island
has been a source of inspiration or used as a subject in popular culture. Its imagery or representation has been employed in literature (including novels, short stories and poetry), in song, musical composition, dance, theatre, including vaudeville, burlesque, musical comedy, revue, legitimate theatre, motion pictures (silent and sound), newsreels, and in radio and television. Early films, including those from the silent era, which feature the station include Traffic in Souls
Traffic in Souls
(1913), How The Jews
Jews
Care for Their Poor (educational film, 1914) The Yellow Passport
The Yellow Passport
(1916), My Boy (1921), Frank Capra's The Strong Man
The Strong Man
(1926), We Americans (1928), The Mating Call (1928), This is Heaven (1929), Paddy O'Day
Paddy O'Day
(1935), Ellis Island (1936), Gateway (1938), Exile Express
Exile Express
(1939), I, Jane Doe (1948), and Gambling House (1951). In The Godfather Part II, Vito Corleone immigrates via Ellis Island
Ellis Island
as a boy. The opening scene of The Brother From Another Planet
The Brother From Another Planet
is set there. The island is visited by the characters in the 2005 romantic comedy, Hitch, and is the setting for the climactic battle in X-Men. Over the decades, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was also widely referenced or remarked on in books, such as Mrs 'Arris Goes to New York (1960) by Paul Gallico, and in popular films such as Cafe Metropole
Cafe Metropole
(1937) and With a Song in My Heart (1952). Some films have focused on the immigrant experience, such as the 1984 TV miniseries Ellis Island. The IMAX 3D movie Across the Sea of Time incorporates both modern footage and historical photographs of Ellis Island. The 2006 Italian movie The Golden Door, directed by Emanuele Crialese, takes place largely on Ellis Island. Forgotten Ellis Island, a film and book, focuses on the Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigrant
Immigrant
Hospital.[102] The Immigrant
Immigrant
is a 2013 American drama film directed by James Gray, starring Marion Cotillard, Joaquin Phoenix, and Jeremy Renner.[103] Ellis, a short, premiered in November 2015. Ellis Island
Ellis Island
as a port of entry is described in detail in Mottel the Cantor's Son by Sholom Aleichem. Ellis Island: The Dream of America is a work for actors and orchestra with projected images by Peter Boyer, composed in 2001-02. The song "The New Ground - Isle of Hope, Isle of Tears", on the 2010 album Songs from the Heart by the group Celtic Woman, is about Annie Moore and Ellis Island. The USPS
USPS
issued a 32¢ stamp on February 3, 1998 as part of the Celebrate the Century
Celebrate the Century
stamp sheet series. See also[edit]

Immigration
Immigration
to the United States Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Immigrant
Immigrant
Hospital Angel Island, California United States Immigration
Immigration
Station, Angel Island Deer Island, Massachusetts Geography of New York- New Jersey
New Jersey
Harbor Estuary Port of New York and New Jersey Hoffman Island Sullivan's Island, South Carolina Swinburne Island National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Hudson County, New Jersey National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in New York County, New York Philadelphia Lazaretto Pier 21 Save Ellis Island German Emigration Center Castle Clinton List of New York City
New York City
Designated Landmarks in Manhattan
Manhattan
on Islands

New York City
New York City
portal New Jersey
New Jersey
portal Islands portal

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
- Hudson County, New Jersey". USGS. Retrieved 2011-01-01.  ^ "Proclamation 3656 - Adding Ellis Island
Ellis Island
to the Statue of Liberty National Monument". 2010-04-05.  ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ " New Jersey
New Jersey
and National Registers of Historic Places – Hudson County". New Jersey
New Jersey
Department of Environmental Protection – Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved 2014-08-02.  ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/lpc/downloads/pdf/reports/ELLIS_ISLAND_-_HISTORIC_DISTRICT.pdf ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/lpc/downloads/pdf/maps/ellis_island.pdf ^ http://www.neighborhoodpreservationcenter.org/db/bb_files/Ellis-Island--Main-Building--Interior-.pdf ^ a b c " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
- Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 2016-11-17.  ^ Biskupic, Joan (May 27, 1998). "N.J. Wins Claim to Most of Ellis Island". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-07-12.  ^ Hudson County New Jersey
New Jersey
Street Map. Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2010. ISBN 0-88097-763-9.  ^ a b Richard G. Castagna; Lawrence L. Thornton; John M. Tyrawski. "GIS and Coastal Boundary Disputes: Where is Ellis Island?". ESRI. Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-11-17. The New York portion of Ellis Island
Ellis Island
is landlocked, enclaved within New Jersey's territory.  ^ Shaw, Tammy L. "Supreme Court Decides Ownership of Historic Ellis Island". Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Legal Program. Retrieved 2013-11-17.  ^ "Frequently asked questions". Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Part of Statue of Liberty National Monument. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-11-18.  ^ " Ferry
Ferry
System Map - Statue Of Liberty National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)".  ^ Setha Low, Dana Taplin, Suzanne Sheld (2005) Rethinking Urban Parks, University of Texas Press; chapter 4. ^ " Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-04-25.  ^ O'Brien, Kathleen (October 28, 2013). "Storm-damaged Ellis Island reopens a day shy of Sandy anniversary". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved 2013-11-01.  ^ Chinese, Vera (October 28, 2013). " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
reopens one year after Sandy". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2013-11-14.  ^ "Ellis Island: Part of Statue of Liberty National Monument
Statue of Liberty National Monument
NJ, NY - Plan Your Visit". National Park Service. Retrieved 2014-09-25.  ^ Appendix to Journal of the Sixteenth Senate of the State of New Jersey, Belvidere, New Jersey: John Simeron, 1860  ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2006). The Big Oyster. New York: Random House Trade paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-345-47639-5.  ^ The New York Times, March 1, 2006, accessed 2008-03-16 ^ a b "Central R. Co. of New Jersey
New Jersey
v. Jersey City 209 U.S. 473 (1908)".  ^ a b c d e f g Ellis Island
Ellis Island
– Timeline. The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-06-22. ^ "The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
& Ellis Island".  ^ Moreno, Barry (2001) " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Chronology Timeline (1674–2001)". National Park Service, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Library. Retrieved 2013-04-24. ^ Logan, Andy; McCarten, John (January 14, 1956). "Invasion from Jersey". Talk
Talk
of the Town. The New Yorker. Retrieved 2011-02-14.  ^ Wade, Arthur P. (2011). Artillerists and Engineers: The Beginnings of American Seacoast Fortifications, 1794-1815. CDSG Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-9748167-2-2.  ^ Fort Gibson, New York State Military Museum ^ Fort Gibson at American Forts Network ^ Roberts, Robert B. (1988). Encyclopedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States. New York: Macmillan. pp. 554–555. ISBN 0-02-926880-X.  ^ "Colonial and Early American New York - Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Part of Statue of Liberty National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)".  ^ a b c "History & Culture - Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Part of Statue of Liberty National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)".  ^ Mausolf, Lisa B.; Hengen, Elizabeth Durfee (2007), Edward Lippincott Tilton: A Monograph on His Architectural Practice (PDF), retrieved 2011-09-28  ^ "The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
& Ellis Island". libertyellisfoundation.org. Retrieved 2016-11-18.  ^ Jersey City Past and Present Archived February 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Department of Environmental Protection".  ^ Cunningham, John T. (2003). Ellis Island: Immigration’s Shining Center. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-2428-3.  ^ Harlan D. Unrau, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Historic Resource Study (Denver: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, 1984). ^ Introduction to Immigration
Immigration
from 1905-1945: Immigration
Immigration
and Multiculturalism: Essential Primary Sources, 2006 ^ The Brown Quarterly, Volume 4, No. 1 (Fall 2000): Ellis Island/ Immigration
Immigration
Issue ^ Keeling, Drew. "How many people today have ancestors who moved from Europe
Europe
to the United States during 1900-14?". Migration as a Travel Business. Retrieved 2014-12-12.  ^ National Park Service: Ellis Island, retrieved 2006-01-12. ^ Davis, Kenneth (2003), Don't Know Much About American History, HarperTrophy, ISBN 0-06-440836-1 ("Isle of Tears" or "Heartbreak Island", p. 123) ^ Description of Kissing Post's location Archived 2010-11-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Article and picture of Kissing Post plaque Archived 2007-10-16 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Houghton, Gillian (2003). Ellis Island: A Primary Source History of an Immigrant's Arrival in America. The Rosen Publishing Group, New York.  ^ a b Baynton, Douglas C. Defectives in the Land : Disability
Disability
and Immigration
Immigration
in the Age of Eugenics. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-36433-9.  ^ a b Goddard, Henry Herbert (1911). Heredity of Feeble-mindedness. Eugenics
Eugenics
Record Office.  ^ Alexander, Denis R.; Numbers, Ronald L. (2010-05-15). Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226608426.  ^ . Bateman-House, Alison, Fairchild, Amy. "Medical Examination of Immigrants at Ellis Island". Virtual Mentor. 10 (4): 235–241. 2008-04-01. doi:10.1001/virtualmentor.2008.10.4.mhst1-0804.  ^ Talbot, Eugene S. (1898). Degeneracy: Its Causes, Signs, and Results. London: Scott.  ^ Lydston, G. Frank (1906). The Diseases of Society: The Vice and Crime
Crime
Problem. Philadelphia, London, J.B. Lippincott Company.  ^ Wilson, Daniel J. "'No Defectives Need Apply': Disability
Disability
and Immigration", OAH Magazine of History, Volume 23, Issue 3, July 1, 2009, pp. 35–40. Accessed 2017-10-19. "The Public Health Service, which ran the immigration inspections at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
and elsewhere, examined over 25 million potential immigrants between 1891 and 1930.... Only 700,000 were issued medical certificates indicating a disease or disability.... The Immigration
Immigration
Service, which made the final decision on entry and deportation, refused entry to approximately 79,000 of those receiving medical certificates." ^ Jaynes, Gregory (July 8, 1985), "American Scene: From Ellis Island to LAX", TIME, retrieved 2011-03-06  ^ J. Burton, M. Farrell, F. Lord, R. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites "Department of Justice and U.S. Army Facilities: Temporary Detention Stations" (National Park Service) Archived 2014-11-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Ellis Island" Densho Encyclopedia (accessed 2014-06-11) ^ a b Conboy, Kenneth. Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special
Special
Forces (November 16, 2002 ed.). Equinox Publishing. p. 352. ISBN 979-95898-8-6.  ^ Unrau, Harlan D. (September 1984). Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
/ Ellis Island – Historic Resource Study (PDF). 2. pp. 208–275.  ^ Unrau, Harlan D. (September 1984). Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
/ Ellis Island – Historic Resource Study (PDF). 3. pp. 1145–1200.  ^

United States Congress. " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(id: W000236)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 

^ Name Changes at Ellis Island: Fact or Fiction?", Ancestry.com. Retrieved 2010-09-29. ^ "Why Your Family Name Was Not Changed at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(and One That Was)". Archived from the original on 2015-11-28.  ^ "The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
& Ellis Island".  ^ US Dept of Justice Archived 2007-01-14 at Archive.is
Archive.is
American Names / Declaring Independence, Marian L. Smith, INS Historian, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Immigration
Services, last updated 2006-01-20, accessed 2007-05-22 ^ "The Effect of Immigration
Immigration
on Surnames", FamilyEducation.com. Retrieved 2009-02-20. Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Genealogy by Christine Rose and Kay Germain Ingalls, 2005. ^ Passenger Record: Annie Moore, The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
– Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2013-04-24. ^ Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Archived 2007-05-05 at the Wayback Machine.. p. 3. www.history.com Retrieved 2013-04-24. ^ "Laws & Policies - Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Part of Statue of Liberty National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)".  ^ "ELLIS ISLAND NATIONAL MONUMENT". New York Architecture. Retrieved 2013-08-05.  ^ Lee, Antoinette J., Architects to the Nation: The Rise and Decline of the Supervising Architect's Office, Oxford University Press, USA. 2000-04-20. ISBN 0-19-512822-2 ^ "World's Premier Election Assistance NGO Appoints Chief Operating Officer: Top Republican strategist and fundraiser Wyatt A. Stewart, III to join the International Foundation for Electoral Systems" (PDF) (Press release). International Foundation for Electoral Systems. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  ^ " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Part of Statue of Liberty National Monument
Statue of Liberty National Monument
(U.S. National Park Service)".  ^ Shepard, Richard F. (September 7, 1990), "Inside, Reliving the Immigrant's Experience", The New York Times, retrieved 2011-12-06  ^ "Peopling Of America Center - The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
& Ellis Island".  ^ "About the Wall of Honor - The Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
& Ellis Island".  ^ Janiskee, Bob (September 26, 2008). "At Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
National Monument, Save Ellis Island, Inc., Works to Restore Ellis Island's Time-Ravaged Buildings". National Parks Traveller.  ^ Chan, Sewell (26 October 2011). "Ellis Island's Forgotten Hospital". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-27.  ^ Haberrman, Clyde (March 3, 1998), "The Other Ellis Island", New York Times Magazine, retrieved 2012-12-27  ^ Coughlin, Bill (November 2011). "New Ferry
Ferry
Building Ellis Island". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved 2012-02-25.  ^ Bomar, Mary A. (August 2007). "Summary of Park Centennial Strategies" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2008-02-15.  ^ "The Federal and State constitutions, colonial charters, and other organic laws of the state[s], territories, and colonies now or heretofore forming the United States of America /compiled and edited under the Act of Congress of June 30, 1906". 18 December 1998.  ^ Rieff, Henry, "Interpretations of New York- New Jersey
New Jersey
Agreements 1834 and 1921" (PDF), Newark Law Review  ^ " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Its Legal Status" (PDF). General Services Administration Office of General Counsel. February 28, 1963. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2010-09-25.  ^ Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. (9 Wheat.) 1 (1824). ^ a b Greenhouse, Linda (May 27, 1998). "The Ellis Island
Ellis Island
verdict: The Ruling; High Court Gives New Jersey
New Jersey
Most of Ellis Island". New York Times.  ^ " Statue of Liberty National Monument
Statue of Liberty National Monument
- Frequently Asked Questions". NPS.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved 2010-02-01.  ^ s:Application of Devoe Manufacturing Company for a Writ of Prohibition/Opinion of the Court ^ " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Its Legal Status" (PDF). General Services Administration Office of General Counsel. February 11, 1963. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-04.  ^ "Fort Gibson".  ^ Logan, Andy; McCarten, John (January 14, 1956). "Invasion from Jersey". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2011-02-14.  ^ Sheahan, Matthew. "My Grandmother Is the Greatest" Archived 2004-08-28 at the Wayback Machine., Knot Magazine, May 4, 2004. ^ Cho, George (2005), Geographic Information Science: Mastering the Legal Issues, John Wiley & Sons  ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
map showing portions of the island belonging to New York and New Jersey
New Jersey
Archived February 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " New Jersey v. New York
New Jersey v. New York
523 U.S. 767 (1998)".  ^ "HISTORIC FILL OF THE JERSEY CITY QUADRANGLE HISTORIC FILL MAP HFM-53" (PDF). New State Department of Environmental Protection. 2004. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ "Is Liberty a Jersey Girl". New Jersey
New Jersey
Society of Professional Land Surveyors. February 4, 2014.  ^ An inaugural choice: Will N.J. governor's gala really be in New York?. "After the 1998 court event, both states agreed to share jurisdiction, even though the islands remain a wholly federal property. To cement those claims, New York assigned Ellis Island
Ellis Island
the tax designation of Block 1, Lot 201. The state of New Jersey
New Jersey
gave the place its own tax number." ^ City of Jersey City, Hudson County, New Jersey
New Jersey
Tax Maps, Sheet 216: Revised October 2010. Accessible at http://gis.civilsolutions.biz/hostedfiles/jerseycity/taxmaps/index.htm ^ Colangelo, Lisa, "The City of Fantastical Dreams: How NYC Might Have Been, in Queens," AMNY, September 25, 2017, p.A11. ^ Ellis Island: Ghosts of Freedom Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Conway, Lorie, Forgotten Ellis Island : the extraordinary story of America’s immigrant hospital, New York : Smithsonian Books : Collins, 2007. ISBN 978-0-06-124196-3 ^ "2013 Official Selection". Cannes Film Festival. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 

Sources[edit]

Baur, J. "Commemorating Immigration
Immigration
in the Immigrant
Immigrant
Society. Narratives of Transformation at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
and the Lower East Side Tenement Museum", in M. König, and R. Ohliger, eds., Enlarging European Memory. Migration Movements in Historical Perspective (2006) pp. 137–146. Baur, J. "Ellis Island, Inc.: The Making of an American Site of Memory", in: H. J. Grabbe and S. Schindler, (eds.), The Merits of Memory. Concepts, Contexts, Debates (2008), pp. 185–196. Bayor, Ronald H. Encountering Ellis Island: How European Immigrants Entered America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014) 168 pp. Bolino, A. The Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Source Book, (1985) Cannato, V. J., American passage : the history of Ellis Island, New York : Harper, 2009. ISBN 978-0-06-074273-7 Coan, P. M. Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Interviews: In Their Own Words, 1998. Corsi, E. In the Shadow of Liberty: The Chronicle of Ellis Island, 1935. Fairchild, A. Science at the Borders, 2004. Lerner, Ed. K. Lee, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner. "Introduction to Immigration
Immigration
from 1905–1945: Immigration
Immigration
and Multiculturalism: Essential Primary Sources", Gale, 2006. p121. Moreno, B., Images of America:Children of Ellis Island, 2005. Moreno, B., Images of America:Ellis Island, 2003. Moreno, B., Images of America:Ellis Island's Famous Immigrants, 2008. Moreno, B. Encyclopedia of Ellis Island, 2004. Google Books Moreno, B. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(Fall River Press, 2010) Pitkin, T. M. Keepers of the Gate, 1975. Yew, E., M.D., "MEDICAL INSPECTION OF IMMIGRANTS AT ELLIS ISLAND, 1891-1924", Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Vol. 56, No. 5, June 1980, New York Academy of Medicine.

Further reading[edit]

General Services Administration Offices of General Council (February 11, 1963). " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Its Legal Status" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-04.  Ellis Island: Blocks 9019 thru 9023, Block Group 9, Census Tract 47, Hudson County, NJ; and Block 1000, Block Group 1, Census Tract 1, New York County, New York; United States Census Bureau. Report of the House Committee on Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization under joint resolution of Senate and House of January 29, 1892, submitted by Mr. Stump. Ordered to be printed July 28, 1892. By United States Congress, House Committee on Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization. Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice Denied, 1982 report; Encyclopædia Britannica Films, Inc (1946). Immigration
Immigration
(Documentary). Internet Archive. Event occurs at 10:22. Retrieved 2009-01-20. Archive film contains scenes of Ellis Island
Ellis Island
and New York City
New York City
in the early 20th century.  Guggenheim, Charles (director) (1989). Island of Hope - Island of Tears (Documentary). National Park Service. Event occurs at 28:24. Retrieved 2009-01-20. From 1892–1954, Ellis Island
Ellis Island
was the port of entry for millions of European immigrants. Fascinating archival footage tells the moving story of families with dreams of opportunity, leaving their homes with what they could carry. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ellis Island.

Ellis Island
Ellis Island
home page Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Visitor information Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Historical Timeline Free Search of Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Database - Port of New York Arrivals 1892–1924 Ellis Island: Faces of America on YouTube, video celebrating immigrants at Ellis Island, ca. 1900-1926 Supreme Court opinion in New Jersey v. New York
New Jersey v. New York
(1998) National Park Service
National Park Service
map showing portions of the island belonging to New York and New Jersey The History of Ellis Island[dead link] Eerie Ellis Island, Then And Now - slideshow by NPR History and Photos of Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Baggage & Dormitory Building The Ellis Island
Ellis Island
Experience - Articles, Documents and Images - Gjenvick-Gjønvik Archives The short film Island of Hope - Island of Tears (1989) is available for free download at the Internet Archive Emigrants Landing at Ellis Island
Ellis Island
a film from 1903 by Alfred C. Abadie from the World Digital Library

Links to related articles

v t e

Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States
and related topics

Relevant colonial era, United States and international laws

Colonial era

Nationality law in the American Colonies Plantation Act 1740

18th century

Naturalization Act 1790 / 1795 / 1798

19th century

Naturalization Law 1802 Civil Rights Act of 1866 14th Amendment (1868) Naturalization Act 1870 Page Act (1875) Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1882 Chinese Exclusion (1882) Scott Act (1888) Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1891 Geary Act
Geary Act
(1892)

1900–1949

Naturalization Act 1906 Gentlemen's Agreement (1907) Immigration
Immigration
Act of 1907 Immigration
Immigration
Act 1917 (Asian Barred Zone) Emergency Quota Act
Emergency Quota Act
(1921) Cable Act
Cable Act
(1922) Immigration
Immigration
Act 1924 Tydings–McDuffie Act
Tydings–McDuffie Act
(1934) Filipino Repatriation Act (1935) Nationality Act of 1940 Bracero Program (1942–1964) Magnuson Act
Magnuson Act
(1943) War Brides Act (1945) Luce–Celler Act (1946)

1950–1999

UN Refugee Convention (1951) Immigration
Immigration
and Nationality Act 1952 / 1965 Refugee Act
Refugee Act
(1980) Immigration
Immigration
Reform and Control Act (1986) American Homecoming Act
American Homecoming Act
(1989) Immigration
Immigration
Act 1990 Illegal Immigration
Immigration
Reform and Immigrant
Immigrant
Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) (1996) Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (NACARA) (1997) American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) (1998)

21st century

American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) (2000) Legal Immigration
Immigration
Family Equity Act (LIFE Act) (2000) H-1B Visa Reform Act (2004) REAL ID Act
REAL ID Act
(2005) Secure Fence Act (2006) DACA (2012) Executive Order 13769
Executive Order 13769
(2017) Executive Order 13780
Executive Order 13780
(2017)

Visas and policies

Visa policy

Permanent residence Visa Waiver Program Temporary protected status Asylum Green Card Lottery

US-VISIT Security Advisory Opinion E-Verify Section 287(g) National Origins Formula

Government organizations

Department of Homeland Security Immigration
Immigration
and Customs Enforcement U.S. Border Patrol U.S. Customs and Border Protection Immigration
Immigration
and Naturalization Service (INS) Board of Immigration
Immigration
Appeals

Supreme Court cases

United States v. Wong Kim Ark
United States v. Wong Kim Ark
(1898) United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind
(1923) United States v. Brignoni-Ponce
United States v. Brignoni-Ponce
(1975) Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting
Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting
(2011)

Related issues and events

Economic impact Eugenics
Eugenics
in the United States Guest worker program Human trafficking Human smuggling

Coyotaje

Immigration
Immigration
reform Immigration
Immigration
reduction Mexico–United States barrier Labor shortage March for America Illegal immigrant population Reverse immigration 2006 protests Unaccompanied minors from Central America List of people deported from the United States

Geography

Mexico–United States border Canada–United States border United States Border Patrol interior checkpoints

Proposed legislation

DREAM Act
DREAM Act
(2001–2010) H.R. 4437 (2005) McCain–Kennedy (2005) SKIL (2006) Comprehensive Immigration
Immigration
Reform Act 2006 STRIVE Act (2007) Comprehensive Immigration
Immigration
Reform Act 2007 Uniting American Families Act
Uniting American Families Act
(2000–2013) Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration
Immigration
Modernization Act of 2013 SAFE Act (2015) RAISE Act
RAISE Act
(2017)

Immigration
Immigration
stations and points of entry

Angel Island Castle Garden East Boston Ellis Island Sullivan's Island Washington Avenue

Operations

"Wetback" (1954) "Peter Pan" (1960–1962) "Babylift" (1975) "Gatekeeper" (1994) "Endgame" (2003–2012) "Front Line" (2004–2005) "Streamline" (2005–present) "Return to Sender" (2006–2007) "Jump Start" (2006–2008) "Phalanx" (2010–2016)

State legislation

California DREAM Act
DREAM Act
(2006–2010) Arizona SB 1070
Arizona SB 1070
(2010) Alabama HB 56 (2011)

Non-governmental organizations

Arizona Border Recon Coalition for Humane Immigrant
Immigrant
Rights of Los Angeles Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration
Immigration
Reform National Immigration
Immigration
Forum Center for Community Change We Are America Alliance CASA of Maryland Mexica Movement Mexicans Without Borders Federation for American Immigration
Immigration
Reform Minuteman Project Minuteman Civil Defense Corps California Coalition for Immigration
Immigration
Reform Save Our State Center for Immigration
Immigration
Studies National Korean American Service & Education Consortium (NAKASEC) NumbersUSA Negative Population Growth Migration Policy Institute Utah Compact Center for Migration Studies of New York

v t e

Islands of New York City

Major islands

Long Manhattan Staten

Pelham Islands

The Blauzes Chimney Sweeps City Green Flats Hart High Hunters Rat Twin

New York Bay

Ellis Governors Hoffman Liberty Swinburne

Jamaica Bay

Barren Canarsie Pol Mau Mau Ruffle Bar Rulers Bar Hassock (Broad Channel)

Arthur Kill · Kill Van Kull

Isle of Meadows Prall's Shooters

East River

Mill Rock North and South Brother Randalls and Wards Rikers Roosevelt U Thant (Belmont)

Former islands shown in italics

v t e

Neighborhoods in the New York City
New York City
borough of Manhattan

Lower Manhattan below 14th St (CB 1, 2, 3)

Alphabet City Battery Park City Bowery Chinatown Civic Center Cooperative Village East Village Essex Crossing Financial District Five Points Greenwich Village Hudson Square Little Fuzhou Little Germany Little Italy Little Syria Lower East Side Meatpacking District NoHo Nolita Radio Row SoHo South Street Seaport South Village Tribeca Two Bridges West Village World Trade Center

Midtown (CB 5)

Columbus Circle Diamond District Flatiron District Garment District Herald Square Koreatown Madison Square NoMad Silicon Alley Theater District Times Square

West Side (CB 4, 7)

Chelsea Hell's Kitchen Hudson Yards Lincoln Square Little Spain Manhattan
Manhattan
Valley Manhattantown Penn South Pomander Walk Riverside South Tenderloin Upper West Side

East Side (CB 6, 8)

Carnegie Hill Gashouse District Gramercy Park Kips Bay Lenox Hill Murray Hill Peter Cooper Village Rose Hill Stuyvesant Square Stuyvesant Town Sutton Place Tudor City Turtle Bay Union Square Upper East Side Waterside Plaza Yorkville

Upper Manhattan above 110th St (CB 9, 10, 11, 12)

Astor Row East Harlem Hamilton Heights Harlem Hudson Heights Inwood Le Petit Senegal Manhattanville Marble Hill (Bx CB 8) Marcus Garvey Park Morningside Heights Sugar Hill Sylvan Washington Heights

Islands

Ellis Island
Ellis Island
(CB 1) Governors Island
Governors Island
(CB 1) Liberty Island
Liberty Island
(CB 1) Randalls Island (CB 11) Roosevelt Island
Roosevelt Island
(CB 8) Wards Island (CB 11)

Former

Seneca Village

Community boards: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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Neighborhoods in Jersey City, New Jersey

Bergen-Lafayette

Beacon Bergen Bergen Hill Communipaw Jackson Hill The Junction

Downtown

Boyle Plaza Exchange Place Hamilton Park Harsimus Newport Paulus Hook Van Vorst Park The Village WALDO/Powerhouse

Greenville

Canal Crossing Country Village Claremont Curries Woods The Hub

The Heights

Central Avenue Palisade Avenue Transfer Station Western Slope

Journal Square

Bergen Square Five Corners Hilltop India Square Marion McGinley Square

Meadowlands

Croxton Hudson Generating Station Riverbend

Upper New York Bay

Claremont Terminal Ellis Island Liberty Island Liberty National Liberty State Park Port Liberte Port Jersey/Greenville Yard

West Side

Droyer's Point Hackensack Riverfront-Bayfront Lincoln Park NJCU West Bergen

Historical

Chelsea The Horseshoe Pamrapo West End

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U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Topics

Architectural style categories Contributing property Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places Keeper of the Register National Park Service Property types

Lists by states

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Lists by insular areas

American Samoa Guam Minor Outlying Islands Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

Lists by associated states

Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands Palau

Other areas

District of Columbia Morocco

Portal

v t e

Museums in Manhattan

Financial District and Battery Park (Below Chambers St)

Castle Clinton China Institute Federal Hall Fraunces Tavern George Gustav Heye Center Mmuseumm Museum of American Finance Museum of Jewish Heritage New York City
New York City
Police Museum Skyscraper Museum South Street Seaport

Lower Manhattan (Chambers-14th Sts)

Asian American Arts Centre Drawing Center Eldridge Street Synagogue FusionArts Museum International Center of Photography Lower East Side
Lower East Side
Tenement Museum Merchant's House Museum Museum of Chinese in America New Museum New York City
New York City
Fire Museum The Theatre Museum Ukrainian Museum Whitney Museum of American Art

Chelsea, Flatiron, Gramercy (14th-34th Sts)

Center for Jewish History International Print Center New York John J. Harvey The Museum at FIT Museum of Mathematics Museum of Sex Rubin Museum of Art Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace Tibet House

Midtown (34th-59th Sts)

Girl Scout Museum and Archives Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum Japan Society John M. Mossman Lock Museum Madame Tussauds Morgan Library & Museum Museum of Arts and Design Museum of Modern Art New York Public Library Main Branch New York Transit Museum Paley Center for Media Scandinavia
Scandinavia
House United Nations Art Collection

Upper West Side (59th-125th Sts west of 5th Av)

American Folk Art Museum American Museum of Natural History

Rose Center for Earth and Space

Children's Museum of Manhattan Museum of Biblical Art New York Public Library for the Performing Arts New-York Historical Society Nicholas Roerich Museum Rose Museum

Upper East Side
Upper East Side
and East Harlem (59th-125th Sts along or east of 5th Av)

Asia Society El Museo del Barrio Frick Collection Gracie Mansion Grolier Club Guggenheim Museum Jewish Museum Met Breuer Metropolitan Museum of Art Mount Vernon Hotel Museum Museum of Motherhood Museum of the City of New York National Academy Museum and School

Upper Manhattan (Above 125th St)

American Academy of Arts and Letters The Cloisters Dyckman House Hamilton Grange National Memorial Hispanic Society of America Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Morris–Jumel Mansion National Jazz Museum in Harlem National Track and Field Hall of Fame Neue Galerie New York Yeshiva University Museum Studio Museum in Harlem

Islands

Ellis Island Statue of Liberty

Defunct

Chelsea Art Museum Dahesh Museum of Art Forbes Galleries Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art Museum of Primitive Art

See also: Museum Mile

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244660226 LCCN: sh88007

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