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The Info List - Elizabeth Taylor





Dame
Dame
Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE (27 February 1932 – 23 March 2011) was a British-American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s, and was one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the 1950s. She continued her career successfully into the 1960s, and remained a well-known public figure for the rest of her life. In 1999, the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
named her the seventh-greatest female screen legend. Born in London
London
to wealthy, socially prominent American parents, Taylor moved with her family to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1939, and she soon was given a film contract by Universal Pictures. She made her screen debut in a minor role in There's One Born Every Minute
There's One Born Every Minute
(1942), but Universal terminated her contract after a year. Taylor was then signed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and had her breakthrough role in National Velvet (1944), becoming one of the studio's most popular teenaged stars. She made the transition to adult roles in the early 1950s, when she starred in the comedy Father of the Bride (1950) and received critical acclaim for her performance in the drama A Place in the Sun (1951). Despite being one of MGM's most bankable stars, Taylor wished to end her career in the early 1950s, as she resented the studio's control and disliked many of the films to which she was assigned. She began receiving roles she enjoyed more in the mid-1950s, beginning with the epic drama Giant (1956), and starred in several critically and commercially successful films in the following years. These included two film adaptations of plays by Tennessee Williams: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), and Suddenly, Last Summer (1959); Taylor won a Golden Globe for Best Actress for the latter. Although she disliked her role as a call girl in BUtterfield 8
BUtterfield 8
(1960), her last film for MGM, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress
Academy Award for Best Actress
for her performance. Taylor was then paid a record-breaking $1 million to play the title role in the historical epic Cleopatra (1963), the most expensive film made up to that point. During the filming, Taylor and co-star Richard Burton began an extramarital affair, which caused a scandal. Despite public disapproval, Burton and she continued their relationship, and were married in 1964. Dubbed "Liz and Dick" by the media, they starred in 11 films together, including The V.I.P.s (1963), The Sandpiper (1965), The Taming of the Shrew (1967), and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966). Taylor received the best reviews of her career for Woolf, winning her second Academy Award and several other awards for her performance. She and Burton divorced in 1974, but reconciled soon after, and re-married in 1975. The second marriage ended in divorce in 1976. Taylor's acting career began to decline in the late 1960s, although she continued starring in films until the mid-1970s, after which she focused on supporting the career of her sixth husband, Senator John Warner. In the 1980s, she acted in her first substantial stage roles and in several television films and series, and became the first celebrity to launch a perfume brand. Taylor was also one of the first celebrities to take part in HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
activism. She co-founded the American Foundation for AIDS
AIDS
Research in 1985, and the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS
AIDS
Foundation in 1991. From the early 1990s until her death, she dedicated her time to philanthropy. She received several accolades for it, including the Presidential Citizens Medal. Throughout her life, Taylor's personal affairs were subject to constant media attention. She was married eight times to seven men, endured serious illnesses, and led a jet set lifestyle, including assembling one of the most expensive private collections of jewelry. After many years of ill health, Taylor died from congestive heart failure at the age of 79 in 2011.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Acting career

2.1 Early roles and teenage stardom (1941–1949) 2.2 Transition to adult roles (1950–1951) 2.3 Continued success at MGM (1952–1955) 2.4 Critical acclaim (1956–1960) 2.5 Cleopatra and other films with Richard Burton
Richard Burton
(1961–1967) 2.6 Career decline (1968–1979) 2.7 Stage and television roles; retirement (1980–2007)

3 Other ventures

3.1 HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
activism 3.2 Fragrance and jewelry brands

4 Personal life

4.1 Marriages, relationships, and children 4.2 Support for Jewish and Israeli causes 4.3 Style and jewelry collection 4.4 Health problems and death

5 Legacy 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Early life[edit]

Fifteen-year-old Taylor with her parents at the Stork Club
Stork Club
in Manhattan in 1947

Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born on February 27, 1932, at Heathwood, her family's home on 8 Wildwood Road in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London.[1] She received dual British-American citizenship at birth, as her parents, art dealer Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and retired stage actress Sara Sothern (née Sara Viola Warmbrodt, 1895–1994), were United States citizens, both originally from Arkansas City, Kansas.[1][a] They moved to London
London
in 1929, and opened an art gallery on Bond Street; their first child, a son named Howard, was born the same year.[5] The family led a privileged life in London
London
during Taylor's childhood.[6] Their social circle included artists such as Augustus John and Laura Knight, and politicians such as Colonel Victor Cazalet.[6] Cazalet was Taylor's unofficial godfather, and an important influence in her early life.[6] She was enrolled in Byron House, a Montessori school in Highgate, and was raised according to the teachings of Christian Science, the religion of her mother and Cazalet.[7] The Taylors decided to return to the United States in the spring of 1939 due to the increasingly tense political situation in Europe.[8] American ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy
Joseph P. Kennedy
also contacted Francis, and encouraged him to return to the U.S. with his family.[9] Sara and the children left first in April 1939, and moved in with Taylor's maternal grandfather in Pasadena, California.[10] Francis stayed behind to close the London
London
gallery, and joined them in December.[11] In early 1940, he opened a new gallery in Los Angeles, and after briefly living in Pacific Palisades, the family settled in Beverly Hills, where Taylor and her brother were enrolled in Hawthorne School.[12] Acting career[edit] See also: Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
filmography Early roles and teenage stardom (1941–1949)[edit] In California, Taylor's mother was frequently told that her daughter should audition for films.[13] Taylor's eyes in particular drew attention; they were blue to the extent of appearing violet, and were rimmed by dark double eyelashes, caused by a genetic mutation.[14][15] Sara was initially opposed to Taylor appearing in films, but after the outbreak of war in Europe made return there unlikely, she began to view the film industry as a way of assimilating to American society.[13] Francis Taylor's Beverly Hills
Beverly Hills
gallery had gained clients from the film industry soon after opening, helped by the endorsement of gossip columnist Hedda Hopper, a friend of the Cazalets.[16] Through a client and a school friend's father, Taylor auditioned for both Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
early 1941.[17] Both studios offered Taylor contracts, and Sara Taylor chose to accept Universal's offer.[17] Taylor began her contract in April 1941, and was cast in a small role in There's One Born Every Minute
There's One Born Every Minute
(1942).[17] She did not receive other roles, and her contract was terminated after a year.[17] Universal's casting director explained her dislike of Taylor, stating that "the kid has nothing ... her eyes are too old, she doesn't have the face of a child".[17] Biographer Alexander Walker agrees that Taylor looked different from the child stars of the era, such as Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
and Judy Garland,[18] and she herself later explained that, "apparently, I used to frighten grown ups, because I was totally direct".[19] Taylor received another opportunity in late 1942, when her father's acquaintance, MGM producer Samuel Marx, arranged her to audition for a minor role requiring an actress with an English accent in Lassie Come Home (1943).[20] After a trial contract of three months, she was given a standard seven-year contract in January 1943.[21] Following Lassie, she appeared in minor uncredited roles in two other films set in England - Jane Eyre (1943), and The White Cliffs of Dover (1944).[21]

Taylor with co-star Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
in National Velvet (1944), her first major film role

Taylor was cast in her first starring role at the age of 12, when she was chosen to play a girl who wants to compete in the exclusively male Grand National
Grand National
in National Velvet (1944).[22] She later called it "the most exciting film" of her career.[23] MGM had been looking for a suitable actress with a British accent and the ability to ride horses since 1937, and chose Taylor at the recommendation of White Cliffs director Clarence Brown, who knew she had the required skills.[22] As she was deemed too short, filming was pushed back several months to allow her to grow; she spent the time practising riding.[22] In developing her into a new star, MGM required her to wear braces to correct her teeth, and had two of her baby teeth pulled out.[22] The studio also wanted to dye her hair and change the shape of her eyebrows, and proposed that she use the screen name "Virginia", but Taylor and her parents refused.[19] National Velvet became a box-office success upon its release on Christmas 1944.[22] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times
The New York Times
stated that "her whole manner in this picture is one of refreshing grace",[24] while James Agee
James Agee
of The Nation
The Nation
wrote that she "is rapturously beautiful... I hardly know or care whether she can act or not."[25] Taylor later stated that her childhood ended when she became a star, as MGM started to control every aspect of her life.[19][26][27] She described the studio as a "big extended factory" where she was required to adhere to a strict daily schedule:[19] Days were spent attending school and filming at the studio lot, and evenings in dancing and singing classes and in practising the following day's scenes.[27] Following the success of National Velvet, MGM gave Taylor a new seven-year contract with a weekly salary of $750, and cast her in a minor role in the third film of the Lassie series, Courage of Lassie (1946).[28] The studio also published a book of Taylor's writings about her pet chipmunk, Nibbles and Me (1946), and had paper dolls and coloring books made after her.[28]

Publicity photograph, circa 1947

When Taylor turned 15 in 1947, MGM began to cultivate a more mature public image for her by organizing photo shoots and interviews which portrayed her as a "normal" teenager attending parties and going on dates.[29] Film magazines and gossip columnists also began comparing her to older actresses such as Ava Gardner
Ava Gardner
and Lana Turner.[30] Life called her "Hollywood's most accomplished junior actress" for her two film roles that year.[31] In the critically panned Cynthia (1947), she portrayed a frail girl who defies her over-protective parents to go to the prom, and the love interest of a stockbroker's son in the period film Life with Father (1947), opposite William Powell
William Powell
and Irene Dunne.[32][33] They were followed by supporting roles as a teenaged "man-stealer" who seduces her peer's date to a high school dance in the musical A Date with Judy (1948), and as a bride in the romantic comedy Julia Misbehaves (1948), which became a commercial success by grossing over $4 million in the box office.[34] Taylor's last adolescent role was as Amy March in Mervyn LeRoy's Little Women (1949). While it did not match the popularity of the previous 1933 film adaptation of Louisa M. Alcott's novel, it was a box-office success.[35] The same year, Time featured Taylor on its cover, and called her the leader among Hollywood's next generation of stars, "a jewel of great price, a true sapphire".[36] Transition to adult roles (1950–1951)[edit] Taylor made the transition to adult roles in 1950, the year she turned 18. Her first mature role was playing a woman who begins to suspect that her husband is a Soviet spy in the thriller Conspirator (1949).[37] Taylor had been only 16 at the time of its filming, but its release was delayed until March 1950, as MGM disliked it and feared it could cause diplomatic problems.[37][38] Taylor's second film of 1950 was the comedy The Big Hangover
The Big Hangover
(1950), co-starring Van Johnson.[39] It was released in May, and the same month, Taylor married hotel-chain heir Conrad Hilton, Jr., in a highly publicized ceremony.[40] The event was organized by MGM, and used as part of the publicity campaign for Taylor's next film, Vincente Minnelli's comedy Father of the Bride (1950), in which she appeared opposite Spencer Tracy and Joan Bennett
Joan Bennett
as a bride preparing for her wedding.[40] The film became a box-office success upon its release in June, grossing $6 million worldwide, and was followed by a successful sequel, Father's Little Dividend (1951), ten months later.[41] Taylor's next film release, George Stevens' A Place in the Sun (1951), marked a departure from her earlier films. According to Taylor, it was the first film in which she had been asked to act, instead of simply being herself,[26] and it brought her critical acclaim for the first time since National Velvet.[42] Based on Theodore Dreiser's novel An American Tragedy (1925), it featured Taylor as a spoiled socialite who comes between a poor factory worker (Montgomery Clift) and his pregnant girlfriend (Shelley Winters).[43] Stevens cast Taylor as she was "the only one ... who could create this illusion" of being "not so much a real girl as the girl on the candy-box cover, the beautiful girl in the yellow Cadillac convertible that every American boy sometime or other thinks he can marry".[44] A Place in the Sun was a critical and commercial success, grossing $3 million.[45] Herb Golden of Variety stated that Taylor's "histrionics are of a quality so far beyond anything she has done previously, that Stevens' skilled hands on the reins must be credited with a minor miracle",[46] and A.H. Weiler of The New York Times
The New York Times
wrote that she gives "a shaded, tender performance, and one in which her passionate and genuine romance avoids the pathos common to young love as it sometimes comes to the screen".[47] Continued success at MGM (1952–1955)[edit] Taylor next starred in the romantic comedy Love Is Better Than Ever (1952).[48] According to Alexander Walker, MGM cast her in the "B-picture" as a reprimand for divorcing Hilton in January 1951 after only nine months of marriage, which had caused a public scandal that reflected negatively on her.[48] After completing Love Is Better Than Ever, Taylor was sent to Britain to take part in the historical epic Ivanhoe (1952), which was one of the most expensive projects in the studio's history.[49] She was not happy about the project, finding the story superficial and her role as Rebecca too small.[49] Regardless, Ivanhoe became one of MGM's biggest commercial successes, earning $11 million in worldwide rentals.[50] Taylor's last film made under her old contract with MGM was The Girl Who Had Everything (1953), a remake of the pre-code drama A Free Soul (1931).[51] Despite her grievances with the studio, she signed a new seven-year contract with MGM in the summer of 1952.[52] Although she wanted more interesting roles, the decisive factor in continuing with the studio was her financial need; she had recently married British actor Michael Wilding, and was pregnant with her first child.[52] In addition to granting her a weekly salary of $4,700, MGM agreed to give the couple a loan for a house, and signed Wilding for a three-year contract.[53] Due to her financial dependency, the studio now had even more control over her than previously.[53]

Taylor and Van Johnson
Van Johnson
in the romantic drama The Last Time I Saw Paris (1954)

Taylor's first two films made under her new contract were released ten days apart in spring 1954.[54] The first was Rhapsody, a romantic film starring her as a woman caught in a love triangle with two musicians. The second was Elephant Walk, a drama in which she played a British woman struggling to adapt to life on her husband's tea plantation in Ceylon. She had been loaned to Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
for the film after its original star, Vivien Leigh, fell ill.[55] In the fall, Taylor starred in two more film releases. Beau Brummell was a Regency era
Regency era
period film, another project in which she was cast against her will.[56] Taylor disliked historical films in general, as their elaborate costumes and make-up required her to wake up earlier than usual to prepare, and later stated that she gave one of the worst performances of her career in Beau Brummell.[56] The second film was Richard Brooks' The Last Time I Saw Paris, based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story. Although she had instead wanted to be cast in The Barefoot Contessa
The Barefoot Contessa
(1954), Taylor liked the film, and later stated that it "convinced me I wanted to be an actress instead of yawning my way through parts".[57] While The Last Time I Saw Paris
The Last Time I Saw Paris
was not as profitable as many other MGM films, it garnered positive reviews.[57] Taylor became pregnant again during the production, and had to agree to add another year to her contract to make up for the period spent on maternity leave.[58] Critical acclaim (1956–1960)[edit]

Taylor and Rock Hudson
Rock Hudson
in Giant (1956)

By the mid-1950s, the American film industry was beginning to face serious competition from television, which resulted in studios producing fewer films, and focusing instead on their quality.[59] The change benefited Taylor, who finally found interesting roles after several years of career disappointments.[59] After lobbying director George Stevens, she won the female lead role in Giant (1956), an epic drama about a ranching dynasty, which co-starred Rock Hudson
Rock Hudson
and James Dean.[59] Its filming in Marfa, Texas, was a difficult experience for Taylor, as she clashed with Stevens, who wanted to break her will to make her easier to direct, and was often ill, resulting in delays.[60] To further complicate the production, Dean died in a car accident only days after completing filming; grieving Taylor still had to film reaction shots to their joint scenes.[61] When Giant was released a year later, it became a box-office success, and was widely praised by critics.[59] Although not nominated for an Academy Award like her co-stars, Taylor's performance also garnered positive reviews, with Variety calling it "surprisingly clever",[62] and The Manchester Guardian lauded it as "an astonishing revelation of unsuspected gifts", and named her one of the film's strongest assets.[63] MGM next re-united Taylor with Montgomery Clift
Montgomery Clift
in Raintree County (1957), a Civil War drama it hoped would replicate the success of Gone with the Wind (1939).[64] Taylor found her role as a mentally disturbed Southern belle
Southern belle
fascinating, but overall disliked the film.[64] Although the film failed to become the type of success MGM had planned,[65] Taylor was nominated for the first time for an Academy Award for Best Actress
Academy Award for Best Actress
for her performance.[66]

Promotional poster for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958)

Taylor considered her next performance as Maggie the Cat in the screen adaptation of the Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) a career "high point", although it coincided with one of the most difficult periods in her personal life.[26] After completing Raintree Country, she had divorced Wilding and married producer Mike Todd. She had completed only two weeks of filming in March 1958, when Todd was killed in a plane crash.[67] Although she was devastated, pressure from the studio and the knowledge that Todd had large debts led Taylor to return to work only three weeks later.[68] She later stated that she "in a way ... became Maggie", and that acting "was the only time I could function" in the weeks after Todd's death.[26] During the production, Taylor's personal life drew further public attention when she began an affair with singer Eddie Fisher, whose marriage to actress Debbie Reynolds
Debbie Reynolds
had been idealized by the media as the union of "America's sweethearts".[69] The affair - and Fisher's subsequent divorce - changed Taylor's public image from a grieving widow to a "homewrecker". MGM used the scandal to its advantage by featuring an image of Taylor posing on a bed in a négligée in the film's promotional posters.[69] Cat grossed $10 million in American cinemas alone, and made Taylor the year's second-most profitable star.[69] She received positive reviews for her performance, with Bosley Crowther of The New York Times
The New York Times
calling her "terrific",[70] and Variety praising her for "a well-accented, perceptive interpretation".[71] Taylor was nominated for an Academy Award[66] and a BAFTA.[72]

Promotional poster for BUtterfield 8, for which Taylor won her first Academy Award

Taylor's next film, Joseph L. Mankiewicz' Suddenly, Last Summer (1959), was another Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
adaptation, and co-starred Montgomery Clift
Montgomery Clift
and Katharine Hepburn. The independent production earned Taylor $500,000 for playing the role of a severely traumatized patient in a mental institution.[69] Although the film was a drama about mental illness, childhood traumas, and homosexuality, it was again promoted with Taylor's sex appeal; both its trailer and poster featured her in a white swimsuit. The strategy worked, as the film became a financial success.[73] Taylor received her third Academy Award nomination[66] and her first Golden Globe for Best Actress for her performance.[69] By 1959, Taylor owed one more film for MGM, which it decided should be BUtterfield 8
BUtterfield 8
(1960), a drama about a high-class prostitute.[74] The studio correctly calculated that Taylor's public image would make it easy for audiences to associate her with the role.[74] She hated the film for the same reason, but had no choice in the matter, although the studio agreed to her demands of filming in New York and casting Eddie Fisher in a sympathetic role.[74] As predicted, BUtterfield 8 was a major commercial success, grossing $18 million in world rentals.[75] Crowther wrote that Taylor "looks like a million dollars, in mink or in negligée",[76] while Variety stated that she gives "a torrid, stinging portrayal with one or two brilliantly executed passages within".[77] Taylor won her first Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance.[75] Cleopatra and other films with Richard Burton
Richard Burton
(1961–1967)[edit]

Taylor as Cleopatra with Richard Burton
Richard Burton
as Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in Cleopatra (1963)

After completing her MGM contract, Taylor starred in 20th Century-Fox's Cleopatra (1963) - a historical epic which, according to film historian Alexander Doty, made her more famous than ever before.[78] She became the first actress to be paid $1 million for a role; Fox also granted her 10% of the film's profits, as well as shooting the film in Todd-AO, a widescreen format for which she had inherited the rights from Mike Todd.[79] The film's production - characterized by costly sets and costumes, constant delays, and a scandal caused by Taylor's extramarital affair with her co-star Richard Burton
Richard Burton
- was closely followed by the media, with Life proclaiming it the "Most Talked About Movie Ever Made".[80] Filming first began in England in 1960, but had to be halted several times due to bad weather and Taylor's ill health.[81] In March 1961, she developed nearly fatal pneumonia, which necessitated a tracheotomy; one news agency even erroneously reported that she had died.[81] Once she had recovered, Fox discarded the already filmed material, and moved the production to Rome, changing its director to Joseph Mankiewicz, and the actor playing Mark Antony
Mark Antony
to Burton.[82] Filming was finally completed in July 1962.[83] The film's final cost was $62 million, making it the most expensive film made up to that point.[84] Cleopatra became the biggest box-office success of 1963 in the United States, grossing $15.7 million.[85] Regardless, it took several years for the film to earn back its production costs, which drove Fox near to bankruptcy. The studio, which publicly blamed Taylor for the production's troubles, unsuccessfully sued Burton and her for allegedly damaging the film with their behavior.[84] The film's reviews were mixed to negative, with critics finding Taylor overweight and her voice too thin, and unfavorably comparing her with her classically trained British co-stars.[86] In retrospect, Taylor called Cleopatra a "low point" in her career, and stated that the studio cut out the scenes which provided the "core of the characterization".[26]

Taylor and Burton in The Sandpiper
The Sandpiper
(1965)

Taylor intended on following Cleopatra by headlining an all-star cast in Fox's black comedy What a Way to Go!
What a Way to Go!
(1964), but negotiations fell through, and Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
was cast, instead. In the meantime, film producers were eager to profit from the scandal surrounding Taylor and Burton, and they next starred together in Anthony Asquith's The V.I.P.s (1963), which mirrored the headlines about them.[87] Taylor played a famous model attempting to leave her husband for a lover, and Burton her estranged millionaire husband. Released soon after Cleopatra, it became a box-office success.[88] Taylor was also paid $500,000 to appear in a CBS
CBS
television special, Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
in London, in which she visited the city's landmarks and recited passages from the works of famous British writers.[89] After completing The V.I.P.s, Taylor took a two-year hiatus from films, during which Burton and she divorced their spouses and married each other.[90] The supercouple continued starring together in films in the mid-1960s, earning a combined $88 million over the next decade; Burton once stated, "They say we generate more business activity than one of the smaller African nations."[91][92] Alexander Walker compared these films to "illustrated gossip columns", as their film roles often reflected their public personae, while Doty has noted that the majority of Taylor's films during this period seemed to "conform to, and reinforce, the image of an indulgent, raucous, immoral or amoral, and appetitive (in many senses of the word) 'Elizabeth Taylor'".[93] Taylor and Burton's first joint project following her hiatus was Vincente Minelli's romantic drama The Sandpiper
The Sandpiper
(1965), about an illicit love affair between a bohemian artist and a married clergyman in Big Sur, California. Its reviews were largely negative, but it grossed a successful $14 million in the box office.[94] Their next project, Who's Afraid of Virginia
Virginia
Woolf? (1966), featured the most critically acclaimed performance of Taylor's career.[95] She and Burton starred as Martha and George, a middle-aged couple going through a marital crisis. To convincingly play 50-year-old Martha, Taylor gained weight, wore a wig, and used make-up to make herself look old and tired - in stark contrast to her public image as a glamorous film star.[96] At Taylor's suggestion, theater director Mike Nichols was hired to direct the project, despite his lack of experience with film.[97] The production differed from anything she had done previously, as Nichols wanted to thoroughly rehearse the play before beginning filming.[98] Woolf was considered ground-breaking for its adult themes and uncensored language, and opened to "glorious" reviews.[99] Variety wrote that Taylor's "characterization is at once sensual, spiteful, cynical, pitiable, loathsome, lustful, and tender",[100] and Stanley Kauffmann of The New York Times
The New York Times
stated that she "does the best work of her career, sustained and urgent".[101] The film also became one of the biggest commercial successes of the year.[102] Taylor received her second Academy Award, a BAFTA, a National Board of Review, and a New York City Film Critics Circle awards for her performance. In 1966, Taylor and Burton also performed Doctor Faustus for a week in Oxford
Oxford
to benefit the Oxford
Oxford
University Dramatic Society; he starred and she appeared in her first stage role as Helen of Troy, a part which required no speaking.[103] Although it received generally negative reviews, Burton produced it into a film, Doctor Faustus (1967), with the same cast.[103] It was also panned by critics and grossed only $600,000 in the box office.[104] Taylor and Burton's next project, Franco Zeffirelli's The Taming of the Shrew (1967), which they also co-produced, was more successful.[105] It posed another challenge for Taylor, as she was the only actor in the project with no previous experience of performing Shakespeare; Zeffirelli later stated that this made her performance interesting, as she "invented the part from scratch".[106] Critics found the play to be fitting material for the couple, and the film became a box-office success by grossing $12 million.[107] Taylor's third film released in 1967, John Huston's Reflections in a Golden Eye, was her first without Burton since Cleopatra. It was a drama about a repressed homosexual and his unfaithful wife, and was originally slated to co-star Taylor's old friend Montgomery Clift. His career had been in decline for several years due to his substance-abuse problems, but Taylor was determined to secure his involvement in the project, even offering to pay for his insurance.[108] However, Clift died from a heart attack before filming began; he was replaced by Marlon Brando.[109] Reflections was a critical and commercial failure at the time of its release.[110] Taylor and Burton's last film of the year was the Graham Greene adaptation The Comedians, which received mixed reviews and was a box-office disappointment.[111] Career decline (1968–1979)[edit]

Taylor in 1971

By the late 1960s, Taylor's career was in decline. She had gained weight, was nearing middle age, and did not fit in with New Hollywood stars such as Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
and Julie Christie.[112] After several years of nearly constant media attention, the public was also tiring of Burton and her and criticized their jet set lifestyle.[113] In 1968, Taylor starred in two films directed by Joseph Losey
Joseph Losey
- Boom!, and Secret Ceremony
Secret Ceremony
- both of which were critical and commercial failures.[114] The former, based on Tennessee Williams' The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore, features her as an aging, serial-marrying millionaire, and Burton as a younger man who turns up on the Mediterranean island on which she has retired.[115] Secret Ceremony
Secret Ceremony
is a psychological drama which also stars Mia Farrow
Mia Farrow
and Robert Mitchum.[116] Taylor's third film with George Stevens, The Only Game in Town (1970), in which she played a Las Vegas
Las Vegas
showgirl who has an affair with a compulsive gambler, played by Warren Beatty, was unsuccessful.[117][118] The three films in which Taylor acted in 1972 were somewhat more successful. Zee and Co., which portrayed Michael Caine
Michael Caine
and her as a troubled married couple, won her the David di Donatello
David di Donatello
for Best Foreign Actress. She then appeared with Burton in the Dylan Thomas adaptation Under Milk Wood; although her role was small, its producers decided to give her top-billing to profit from her fame.[119] Her third film role that year was playing a blonde diner waitress in Peter Ustinov's Faust parody Hammersmith Is Out, her tenth collaboration with Burton. Although it was overall not successful,[120] Taylor received some good reviews, with Vincent Canby
Vincent Canby
of The New York Times writing that she has "a certain vulgar, ratty charm",[121] and Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times
Chicago Sun-Times
stating, "The spectacle of Elizabeth Taylor growing older and more beautiful continues to amaze the population".[122] Her performance won the Silver Bear for Best Actress at the Berlin Film Festival.[118]

In Divorce His, Divorce Hers
Divorce His, Divorce Hers
(1973), Taylor's last film with Burton

Taylor and Burton's last film together was the Harlech Television film Divorce His, Divorce Hers
Divorce His, Divorce Hers
(1973), fittingly named as they divorced the following year.[123] Her other films released in 1973 were the British thriller Night Watch (1973) and the American drama Ash Wednesday (1973).[124] For the latter, in which she starred as a woman who undergoes multiple plastic surgeries in an attempt to save her marriage, she received a Golden Globe nomination.[125] Her only film released in 1974, the Italian Muriel Spark
Muriel Spark
adaptation The Driver's Seat (1974), was a failure.[126] Taylor took fewer roles after the mid-1970s, and focused on supporting the career of her sixth husband, Republican politician John Warner. In 1976, she participated in the Soviet-American fantasy film The Blue Bird (1976), a critical and box-office failure, and had a small role in the television film Victory at Entebbe
Victory at Entebbe
(1976), and in 1977, she sang in the critically panned film adaptation of Stephen Sondheim's A Little Night Music (1977).[127] Stage and television roles; retirement (1980–2007)[edit]

Taylor at an event honoring her career in 1981

After a period of semi-retirement from films, Taylor starred in The Mirror Crack'd (1980), adapted from an Agatha Christie
Agatha Christie
mystery novel and featuring an ensemble cast of actors from the studio era, such as Angela Lansbury, Kim Novak, Rock Hudson, and Tony Curtis.[128] Wanting to challenge herself, she then appeared in her first substantial stage role, playing Regina Giddens in a Broadway production of Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes.[129] Instead of portraying Giddens in negative light as had often been the case in previous productions, Taylor's idea was to show her as a victim of circumstance, explaining, "She's a killer, but she's saying, 'Sorry fellas, you put me in this position'".[130] The production premiered in May 1981, and had a sold-out six-month run despite mixed reviews.[129] Frank Rich of The New York Times wrote that Taylor's performance as "Regina Giddens, that malignant Southern bitch-goddess ... begins gingerly, soon gathers steam, and then explodes into a black and thunderous storm that may just knock you out of your seat",[131] while Dan Sullivan of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times stated, "Taylor presents a possible Regina Giddens, as seen through the persona of Elizabeth Taylor. There's some acting in it, as well as some personal display."[132] She appeared as evil socialite Helena Cassadine
Helena Cassadine
in the day-time soap opera General Hospital in November 1981.[133] The following spring, she continued performing The Little Foxes
The Little Foxes
in London's West End, but received largely negative reviews from the British press.[133] Encouraged by the success of The Little Foxes, Taylor and producer Zev Buffman founded the Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
Repertory Company.[133] Its first and only production was a revival of Noël Coward's comedy Private Lives, starring Taylor and Burton.[134][135] It premiered in Boston in spring 1983, and although commercially successful, received generally negative reviews, with critics noting that both stars were in noticeably poor health - Taylor admitted herself to a drug and alcohol rehabilitation center after the play's run ended, and Burton died the following year.[134] After the failure of Private Lives, Taylor dissolved her theater company.[136] Her only other project that year was television film Between Friends.[137] From the mid-1980s, Taylor acted mostly in television productions. She made cameos in the soap operas Hotel and All My Children
All My Children
in 1984, and played a brothel keeper in the historical mini-series North and South in 1985.[138] She also starred in several television films, playing gossip columnist Louella Parsons
Louella Parsons
in Malice in Wonderland (1985), a "fading movie star" in the drama There Must Be a Pony (1986),[139] and a character based on Poker Alice
Poker Alice
in the eponymous Western (1987).[138] She re-united with director Franco Zeffirelli
Franco Zeffirelli
to appear in his French-Italian biopic Young Toscanini
Young Toscanini
(1988), and had the last starring role of her career in a television adaptation of Sweet Bird of Youth (1989), her fourth Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
play.[138] During this time, she also began receiving honorary awards for her career - the Cecil B. DeMille Award
Cecil B. DeMille Award
in 1985,[125] and the Film Society of Lincoln Center's Chaplin Award in 1986.[140] In the 1990s, Taylor focused her time on HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
activism. Her few acting roles included characters in the animated series Captain Planet and the Planeteers (1992) and The Simpsons
The Simpsons
(1992, 1993),[141] and cameos in four CBS
CBS
series - The Nanny, Can't Hurry Love, Murphy Brown, and High Society - in one night in February 1996 to promote her new fragrance.[142] Her last theatrically released film was in the critically panned, but commercially very successful, The Flintstones (1994), in which she played Pearl Slaghoople in a brief supporting role.[143] Taylor received American and British honors for her career: the AFI Life Achievement Award
AFI Life Achievement Award
in 1993,[144] the Screen Actors Guild honorary award in 1997,[145] and a BAFTA
BAFTA
Fellowship in 1999.[146] In 2000, she was made a Dame
Dame
by Queen Elizabeth II.[147] After supporting roles in the television film These Old Broads
These Old Broads
(2001) and in the animated sitcom God, the Devil and Bob
God, the Devil and Bob
(2001), Taylor announced that she was retiring from acting to devote her time to philanthropy.[143][148] She gave one last public performance in 2007, when James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and she performed the play Love Letters at an AIDS
AIDS
benefit at the Paramount Studios.[143] Other ventures[edit] HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
activism[edit] Taylor was one of the first celebrities to participate in HIV/AIDS activism, helping to raise more than $270 million for the cause.[149] She began her philanthropic work in 1984, after becoming frustrated with the disease being widely discussed, but very little being done about it.[150] She later explained for Vanity Fair that she "decided that with my name, I could open certain doors, that I was a commodity in myself - and I'm not talking as an actress. I could take the fame I'd resented and tried to get away from for so many years - but you can never get away from it - and use it to do some good. I wanted to retire, but the tabloids wouldn't let me. So, I thought: If you're going to screw me over, I'll use you."[151]

Taylor, alongside congresswoman Nancy Pelosi, testifying in 1990 before the House Budget Committee on HIV- AIDS
AIDS
Funding

Taylor began her philanthropic efforts by helping to organize and by hosting the first AIDS
AIDS
fund-raiser to benefit the AIDS
AIDS
Project Los Angeles.[151][152] In August 1985, Dr. Michael Gottlieb and she founded the National AIDS
AIDS
Research Foundation after her friend and former co-star Rock Hudson
Rock Hudson
announced that he was dying of the disease.[151][152] The following month, the foundation merged with Dr. Mathilde Krim's AIDS
AIDS
foundation to form the American Foundation for AIDS
AIDS
Research (amfAR).[153][154] As amfAR focuses on funding research, Taylor founded the Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
AIDS
AIDS
Foundation (ETAF) in 1991 to raise awareness and to provide support services for people with HIV/AIDS, paying for its overhead costs herself.[151][152][155] Her trust continues to do so, and 25% of her image and likeness royalties are donated to ETAF.[155] In addition to her work for people affected by HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
in the United States, Taylor was instrumental in expanding amfAR's operations to other countries; ETAF also operates internationally.[151] Taylor testified before the Senate and House for the Ryan White Care Act in 1986, 1990, and 1992.[154][156] She persuaded President Ronald Reagan to acknowledge the disease for the first time in a speech in 1987, and publicly criticized presidents George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush
and Bill Clinton for lack of interest in combatting the disease.[151][152] Taylor also founded the Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
Medical Center to offer free HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
testing and care at the Whitman-Walker Clinic
Whitman-Walker Clinic
in Washington, D. C., and the Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
Endowment Fund for the UCLA
UCLA
Clinical AIDS
AIDS
Research and Education Center in Los Angeles.[154] In 2015, Taylor's business partner Kathy Ireland
Kathy Ireland
claimed that Taylor ran an illegal "underground network" that distributed medications to Americans suffering from HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
during the 1980s, when the Food and Drug Administration had not yet approved them.[157] The claim was challenged by several people, including amfAR's former vice president for development and external affairs, Taylor's former publicist, and activists who were involved in the Project Inform in the 1980s and 1990s.[158] Taylor was honored with several awards for her philanthropic work. She was made a Knight of the French Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
in 1987, and received the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
in 1993, the Screen Actors' Guild Lifetime Achievement Award for Humanitarian service in 1997, the GLAAD Vanguard Award in 2000, and the Presidential Citizens Medal
Presidential Citizens Medal
in 2001.[154]

Taylor promoting her first fragrance, Passion, in 1987

Fragrance and jewelry brands[edit] Taylor was the first celebrity to create her own collection of fragrances.[159][160] In collaboration with Elizabeth Arden, Inc., she began by launching two best-selling perfumes - Passion in 1987, and White Diamonds in 1991.[159] Taylor personally supervised the creation and production of each of the 11 fragrances marketed in her name.[159] According to biographers Sam Kashner and Nancy Schoenberger, she earned more money through the fragrance collection than during her entire acting career,[143] and upon her death, the British newspaper The Guardian
The Guardian
estimated that majority of her estimated $600 million-$1 billion estate consisted of revenue from fragrances.[159] In 2005, Taylor also founded a jewelry company, House of Taylor, in collaboration with Kathy Ireland
Kathy Ireland
and Jack and Monty Abramov.[161] Personal life[edit] Marriages, relationships, and children[edit]

Taylor's relationships were subject to intense media attention throughout her adult life, as exemplified by a 1955 issue of gossip magazine Confidential.

Throughout her adult years, Taylor's personal life, and especially her eight marriages, drew a large amount of media attention and public disapproval. According to biographer Alexander Walker, "Whether she liked it or not ... marriage is the matrix of the myth that began surrounding Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
from [when she was sixteen]".[162] MGM organized her to date football champion Glenn Davis in 1948, and the following year, she was briefly engaged to William Pawley, Jr., son of U.S. ambassador William D. Pawley.[163] Film tycoon Howard Hughes
Howard Hughes
also wanted to marry her, and offered to pay her parents a six-figure sum of money if she were to become his wife.[164] Taylor declined the offer, but was otherwise eager to marry young, as her "rather puritanical upbringing and beliefs" made her believe that "love was synonymous with marriage".[26] Taylor later described herself as being "emotionally immature" during this time due to her sheltered childhood, and believed that she could gain independence from her parents and MGM through marriage.[26] Taylor was 18 when she married Conrad "Nicky" Hilton, Jr., heir to the Hilton Hotels
Hilton Hotels
chain, at the Church of the Good Shepherd in Beverly Hills on May 6, 1950.[165] MGM organized the large and expensive wedding, which became a major media event.[165] In the weeks after their wedding, Taylor realized that she had made a mistake; not only did Hilton and she have few common interests, but he was also abusive and a heavy drinker.[166] She was granted a divorce in January 1951, eight months after their wedding.[167] Taylor married her second husband, British actor Michael Wilding - a man 20 years her senior - in a low-key ceremony at Caxton Hall
Caxton Hall
in London
London
on February 21, 1952.[168] She had first met him in 1948 while filming The Conspirator in England, and their relationship began when she returned to film Ivanhoe in 1951.[169] Taylor found their age gap appealing, as she wanted "the calm and quiet and security of friendship" from their relationship;[26] he hoped that the marriage would aid his career in Hollywood.[170] They had two sons: Michael Howard (born January 6, 1953), and Christopher Edward (born February 27, 1955).[171] As Taylor grew older, and more confident in herself, she began to drift apart from Wilding, whose failing career was also a source of marital strife.[172] When she was away filming Giant in 1955, gossip magazine Confidential caused a scandal by claiming that he had entertained strippers at their home.[173] Taylor and Wilding announced their separation in July 1956, and were divorced in January 1957.[citation needed]

Taylor with her third husband Mike Todd
Mike Todd
and her three children in 1957

Taylor married her third husband, theater and film producer Mike Todd, in Acapulco, Mexico, on February 2, 1957.[174] They had one daughter, Elizabeth "Liza" Frances (born August 6, 1957).[175] Todd, known for publicity stunts, encouraged the media attention to their marriage; for example, in June 1957, he threw a birthday party at Madison Square Garden, which was attended by 18,000 guests and broadcast on CBS.[176] His death in a plane crash on March 22, 1958, left Taylor devastated.[177] She was comforted by Todd's and her friend, singer Eddie Fisher, with whom she soon began an affair.[178] As Fisher was still married to actress Debbie Reynolds, the affair resulted in a public scandal, with Taylor being branded a "homewrecker".[178] Taylor and Fisher were married at the Temple Beth Sholom in Las Vegas
Las Vegas
on May 12, 1959; she later stated that she married him only due to her grief.[178][26] While filming Cleopatra in Italy in 1962, Taylor began an affair with her co-star, Welsh actor and epileptic Richard Burton, although Burton was also married. Rumors about the affair began to circulate in the press, and were confirmed by a paparazzi shot of them on a yacht in Ischia.[179] According to sociologist Ellis Cashmore, the publication of the photograph was a "turning point", beginning a new era in which it became difficult for celebrities to keep their personal lives separate from their public images.[180] The scandal caused Taylor and Burton to be condemned for "erotic vagrancy" by the Vatican, with calls also in the U.S. Congress to bar them from re-entering the country.[181] Taylor was granted a divorce from Fisher on March 6, 1964, in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, and married Burton nine days later in a private ceremony at the Ritz-Carlton Montreal.[182] Burton subsequently adopted Liza Todd and Maria Burton (born August 1, 1961), a German orphan whose adoption process Taylor had begun while married to Fisher.[183][184]

Taylor and Burton with Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
in the sitcom Here's Lucy, 1970

Dubbed "Liz and Dick" by the media, Taylor and Burton starred together in 11 films, and led a jet set lifestyle, spending millions on "furs, diamonds, paintings, designer clothes, travel, food, liquor, a yacht, and a jet".[91] Sociologist Karen Sternheimer states that they "became a cottage industry of speculation about their alleged life of excess. From reports of massive spending [...] affairs, and even an open marriage, the couple came to represent a new era of 'gotcha' celebrity coverage, where the more personal the story, the better."[185] They divorced for the first time in June 1974, but reconciled, and re-married in Kasane, Botswana, on October 10, 1975.[186] The second marriage lasted less than a year, ending in divorce in July 1976.[187] Taylor and Burton's relationship was often referred to as the "marriage of the century" by the media, and she later stated, "After Richard, the men in my life were just there to hold the coat, to open the door. All the men after Richard were really just company."[188] Soon after her final divorce from Burton, Taylor met her sixth husband, John Warner, a Republican politician from Virginia.[189] They were married on December 4, 1976, after which Taylor concentrated on working for his electoral campaign.[189] Once Warner had been elected to the Senate, she started to find her life as a politician's wife in Washington, D. C., boring and lonely, becoming depressed, overweight, and increasingly addicted to prescription drugs and alcohol.[189] Taylor and Warner separated in December 1981, and divorced a year later in November 1982.[190] After the divorce from Warner, Taylor was engaged to Mexican lawyer Victor Luna in 1983-1984,[191] and New York businessman Dennis Stein in 1985.[192] She met her seventh - and last - husband, construction worker Larry Fortensky, at the Betty Ford Center
Betty Ford Center
in 1988.[193] They were married at the Neverland Ranch
Neverland Ranch
of her long-time friend Michael Jackson on October 6, 1991.[149] The wedding was again subject to intense media attention, with one photographer parachuting to the ranch[149] and Taylor selling the wedding pictures to People for $1 million, which she used to start her AIDS
AIDS
foundation.[154] Taylor and Fortensky divorced in October 1996.[194] Support for Jewish and Israeli causes[edit] Taylor was raised as a Christian Scientist, and converted to Judaism in 1959.[195] Although two of her husbands - Mike Todd
Mike Todd
and Eddie Fisher - were Jewish, Taylor stated that she did not convert because of them, but had wanted to do so "for a long time",[196] and that there was "comfort and dignity and hope for me in this ancient religion that [has] survived for four thousand years... I feel as if I have been a Jew all my life".[197] Walker believed that Taylor was influenced in her decision by her godfather, Victor Cazalet, and her mother, who were active supporters of Zionism
Zionism
during her childhood.[198] Following her conversion, Taylor became an active supporter of Jewish and Zionist causes.[199][200] In 1959, she purchased $100,000 worth of Israeli bonds, which led to her films being banned by Muslim countries throughout the Middle East and Africa.[201][200] She was also barred from entering Egypt to film Cleopatra in 1962, but the ban was lifted two years later after the Egyptian officials deemed that the film brought positive publicity for the country.[199] In addition to purchasing bonds, Taylor helped to raise money for organizations such as the Jewish National Fund,[199] and sat on the board of trustees of the Simon Wiesenthal Center.[202] She also advocated for the right of Soviet Jews to emigrate to Israel, cancelled a visit to the USSR because of its condemnation of Israel due to the Six-Day War, and signed a letter protesting the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 of 1975.[199] In 1976, she offered herself as a replacement hostage after more than 100 Israeli civilians were taken hostage in the Entebbe skyjacking.[199] She had a small role in the television film made about the incident, Victory at Entebbe (1976), and narrated Genocide (1981), an Academy Award-winning documentary about the Holocaust.[202] Style and jewelry collection[edit]

Taylor in a studio publicity photo in 1953

Taylor is considered a fashion icon both for her film costumes and personal style.[203][204][205] At MGM, her costumes were mostly designed by Helen Rose
Helen Rose
and Edith Head,[206] and in the 1960s by Irene Sharaff.[204][207] Her most famous costumes include a white ball gown in A Place in the Sun (1951), a Grecian dress in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), and a slip and a fur coat in BUtterfield 8 (1960).[203][204][205] Her make-up look in Cleopatra (1963) started a trend for "cat-eye" make-up done with black eyeliner.[208] Taylor collected jewelry through her life, and owned the 33.19-carat (6.638 g) Krupp Diamond, the 69.42-carat (13.884 g) Taylor-Burton Diamond, and the 50-carat (10 g) La Peregrina Pearl, formerly owned by Mary I of England - all three were gifts from husband Richard Burton.[209] She also published a book about her collection, My Love Affair with Jewelry, in 2002.[204][210] Taylor helped to popularize the work of fashion designers Valentino Garavani[206][211] and Halston.[204][212] She received a Lifetime of Glamour Award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) in 1997.[213] After her death, her jewelry and fashion collections were auctioned by Christie's
Christie's
to benefit her AIDS
AIDS
foundation, ETAF. The jewelry sold for a record-breaking sum of $156.8 million,[214] and the clothes and accessories for a further $5.5 million.[215] Health problems and death[edit]

Taylor's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
in the days following her death in 2011

Taylor struggled with health problems for most of her life.[149] She was born with scoliosis,[216] and broke her back while filming National Velvet in 1944.[22] The fracture went undetected for several years, although it caused her chronic back problems.[22] In 1956, she underwent an operation in which some of her spinal discs were removed and replaced with donated bone.[217] Taylor was also prone to other illnesses and injuries, which often necessitated surgery; in 1961, she survived a near-fatal bout of pneumonia that required a tracheotomy.[218] In addition, she was addicted to alcohol and prescription medications. She was treated at the Betty Ford Center
Betty Ford Center
for seven weeks from December 1983 to January 1984, becoming the first celebrity to openly admit herself to the clinic.[219] She relapsed later in the decade, and entered rehabilitation again in 1988.[220] Taylor also struggled with her weight - she became overweight during her marriage to Senator John Warner, and published a diet book about her experiences, Elizabeth Takes Off (1988).[221][222] Taylor was a heavy smoker until she experienced a severe bout of pneumonia in 1990.[223] Taylor's health increasingly declined during the last two decades of her life, and she rarely attended public events in the 2000s.[216][b] She used a wheelchair due to her back problems, and was diagnosed with congestive heart failure in 2004.[224][225] Six weeks after being hospitalized, she died of the illness at age 79 on March 23, 2011, at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
in Los Angeles.[226] Her funeral took place the following day at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. The service was a private Jewish ceremony presided over by Rabbi
Rabbi
Jerome Cutler. At Taylor's request, the ceremony began 15 minutes behind schedule, as, according to her representative, "she even wanted to be late for her own funeral".[227] She was entombed in the cemetery's Great Mausoleum.[228] Legacy[edit]

"More than anyone else I can think of, Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
represents the complete movie phenomenon - what movies are as an art and an industry, and what they have meant to those of us who have grown up watching them in the dark... Like movies themselves, she's grown up with us, as we have with her. She's someone whose entire life has been played in a series of settings forever denied the fourth wall. Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
is the most important character she's ever played."[229]

- Vincent Canby
Vincent Canby
of The New York Times
The New York Times
in 1986

Taylor was one of the last stars of classical Hollywood cinema,[230][231] and also one of the first modern celebrities.[232][233][234][235][236] During the era of the studio system, she exemplified the classic film star. She was portrayed as different from "ordinary" people, and her public image was carefully crafted and controlled by MGM.[237] When the era of classical Hollywood ended in the 1960s, and paparazzi photography became a normal feature of media culture, Taylor came to define a new type of celebrity, whose real private life was the focus of public interest.[238][232][239] According to Adam Bernstein of The Washington Post, "More than for any film role, she became famous for being famous, setting a media template for later generations of entertainers, models, and all variety of semi-somebodies."[240] Regardless of the acting awards she won during her career, Taylor's film performances were often overlooked by contemporary critics;[23][241] according to film historian Jeanine Basinger, "No actress ever had a more difficult job in getting critics to accept her onscreen as someone other than Elizabeth Taylor... Her persona ate her alive."[240] Her film roles often mirrored her personal life, and many critics continue to regard her as always playing herself, rather than acting.[232][240][242] In contrast, Mel Gussow of The New York Times stated that "the range of [Taylor's] acting was surprisingly wide", despite the fact that she never received any professional training.[23] Film critic Peter Bradshaw called her "an actress of such sexiness it was an incitement to riot - sultry and queenly at the same time", and "a shrewd, intelligent, intuitive acting presence in her later years".[243] David Thomson stated that "she had the range, nerve, and instinct that only Bette Davis
Bette Davis
had had before - and like Davis, Taylor was monster and empress, sweetheart and scold, idiot and wise woman".[244] Three films in which she starred - National Velvet, Giant, and Who's Afraid of Virginia
Virginia
Woolf? - have been preserved in the National Film Registry, and the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
has named her the seventh greatest female screen legend of classical Hollywood cinema. Taylor has also been discussed by journalists and scholars interested in the role of women in Western society. Camille Paglia
Camille Paglia
writes that Taylor was a "pre-feminist woman" who "wields the sexual power that feminism cannot explain and has tried to destroy. Through stars like Taylor, we sense the world-disordering impact of legendary women like Delilah, Salome, and Helen of Troy."[245] In contrast, cultural critic M.G. Lord calls Taylor an "accidental feminist", stating that while she did not identify as a feminist, many of her films had feminist themes and "introduced a broad audience to feminist ideas".[246][c] Similarly, Ben W. Heineman, Jr., and Cristine Russell write in The Atlantic that her role in Giant "dismantled stereotypes about women and minorities".[247] Taylor is considered a gay icon, and received widespread recognition for her HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
activism.[240][248][249][250] After her death, GLAAD issued a statement saying that she "was an icon not only in Hollywood, but in the LGBT community, where she worked to ensure that everyone was treated with the respect and dignity we all deserve",[248] and Sir Nick Partridge
Nick Partridge
of the Terrence Higgins Trust called her "the first major star to publicly fight fear and prejudice towards AIDS".[251] According to Paul Flynn of The Guardian, she was "a new type of gay icon, one whose position is based not on tragedy, but on her work for the LGBTQ community".[252] Speaking of her charity work, former President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
said at her death, "Elizabeth's legacy will live on in many people around the world whose lives will be longer and better because of her work and the ongoing efforts of those she inspired."[253] Notes[edit]

^ In October 1965, as her then-husband Richard Burton
Richard Burton
was British, she signed an oath of renunciation at the U.S. Embassy in Paris, but with the phrase "abjure all allegiance and fidelity to the United States" struck out. U.S. State Department officials declared that her renunciation was invalid due to the alteration, and Taylor signed another oath, this time without alteration, in October 1966.[2] She applied for restoration of U.S. citizenship in 1977, during then-husband John Warner's Senate campaign, stating she planned to remain in America for the rest of her life.[3][4] ^ Taylor had serious bouts of pneumonia in 1990 and 2000,[152] underwent hip replacement surgery in the mid-1990s,[149] underwent surgery for a benign brain tumor in 1997,[149] and was successfully treated for skin cancer in 2002.[216] ^ For example, National Velvet (1944) was about a girl attempting to compete in the Grand National
Grand National
despite gender discrimination; A Place in the Sun (1951) is "a cautionary tale from a time before women had ready access to birth control"; her character in BUtterfield 8
BUtterfield 8
(1960) is shown in control of her sexuality; Who's Afraid of Virginia
Virginia
Woolf? (1966) "depicts the anguish that befalls a woman when the only way she can express herself is through her husband's stalled career and children".[246]

References[edit]

^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 3-10. ^ Boyce, Richard (April 14, 1967). "Liz Taylor Renounces U.S. Citizenship". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved July 3, 2012.  ^ "Liz Taylor Applies To Be U.S. Citizen". Toledo Blade. February 19, 1978. Retrieved July 3, 2012.  ^ Wilson, Earl (June 15, 1977). "Will Liz Taylor be our First Lady?". St. Joseph Gazette. Retrieved July 3, 2012.  ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 61; Walker 1990, pp. 3-11. ^ a b c Walker 1990, pp. 11-19. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 3, 11-19, 20-23. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 22-26. ^ Heymann 1995, p. 14. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 22-28; Heymann 1995, p. 27. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 22-28. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 27-34. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 27-30. ^ Palmer, Roxanne (March 25, 2005). "Elizabeth Taylor: Beautiful Mutant". Slate. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ Walker 1990, p. 9. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 27-31. ^ a b c d e Walker 1990, pp. 27-37. ^ Walker 1990, p. 32. ^ a b c d Cott, Jonathan (1987). "Elizabeth Taylor: The Lost Interview". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  Published for the first time on March 29, 2011. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 22-23, 27-37. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 38-41. ^ a b c d e f g Walker 1990, pp. 40-47. ^ a b c Gussow, Mel (March 23, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor, 1932-2011: A Lustrous Pinnacle of Hollywood Glamour". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ Crowther, Bosley (December 15, 1944). "Movie Review: National Velvet (1944)". The New York Times. Retrieved August 30, 2014.  ^ Agee, James (March 24, 2011). " Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
in National Velvet". The Nation. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Meryman, Richard (December 18, 1964). "I refuse to cure my public image". Life. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 48-51. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 51-58. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 56-57; 65-74. ^ Walker 1990, p. 71. ^ Walker 1990, p. 69. ^ Gehring 2006, pp. 157-158; Walker 1990, pp. 58-70. ^ "Life With Father". American Film Institute. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  ^ Troyan 1999, p. 211; Walker 1990, p. 82. ^ Clark 2014, p. 158. ^ "Elizabeth Taylor: Star Rising". Time. August 22, 1949. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 75-83. ^ "The Conspirator". American Film Institute. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  ^ "The Big Hangover". American Film Institute. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 99-105. ^ Curtis 2011, pp. 599-609. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 96-97. ^ Walker 1990, p. 91. ^ Walker 1990, p. 92; Moss 2004, p. 159. ^ Capua 2002, p. 72; Moss 2004, p. 166. ^ Golden, Herb (August 29, 1951). "A Place in the Sun". Variety. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Weiler, A.H. (August 29, 1951). "A Place in the Sun". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 124-125. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 129-132. ^ Stubbs 2013, p. 96. ^ Walker 1990, p. 145. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 139-143. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 141-143. ^ Walker 1990, p. 153. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 148-149. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 153-154. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 153-157; Daniel 2011, pp. 80-81. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 153-157. ^ a b c d Walker 1990, pp. 158-165. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 158-165; Moss 2004, pp. 215-219. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 158-166. ^ "Giant". Variety. October 10, 1956. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ "Elizabeth Taylor: How Guardian critics rated her films". The Guardian. October 10, 1956. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 166-177. ^ Hernán & Gordon 2003, p. 26. ^ a b c "Elizabeth Taylor". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved December 9, 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ Walker 1990, pp. 186-194. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 195-203. ^ a b c d e Walker 1990, pp. 203-210. ^ Crowther, Bosley (September 19, 1958). "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958)". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ "Review: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof". Variety. December 31, 1958. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ "Film: Foreign Actress in 1959". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Retrieved December 9, 2015.  ^ Lower & Palmer 2001, p. 158. ^ a b c Walker 1990, pp. 211-223. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 224-236. ^ Crowther, Bosley (November 17, 1960). "Butterfield 8 (1960)". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ "Review: 'Butterfield 8'". Variety. December 31, 1960. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Doty 2012, p. 47. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 10-11; Walker 1990, pp. 211-223. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 11-12, 39, 45-46, 56. ^ a b Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 12-13. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 12-18. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 39. ^ a b Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 46. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 56-57. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 56-58; Walker 1990, pp. 265-267; Doty 2012, pp. 48-49. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 42-45; Walker 1990, pp. 252-255, 260-266. ^ Walker 1990, p. 264. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 74-75. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 112. ^ a b Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 193. ^ Bateman, Christopher (June 1, 2010). "Liz and Dick: The Ultimate Celebrity Couple". Vanity Fair. Retrieved December 20, 2015.  ^ Walker 1990, p. 294; Doty 2012, p. 51. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 116-118. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 142, 151-152; Walker 1990, p. 286. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 136-137; Walker 1990, pp. 281-282. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 139-140. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 141. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 140, 151. ^ "Review: Who's Afraid of Virginia
Virginia
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Virginia
Woolf? (1966)". The New York Times. June 24, 1966. Retrieved December 20, 2015.  ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 151-152; Walker 1990, p. 286. ^ a b Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 186-189. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 230-232. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 164. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 168. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 181, 186. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 157-161. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 175, 189. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 233-234. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 228-232. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 135-136; Walker 1990, pp. 294-296, 307-308. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 142, 151-152; Walker 1990, pp. 294-296, 305-306. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 238-246. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 211-217. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 242-243, 246. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 287. ^ a b McCallum, Simon (May 7, 2015). "Late Liz: 10 forgotten Elizabeth Taylor films". British Film Institute. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 313-316. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 316. ^ Canby, Vincent (May 25, 1972). "Hammersmith is Out (1972)". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Ebert, Roger (May 26, 1972). "Hammersmith is Out (1972)". Roger Ebert (originally published in the Chicago Sun-Times). Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 357. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 341-349, 357-358. ^ a b "Elizabeth Taylor". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 371-375. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 388-389, 403. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 435. ^ a b Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 411; Walker 1990, pp. 347-362. ^ Walker 1990, p. 349. ^ Rich, Frank (May 8, 1981). "Stage: The Misses Taylor and Stapleton in 'Foxes'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Ng, David (March 23, 2011). " Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
remembered: Always a star, even on the stage". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ a b c Walker 1990, pp. 347-362. ^ a b Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 413-425; Walker 1990, pp. 347-362. ^ Brenner, Marie (May 9, 1983). "The Liz and Dick Show". New York. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ Hanauer, Joan (November 8, 1983). "Liz-Zev Split". United Press International. Retrieved November 10, 2015.  ^ "Between Friends". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ a b c Walker 1990, pp. 363-373. ^ O'Connor, John J. (October 3, 1986). "'THERE MUST BE A PONY', WITH ELIZABETH TAYLOR". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ "Chaplin Award Gala". Film Society of Lincoln Center. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Snierson, Dan (March 24, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: 'Simpsons' exec producer Al Jean remembers the film legend's one-word turn as baby Maggie". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ Shales, Tom (February 28, 1996). " CBS
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Follows the Scent of Missing Pearls". Los Angeles
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Moments - Dame
Dame
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dies at 79; legendary actress". Los Angeles
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Larry King Live: Interview with Elizabeth Taylor". CNN. February 3, 2003. Retrieved November 18, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f Collins, Nancy (November 1992). "Elizabeth Taylor's AIDS crusade". Vanity Fair. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ a b c d e Yarbrough, Jeff (October 15, 1996). "Elizabeth Taylor: The Advocate Interview". The Advocate. Retrieved November 10, 2015.  ^ "Introduction and History". amfAR. Retrieved November 10, 2015.  ^ a b c d e "Timeline". The Elizabeth Taylor
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HIV
drugs ring from her home'". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2015.  ^ Armstrong, Walter (December 10, 2015). "Did Liz Taylor Really Run a Bel Air Buyers Club for AIDS
AIDS
Meds, As Kathy Ireland
Kathy Ireland
Claimed?". New York. Retrieved December 11, 2015.  ^ a b c d Hughes, Sali (March 29, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: the original celebrity perfumer". The Guardian. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ France, Lisa Respers (March 25, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: the queen of cologne". CNN. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ "House of Taylor Jewelry, Inc. Established Through Merger With Nurescell Inc". PR Newswire. May 23, 2005. Retrieved November 7, 2015.  ^ Walker 1990, p. 126. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 75-88. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 81-82. ^ a b Walker 1990, pp. 106-112. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 113-119. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 120-125. ^ Walker 1990, p. 139. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 131-133. ^ Walker 1990, p. 136. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 148, 160. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 160-165. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 164-165. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 178-180. ^ Walker 1990, p. 186. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 5-6; Walker 1990, p. 188. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 5-6; Walker 1990, pp. 193-202. ^ a b c Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 7-9; Walker 1990, pp. 201-210. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 27-34; Sternheimer 2015, p. 174. ^ Sternheimer 2015, p. 174. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 36. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 99-100. ^ Sheila Marikar (March 28, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor's Unseen Role: Mother". ABC News. Retrieved April 20, 2011.  ^ "Q&A: An update on Elizabeth Taylor's four children". St. Petersburg Times. January 12, 2010. Archived from the original on January 8, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2011.  ^ Sternheimer 2015, pp. 200-201. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 376, 391-394. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 384-385, 406. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. vii for press; 437 for quote. ^ a b c Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 402-405. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 410-411. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 422-434. ^ Staff (August 12, 1991). Eight Is Enough. People magazine. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 437; Walker 1990, pp. 465-466. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, p. 437. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 173-174; Walker 1990, pp. 206-210. ^ Oyster, Marcy (March 23, 2011). "Actress Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
Dies". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved November 13, 2015.  ^ Heymann 1995, p. 195. ^ Walker 1990, p. 14. ^ a b c d e Eden, Ami (March 23, 2011). "In the JTA Archive: Liz Taylor says trade me for Entebbe hostages". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved November 13, 2015.  ^ a b Burstein, Nathan (March 25, 2011). " Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
and Israel, a lasting love". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 30, 2014.  ^ Kelley 1981, p. 134. ^ a b "Wiesenthal Center Mourns the Passing of Elizabeth Taylor, Longtime Friend and Supporter". Simon Wiesenthal Center. March 23, 2011. Retrieved December 12, 2015.  ^ a b Horyn, Cathy (March 23, 2011). "An Alluring Beauty Exempt From Fashion's Rules". The New York Times.  ^ a b c d e Vesilind, Emili (March 23, 2011). "As a fashion icon, Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
could turn simple into sexy, elegance into excess". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times.  ^ a b Fox, Imogen (March 23, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: style icon". The Guardian.  ^ a b Cosgrave, Bronwyn (March 24, 2011). "End of an Era". Vogue.  ^ "RELEASE: THE ICON AND HER HAUTE COUTURE -THE COLLECTION OF ELIZABETH TAYLOR". Christie's. September 20, 2011.  ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 135-136. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 237-238 for Krupp diamond; 258-259 for La Peregrina; 275-276 for Taylor-Burton diamond. ^ "Elizabeth Taylor: A Life in Jewels". Vanity Fair. November 23, 2011. Retrieved November 21, 2015.  ^ "Elizabeth Taylor". Valentino Garavani
Valentino Garavani
Museum. March 24, 2011.  ^ Wohlfert, Lee (June 20, 1977). "Cover Story: Dressing the Stars". People. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.  ^ Cowles, Charlotte (March 23, 2011). "A Tribute to Elizabeth Taylor: Fashion Icon". New York.  ^ "The Collection of Elizabeth Taylor". Christies.  ^ "The Collection of Elizabeth Taylor: The Icon and her Haute Couture, Evening Sale (III)". Christie's. December 14, 2011.  ^ a b c " Dame
Dame
Elizabeth Taylor: History of health problems". The Daily Telegraph. March 23, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2015.  ^ Walker 1990, p. 175. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 12-14, 129, 142, 160, 244-245, 253-254, 295-296. ^ Kashner & Schoenberger 2010, pp. 424-425. ^ Walker 1990, pp. 366-368. ^ Tanabe, Karin (March 24, 2011). "ELIZABETH TAYLOR'S WASHINGTON LIFE". Politico. Retrieved April 3, 2011.  ^ Harmetz, Aljean (January 20, 1988). "Liz Taylor at 55: Thin Again, and Wiser". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2015.  ^ Taraborrelli, J. Randy Elizabeth: The Biography of Elizabeth Taylor (2007) p. 432 ^ " Dame
Dame
Elizabeth Taylor
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dies at the age of 79". BBC. March 23, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2015.  ^ " Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
dies aged 79". ABC News. March 23, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ Tourtellotte, Bob (March 23, 2011). "Hollywood legend Elizabeth Taylor dies at 79". Reuters. Retrieved December 1, 2015.  ^ "Private burial service held for Elizabeth Taylor". CNN. March 25, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2015.  ^ Ewen MacAskill. "Elizabeth Taylor's funeral takes place in LA's celebrity cemetery".The Guardian. March 25, 2011 ^ Canby, Vincent (May 4, 1986). "Film View; Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
- Her Life Is The Stuff Of Movies". The New York Times. p. 1.  ^ Ebert, Roger (March 23, 2011). "ELIZABETH TAYLOR, A STAR IN A CATEGORY OF HER OWN, DIES AT 79". Roger Ebert.com. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Seymour, Gene (March 23, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: The 'Last Star'". CNN. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ a b c Gabler, Neal (March 25, 2011). "Taylor's celebrity: her lasting legacy". CNN. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Kuntz, Jonathan (March 23, 2011). " Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
Was the Original Modern Celebrity". The New York Times. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Frankel, Susannah (October 26, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: A life less ordinary". The Independent. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ JohnJoseph, La (March 24, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: the icon's icon". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Vaidyanathan, Rajini (March 23, 2011). "How Elizabeth Taylor redefined celebrity". BBC. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Rojek 2012, p. 177. ^ Cashmore 2006, p. 75. ^ Sweeney, Tanya (June 8, 2014). "Cult of celebrity spreads: The velvet rope revolution". Irish Independent. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ a b c d Bernstein, Adam (March 27, 2011). "Screen legend Elizabeth Taylor dies at 79". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ French, Philip (March 24, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: an enduring icon of Hollywood's golden age". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Mathews, Tom Dewe (May 2, 2000). "She wasn't much of an actress, but..." The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Bradshaw, Peter (March 23, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: born to be Cleopatra". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Thomson, David (March 24, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: let the story melt away and just gaze". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ "Paglia on Taylor: "A luscious, opulent, ripe fruit!"". Salon. March 24, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ a b Lord, M.G. "The Accidental Feminist: How Elizabeth Taylor
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Dame
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remembered as 'extraordinary' gay rights ally". PinkNews. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Stein, Joel (April 9, 2011). "Is It Possible To Become A Gay Icon?". Time. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ "FACTBOX - Reactions to death of Elizabeth Taylor". Reuters. March 23, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ Flynn, Paul (March 24, 2011). "Elizabeth Taylor: a new gay icon". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2015.  ^ "Great legend' Elizabeth Taylor
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Sources[edit]

Capua, Michelangelo (2002). Montgomery Clift: A Biography. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1432-1.  Cashmore, Ellis (2006). Celebrity/Culture. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37310-4.  Clark, Beverly Lyon (2014). The Afterlife of "Little Women". Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1558-1.  Curtis, James (2011). Spencer Tracy: A Biography. Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-178524-3.  Doty, Alexander (2012). "Elizabeth Taylor: The Biggest Star in the World". In Wojcik, Pamela Robertson. New Constellations: Movie Stars of the 1960s. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-5171-5.  Daniel, Douglass K. (2011). Tough as Nails: The Life and Films of Richard Brooks. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-25123-9.  Dye, David (1988). Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914-1985. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., pp. 226–227. Gehring, Wes D. (2006) [2003]. Irene Dunne: First Lady of Hollywood. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5864-0.  Hernán, Vera; Gordon, Andrew M. (2003). Screen Saviors: Hollywood Fictions of Whiteness. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-9947-1.  Heymann, David C. (1995). Liz: An Intimate Biography of Elizabeth Taylor. Birch Lane Press. ISBN 1-55972-267-3.  Kashner, Sam; Schoenberger, Nancy (2010). Furious Love: Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, and the Marriage of the Century. JR Books. ISBN 978-1-907532-22-1.  Kelley, Kitty (1981). Elizabeth Taylor: The Last Star. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-5676-3.  Lower, Cheryl Bray; Palmer, R. Barton (2001). Joseph L. Mankiewicz: Critical Essays with an Annotated Bibliography and a Filmography. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0987-7.  Moss, Marilyn Ann (2004). Giant: George Stevens, a Life on Film. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-20430-8.  Rojek, Chris (2012). Fame Attack: The Inflation of Celebrity and its Consequences. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-84966-071-6.  Sternheimer, Karen (2015). Celebrity Culture and the American Dream (Second Edition). Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-1-138-02395-6.  Stubbs, Jonathan (2013). Historical Film: A Critical Introduction. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-84788-498-5.  Troyan, Michael (1999). A Rose for Mrs. Miniver: The Life of Greer Garson. The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-9150-8.  Walker, Alexander (1990). Elizabeth: The Life of Elizabeth Taylor. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3769-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elizabeth Taylor.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Elizabeth Taylor

Official website Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
AIDS
AIDS
Foundation (ETAF) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
on IMDb Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
at the British Film Institute's Screenonline FBI Records: The Vault - Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
at vault.fbi.gov

Awards for Elizabeth Taylor

v t e

Academy Award for Best Actress

1928–1950

Janet Gaynor
Janet Gaynor
(1928) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1929) Norma Shearer
Norma Shearer
(1930) Marie Dressler
Marie Dressler
(1931) Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
(1932) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1933) Claudette Colbert
Claudette Colbert
(1934) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1935) Luise Rainer
Luise Rainer
(1936) Luise Rainer
Luise Rainer
(1937) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1938) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1939) Ginger Rogers
Ginger Rogers
(1940) Joan Fontaine
Joan Fontaine
(1941) Greer Garson
Greer Garson
(1942) Jennifer Jones
Jennifer Jones
(1943) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1944) Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
(1945) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1946) Loretta Young
Loretta Young
(1947) Jane Wyman
Jane Wyman
(1948) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1949) Judy Holliday
Judy Holliday
(1950)

1951–1975

Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1956) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1957) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1958) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1959) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1960) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1961) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1962) Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
(1963) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1965) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1966) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1967) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
/ Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1968) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1969) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1970) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1971) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1972) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1973) Ellen Burstyn
Ellen Burstyn
(1974) Louise Fletcher
Louise Fletcher
(1975)

1976–2000

Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
(1976) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1980) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1984) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1985) Marlee Matlin
Marlee Matlin
(1986) Cher
Cher
(1987) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1988) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1989) Kathy Bates
Kathy Bates
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(1994) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1995) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(1996) Helen Hunt
Helen Hunt
(1997) Gwyneth Paltrow
Gwyneth Paltrow
(1998) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000)

2001–present

Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2001) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
(2002) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
(2003) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(2004) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2007) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2008) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2009) Natalie Portman
Natalie Portman
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Jennifer Lawrence
Jennifer Lawrence
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Emma Stone
Emma Stone
(2016) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(2017)

v t e

Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
Humanitarian Award

Y. Frank Freeman (1956) Samuel Goldwyn (1957) Bob Hope (1959) Sol Lesser (1960) George Seaton (1961) Steve Broidy (1962) Edmond L. DePatie (1965) George Bagnall (1966) Gregory Peck (1967) Martha Raye (1968) George Jessel (1969) Frank Sinatra (1970) Rosalind Russell (1972) Lew Wasserman (1973) Arthur B. Krim (1974) Jules C. Stein (1975) Charlton Heston (1977) Leo Jaffe (1978) Robert Benjamin (1979) Danny Kaye (1981) Walter Mirisch (1982) M. J. Frankovich (1983) David L. Wolper (1984) Charles "Buddy" Rogers (1985) Howard W. Koch (1989) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
/ Elizabeth Taylor (1992) Paul Newman (1993) Quincy Jones (1994) Arthur Hiller (2001) Roger Mayer (2005) Sherry Lansing (2007) Jerry Lewis (2009) Oprah Winfrey (2011) Jeffrey Katzenberg (2012) Angelina Jolie (2013) Harry Belafonte (2014) Debbie Reynolds (2015)

v t e

AFI Life Achievement Award

John Ford
John Ford
(1973) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1974) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1975) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1976) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1977) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1978) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1979) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1980) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1981) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1982) John Huston
John Huston
(1983) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(1984) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1985) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1986) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1987) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1988) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1989) David Lean
David Lean
(1990) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1991) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1992) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1993) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1994) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1996) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1997) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1998) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1999) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2000) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2001) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2002) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2004) George Lucas
George Lucas
(2005) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2006) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2007) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2008) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2009) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2010) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2011) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(2012) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2013) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(2014) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(2015) John Williams
John Williams
(2016) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2017) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2018)

v t e

BAFTA
BAFTA
Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role

1952–1967

Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
British, Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
Foreign (1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
British, Leslie Caron
Leslie Caron
Foreign (1953) Yvonne Mitchell
Yvonne Mitchell
British, Cornell Borchers
Cornell Borchers
Foreign (1954) Katie Johnson British, Betsy Blair
Betsy Blair
Foreign (1955) Virginia
Virginia
McKenna British, Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
Foreign (1956) Heather Sears
Heather Sears
British, Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
Foreign (1957) Irene Worth
Irene Worth
British, Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
Foreign (1958) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
British, Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
Foreign (1959) Rachel Roberts British, Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
Foreign (1960) Dora Bryan
Dora Bryan
British, Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
Foreign (1961) Leslie Caron
Leslie Caron
British, Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
Foreign (1962) Rachel Roberts British, Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
Foreign (1963) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
British, Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
Foreign (1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
British, Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
Foreign (1965) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
British, Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
Foreign (1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
British, Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
Foreign (1967)

1968–present

Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1968) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1969) Katharine Ross
Katharine Ross
(1970) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1971) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1972) Stéphane Audran (1973) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1974) Ellen Burstyn
Ellen Burstyn
(1975) Louise Fletcher
Louise Fletcher
(1976) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1978) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1979) Judy Davis
Judy Davis
(1980) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1981) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1982) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(1983) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1984) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1985) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1986) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1987) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1988) Pauline Collins
Pauline Collins
(1989) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1994) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1995) Brenda Blethyn
Brenda Blethyn
(1996) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(1997) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(1998) Annette Bening
Annette Bening
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
(2002) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2003) Imelda Staunton
Imelda Staunton
(2004) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2007) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2008) Carey Mulligan
Carey Mulligan
(2009) Natalie Portman
Natalie Portman
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Emmanuelle Riva
Emmanuelle Riva
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Emma Stone
Emma Stone
(2016) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA
BAFTA
Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

Britannia Awards

Excellence in Film

Albert R. Broccoli
Albert R. Broccoli
(1989) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1990) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1992) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1993) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1995) Bob Weinstein and Harvey Weinstein
Harvey Weinstein
(1996) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1997) John Travolta
John Travolta
(1998) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(1999) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2000) George Lucas
George Lucas
(2002) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(2003) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2004) Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
(2005) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2006) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2009) Jeff Bridges
Jeff Bridges
(2010) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2013) Robert Downey Jr.
Robert Downey Jr.
(2014) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2015) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(2016) Matt Damon
Matt Damon
(2017)

Excellence in Directing

Peter Weir
Peter Weir
(2003) Jim Sheridan (2004) Mike Newell (2005) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(2006) Martin Campbell
Martin Campbell
(2007) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2008) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2009) Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
(2010) David Yates
David Yates
(2011) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2012) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2013) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2014) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(2015) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2016) Ava DuVernay
Ava DuVernay
(2017)

Worldwide Contribution to Entertainment

Howard Stringer
Howard Stringer
(2003) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(2009) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
& Tony Scott
Tony Scott
(2010) John Lasseter
John Lasseter
(2011) Will Wright (2012) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(2013) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2014) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2015) Samuel L. Jackson
Samuel L. Jackson
(2016) Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
(2017)

British Artist of the Year

Rachel Weisz
Rachel Weisz
(2006) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2007) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(2008) Emily Blunt
Emily Blunt
(2009) Michael Sheen
Michael Sheen
(2010) Helena Bonham Carter
Helena Bonham Carter
(2011) Daniel Craig
Daniel Craig
(2012) Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
(2013) Emma Watson
Emma Watson
(2014) James Corden
James Corden
(2015) Felicity Jones
Felicity Jones
(2016) Claire Foy (2017)

Excellence in Comedy

Betty White
Betty White
(2010) Ben Stiller
Ben Stiller
(2011) Trey Parker
Trey Parker
and Matt Stone
Matt Stone
(2012) Sacha Baron Cohen
Sacha Baron Cohen
(2013) Julia Louis-Dreyfus
Julia Louis-Dreyfus
(2014) Amy Schumer
Amy Schumer
(2015) Ricky Gervais
Ricky Gervais
(2016) Aziz Ansari
Aziz Ansari
(2017)

Excellence in Television

Aaron Spelling
Aaron Spelling
(1999) HBO
HBO
Original Programming (2002) Dick Van Dyke
Dick Van Dyke
(2017)

Humanitarian Award

Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Don Cheadle
Don Cheadle
(2008) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2009) Idris Elba
Idris Elba
(2013) Mark Ruffalo
Mark Ruffalo
(2014) Orlando Bloom
Orlando Bloom
(2015) Ewan McGregor
Ewan McGregor
(2016)

Retired Awards

BBC
BBC
(1999) Tarsem Singh
Tarsem Singh
(1999) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
(2003) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2004) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(2005) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(2005) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2006) Bob Shaye and Michael Lynne (2007)

v t e

Silver Bear for Best Actress

Elsa Martinelli
Elsa Martinelli
(1956) Yvonne Mitchell
Yvonne Mitchell
(1957) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1958) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1959) Juliette Mayniel (1960) Anna Karina
Anna Karina
(1961) Rita Gam
Rita Gam
/ Viveca Lindfors
Viveca Lindfors
(1962) Bibi Andersson
Bibi Andersson
(1963) Sachiko Hidari
Sachiko Hidari
(1964) Madhur Jaffrey
Madhur Jaffrey
(1965) Lola Albright
Lola Albright
(1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
(1967) Stéphane Audran (1968) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
/ Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1971) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1972) Kinuyo Tanaka (1975) Jadwiga Barańska
Jadwiga Barańska
(1976) Lily Tomlin
Lily Tomlin
(1977) Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(1978) Hanna Schygulla
Hanna Schygulla
(1979) Renate Krößner (1980) Barbara Grabowska (1981) Katrin Sass
Katrin Sass
(1982) Yevgeniya Glushenko (1983) Inna Churikova
Inna Churikova
(1984) Jo Kennedy (1985) Charlotte Valandrey
Charlotte Valandrey
/ Marcélia Cartaxo (1986) Ana Beatriz Nogueira (1987) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1988) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1989) Victoria Abril
Victoria Abril
(1991) Maggie Cheung
Maggie Cheung
(1992) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1993) Crissy Rock (1994) Josephine Siao (1995) Anouk Grinberg
Anouk Grinberg
(1996) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(1997) Fernanda Montenegro
Fernanda Montenegro
(1998) Juliane Köhler
Juliane Köhler
(1999) Bibiana Beglau
Bibiana Beglau
(2000) Kerry Fox
Kerry Fox
(2001) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2002) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
/ Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
/ Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2003) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
/ Catalina Sandino Moreno
Catalina Sandino Moreno
(2004) Julia Jentsch
Julia Jentsch
(2005) Sandra Hüller
Sandra Hüller
(2006) Nina Hoss
Nina Hoss
(2007) Sally Hawkins
Sally Hawkins
(2008) Birgit Minichmayr
Birgit Minichmayr
(2009) Shinobu Terajima
Shinobu Terajima
(2010) Sareh Bayat
Sareh Bayat
/ Sarina Farhadi / Leila Hatami
Leila Hatami
/ Kimia Hosseini (2011) Rachel Mwanza
Rachel Mwanza
(2012) Paulina García
Paulina García
(2013) Haru Kuroki
Haru Kuroki
(2014) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2015) Trine Dyrholm
Trine Dyrholm
(2016) Kim Min-hee (2017)

v t e

Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
Award

Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
(1952) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1953) Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1954) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
(1955) Jack L. Warner
Jack L. Warner
(1956) Mervyn LeRoy
Mervyn LeRoy
(1957) Buddy Adler (1958) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1959) Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
(1960) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1961) Judy Garland
Judy Garland
(1962) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1963) Joseph E. Levine
Joseph E. Levine
(1964) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1965) John Wayne
John Wayne
(1966) Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(1967) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1968) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1969) Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
(1970) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1971) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1972) Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
(1973) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1974) Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis
(1975) Walter Mirisch (1977) Red Skelton
Red Skelton
(1978) Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1981) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1982) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1983) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1984) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1985) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1986) Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
(1987) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1988) Doris Day
Doris Day
(1989) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1990) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1991) Robert Mitchum
Robert Mitchum
(1992) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1993) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1994) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1995) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1996) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1997) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1998) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1999) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2000) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2001) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2002) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(2003) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2004) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(2005) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2006) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2007) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2009) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2010) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2011) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2012) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(2013) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(2014) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2015) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(2016) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2017) Oprah Winfrey
Oprah Winfrey
(2018)

v t e

David di Donatello
David di Donatello
Award for Best Foreign Actress

Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1957) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1959) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1960) Brigitte Bardot
Brigitte Bardot
(1961) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1962) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1963) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1964) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1965) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1966) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
/ Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1967) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
/ Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1968) Mia Farrow
Mia Farrow
/ Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1969) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1970) Ali MacGraw
Ali MacGraw
(1971) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1972) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1973) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
/ Tatum O'Neal
Tatum O'Neal
(1974) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1975) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
/ Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1976) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
/ Annie Girardot
Annie Girardot
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
/ Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1978) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
/ Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1979) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(1980) Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(1981) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1982) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1983) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1984) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1985) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1986) Norma Aleandro
Norma Aleandro
(1987) Cher
Cher
(1988) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1989) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1990) Anne Parillaud
Anne Parillaud
(1991) Geena Davis
Geena Davis
/ Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1992) Emmanuelle Béart
Emmanuelle Béart
/ Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
/ Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1993) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1994) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1995) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1996)

v t e

Film Society of Lincoln Center
Film Society of Lincoln Center
Gala Tribute Honorees

Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1972) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1973) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1974) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
and Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1975) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1978) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1979) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1982) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1983) Claudette Colbert
Claudette Colbert
(1984) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1985) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1986) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1987) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
(1988) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1989) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1990) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1991) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1992) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1993) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1994) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1995) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1996) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1997) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1998) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1999) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2000) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(2001) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(2002) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(2003) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2004) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(2005) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(2006) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2007) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2008) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2009) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2010) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2011) Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(2012) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2013) Rob Reiner
Rob Reiner
(2014) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2015) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2016) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2017) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2018)

v t e

Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama

Jennifer Jones
Jennifer Jones
(1943) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1944) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1945) Rosalind Russell
Rosalind Russell
(1946) Rosalind Russell
Rosalind Russell
(1947) Jane Wyman
Jane Wyman
(1948) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1949) Gloria Swanson
Gloria Swanson
(1950) Jane Wyman
Jane Wyman
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1956) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1957) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1958) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1959) Greer Garson
Greer Garson
(1960) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1961) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1962) Leslie Caron
Leslie Caron
(1963) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1964) Samantha Eggar
Samantha Eggar
(1965) Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
(1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
(1967) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1968) Geneviève Bujold
Geneviève Bujold
(1969) Ali MacGraw
Ali MacGraw
(1970) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1971) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1972) Marsha Mason
Marsha Mason
(1973) Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(1974) Louise Fletcher
Louise Fletcher
(1975) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
(1976) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1977) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Mary Tyler Moore
Mary Tyler Moore
(1980) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1984) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1985) Marlee Matlin
Marlee Matlin
(1986) Sally Kirkland
Sally Kirkland
(1987) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
/ Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
/ Sigourney Weaver
Sigourney Weaver
(1988) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1989) Kathy Bates
Kathy Bates
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Jessica Lange
Jessica Lange
(1994) Sharon Stone
Sharon Stone
(1995) Brenda Blethyn
Brenda Blethyn
(1996) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(1997) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(1998) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(2001) Nicole Kidman
Nicole Kidman
(2002) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
(2003) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(2004) Felicity Huffman
Felicity Huffman
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(2007) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2008) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2009) Natalie Portman
Natalie Portman
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Jessica Chastain
Jessica Chastain
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2016) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(2017)

v t e

Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year

1951–1975

Gertrude Lawrence
Gertrude Lawrence
(1951) Barbara Bel Geddes
Barbara Bel Geddes
(1952) Mamie Eisenhower
Mamie Eisenhower
(1953) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1954) Debbie Reynolds
Debbie Reynolds
(1955) Peggy Ann Garner
Peggy Ann Garner
(1956) Carroll Baker
Carroll Baker
(1957) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1958) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1959) Carol Lawrence
Carol Lawrence
(1960) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1961) Piper Laurie
Piper Laurie
(1962) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1963) Rosalind Russell
Rosalind Russell
(1964) Lee Remick
Lee Remick
(1965) Ethel Merman
Ethel Merman
(1966) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1967) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
(1968) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
(1969) Dionne Warwick
Dionne Warwick
(1970) Carol Channing
Carol Channing
(1971) Ruby Keeler
Ruby Keeler
(1972) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1973) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
(1974) Valerie Harper
Valerie Harper
(1975)

1976–2000

Bette Midler
Bette Midler
(1976) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1977) Beverly Sills
Beverly Sills
(1978) Candice Bergen
Candice Bergen
(1979) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1980) Mary Tyler Moore
Mary Tyler Moore
(1981) Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
(1982) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1983) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
(1984) Cher
Cher
(1985) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1986) Bernadette Peters
Bernadette Peters
(1987) Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
(1988) Kathleen Turner
Kathleen Turner
(1989) Glenn Close
Glenn Close
(1990) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1991) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1992) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1993) Meg Ryan
Meg Ryan
(1994) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1995) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1996) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(1997) Sigourney Weaver
Sigourney Weaver
(1998) Goldie Hawn
Goldie Hawn
(1999) Jamie Lee Curtis
Jamie Lee Curtis
(2000)

2001–present

Drew Barrymore
Drew Barrymore
(2001) Sarah Jessica Parker
Sarah Jessica Parker
(2002) Anjelica Huston
Anjelica Huston
(2003) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2004) Catherine Zeta-Jones
Catherine Zeta-Jones
(2005) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2006) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2007) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
(2008) Renée Zellweger
Renée Zellweger
(2009) Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
(2010) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2011) Claire Danes
Claire Danes
(2012) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Amy Poehler
Amy Poehler
(2015) Kerry Washington
Kerry Washington
(2016) Octavia Spencer
Octavia Spencer
(2017) Mila Kunis
Mila Kunis
(2018)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (2000s)

2000

Mikhail Baryshnikov Chuck Berry Plácido Domingo Clint Eastwood Angela Lansbury

2001

Julie Andrews Van Cliburn Quincy Jones Jack Nicholson Luciano Pavarotti

2002

James Earl Jones James Levine Chita Rivera Paul Simon Elizabeth Taylor

2003

James Brown Carol Burnett Loretta Lynn Mike Nichols Itzhak Perlman

2004

Warren Beatty Ossie Davis
Ossie Davis
& Ruby Dee Elton John Joan Sutherland John Williams

2005

Tony Bennett Suzanne Farrell Julie Harris Robert Redford Tina Turner

2006

Zubin Mehta Dolly Parton Smokey Robinson Steven Spielberg Andrew Lloyd Webber

2007

Leon Fleisher Steve Martin Diana Ross Martin Scorsese Brian Wilson

2008

Morgan Freeman George Jones Barbra Streisand Twyla Tharp Pete Townshend
Pete Townshend
& Roger Daltrey

2009

Mel Brooks Dave Brubeck Grace Bumbry Robert De Niro Bruce Springsteen

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

National Board of Review
National Board of Review
Award for Best Actress

Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
(1945) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1946) Celia Johnson
Celia Johnson
(1947) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1948) Gloria Swanson
Gloria Swanson
(1950) Jan Sterling
Jan Sterling
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Jean Simmons
Jean Simmons
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Dorothy McGuire
Dorothy McGuire
(1956) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1957) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1958) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1959) Greer Garson
Greer Garson
(1960) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1961) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1962) Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
(1963) Kim Stanley
Kim Stanley
(1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1965) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
(1967) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1968) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1969) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1970) Irene Papas
Irene Papas
(1971) Cicely Tyson
Cicely Tyson
(1972) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1973) Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(1974) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1975) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1976) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1977) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1980) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1984) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1985) Kathleen Turner
Kathleen Turner
(1986) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1987) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1988) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1989) Mia Farrow
Mia Farrow
(1990) Geena Davis
Geena Davis
/ Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Miranda Richardson
Miranda Richardson
(1994) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1995) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(1996) Helena Bonham Carter
Helena Bonham Carter
(1997) Fernanda Montenegro
Fernanda Montenegro
(1998) Janet McTeer
Janet McTeer
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2001) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2002) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2003) Annette Bening
Annette Bening
(2004) Felicity Huffman
Felicity Huffman
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(2007) Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
(2008) Carey Mulligan
Carey Mulligan
(2009) Lesley Manville
Lesley Manville
(2010) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(2011) Jessica Chastain
Jessica Chastain
(2012) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Amy Adams
Amy Adams
(2016) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2017)

v t e

New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress

Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo
(1935) Luise Rainer
Luise Rainer
(1936) Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo
(1937) Margaret Sullavan
Margaret Sullavan
(1938) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1939) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1940) Joan Fontaine
Joan Fontaine
(1941) Agnes Moorehead
Agnes Moorehead
(1942) Ida Lupino
Ida Lupino
(1943) Tallulah Bankhead
Tallulah Bankhead
(1944) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1945) Celia Johnson
Celia Johnson
(1946) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1947) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1948) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1949) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1950) Vivien Leigh
Vivien Leigh
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1956) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1957) Susan Hayward
Susan Hayward
(1958) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1959) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1960) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1961) No Award (1962) Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
(1963) Kim Stanley
Kim Stanley
(1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1965) Elizabeth Taylor/ Lynn Redgrave
Lynn Redgrave
(1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
(1967) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1968) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1969) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1970) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1971) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1972) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1973) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1974) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1975) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1976) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1977) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1980) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1984) Norma Aleandro
Norma Aleandro
(1985) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1986) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1987) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1988) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1989) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1990) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Linda Fiorentino (1994) Jennifer Jason Leigh
Jennifer Jason Leigh
(1995) Emily Watson
Emily Watson
(1996) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz
(1998) Hilary Swank
Hilary Swank
(1999) Laura Linney
Laura Linney
(2000) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(2001) Diane Lane
Diane Lane
(2002) Hope Davis
Hope Davis
(2003) Imelda Staunton
Imelda Staunton
(2004) Reese Witherspoon
Reese Witherspoon
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(2007) Sally Hawkins
Sally Hawkins
(2008) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2009) Annette Bening
Annette Bening
(2010) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2011) Rachel Weisz
Rachel Weisz
(2012) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2013) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2014) Saoirse Ronan
Saoirse Ronan
(2015) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2016) Saoirse Ronan
Saoirse Ronan
(2017)

v t e

Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
Life Achievement Award

1962: Eddie Cantor 1963: Stan Laurel 1965: Bob Hope 1966: Barbara Stanwyck 1967: William Gargan 1968: James Stewart 1969: Edward G. Robinson 1970: Gregory Peck 1971: Charlton Heston 1972: Frank Sinatra 1973: Martha Raye 1974: Walter Pidgeon 1975: Rosalind Russell 1976: Pearl Bailey 1977: James Cagney 1978: Edgar Bergen 1979: Katharine Hepburn 1980: Leon Ames 1982: Danny Kaye 1983: Ralph Bellamy 1984: Iggie Wolfington 1985: Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward 1986: Nanette Fabray 1987: Red Skelton 1988: Gene Kelly 1989: Jack Lemmon 1990: Brock Peters 1991: Burt Lancaster 1992: Audrey Hepburn 1993: Ricardo Montalbán 1994: George Burns 1995: Robert Redford 1996: Angela Lansbury 1997: Elizabeth Taylor 1998: Kirk Douglas 1999: Sidney Poitier 2000: Ossie Davis
Ossie Davis
and Ruby Dee 2001: Ed Asner 2002: Clint Eastwood 2003: Karl Malden 2004: James Garner 2005: Shirley Temple 2006: Julie Andrews 2007: Charles Durning 2008: James Earl Jones 2009: Betty White 2010: Ernest Borgnine 2011: Mary Tyler Moore 2012: Dick Van Dyke 2013: Rita Moreno 2014: Debbie Reynolds 2015: Carol Burnett 2016: Lily Tomlin 2017: Morgan Freeman

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24624716 LCCN: n50009560 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 4985 GND: 118621092 SELIBR: 254452 SUDOC: 02902420X BNF: cb12073680r (data) BIBSYS: 90544192 MusicBrainz: eff81106-30d7-4f67-a47e-48225ffb9286 NLA: 35541033 NDL: 00475989 NKC: xx0033959 BNE: XX1130457 SN

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