Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of
England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March
1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen,
1 Early life 2 Thomas Seymour 3 Mary I's reign 4 Accession 5 Church settlement 6 Marriage question
6.1 Robert Dudley 6.2 Foreign candidates
7 Mary, Queen of Scots
7.1 Mary and the Catholic cause
8 Wars and overseas trade
8.1 Netherlands expedition 8.2 Spanish Armada 8.3 Supporting Henry IV of France 8.4 Ireland 8.5 Russia 8.6 Barbary states, Ottoman Empire
9 Later years 10 Death 11 Legacy and memory 12 Ancestry
12.1 Family tree 12.2 Ancestors
13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading
16.1 Primary sources and early histories 16.2 Historiography and memory
17 External links
Elizabeth was the only child of
Elizabeth was born at
The Lady Elizabeth in about 1546, by an unknown artist
Elizabeth's first governess (or Lady Mistress), Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life". By the autumn of 1537, Elizabeth was in the care of Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy, who remained her Lady Mistress until her retirement in late 1545 or early 1546. Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, and she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565, when Blanche Parry succeeded her as Chief Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber. Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Flemish, Italian and Spanish. By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging. By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. At the end of her life, Elizabeth was also believed to speak Welsh, Cornish, Scottish and Irish in addition to the languages mentioned above. The Venetian ambassador stated in 1603 that she "possessed [these] languages so thoroughly that each appeared to be her native tongue". Historian Mark Stoyle suggests that she was probably taught Cornish by William Killigrew, Groom of the Privy Chamber and later Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Thomas Seymour
The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul, a translation from the
French, by Elizabeth, presented to
Mary I, as she realized Elizabeth was going to be the next queen,
begged her to uphold
The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House. It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister's death in November 1558.
On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to attend the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy. If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply. When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child. Elizabeth's succession seemed assured. King Philip, who ascended the Spanish throne in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality and cultivated his sister-in-law. She was a better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France. When his wife fell ill in 1558, King Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth. This interview was conducted at Hatfield House, where she had returned to live in October 1555. By October 1558, Elizabeth was already making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir. On 17 November 1558, Mary died and Elizabeth succeeded to the throne. Accession
Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine.
Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the mediaeval political theology of the sovereign's "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic:
My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God's creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me. And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all ... to be assistant to me, that I with my ruling and you with your service may make a good account to Almighty God and leave some comfort to our posterity on earth. I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.
As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished". The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned and anointed by Owen Oglethorpe, the Catholic bishop of Carlisle, in Westminster Abbey. She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells. Although Elizabeth was welcomed as queen in England, the country was still in a state of anxiety over the perceived Catholic threat at home and overseas, as well as the choice of whom she would marry. Church settlement Main article: Elizabethan Religious Settlement
The Pelican Portrait by Nicholas Hilliard. The pelican was thought to wound her breast to nourish her young, and became a symbol of Passion and Eucharist, adopted by Elizabeth portraying herself as the "mother of the Church of England."
Elizabeth's personal religious convictions have been much debated by
scholars. She was a Protestant, but kept Catholic symbols (such as the
crucifix), and downplayed the role of sermons in defiance of a key
In terms of public policy she favoured pragmatism in dealing with
religious matters. The question of her legitimacy was a key concern:
although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and
Catholic law, her retroactively declared illegitimacy under the
English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been
legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was. For this reason alone, it
was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace Protestantism.
Elizabeth and her advisers perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade
against heretical England. Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant
solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing
the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more
radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching
reforms. As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate
for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the
monarch as its head, but with many Catholic elements, such as
The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of
supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the
bishops. Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at
the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury. This
enabled supporters amongst peers to outvote the bishops and
conservative peers. Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the
Elizabeth and her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, c. 1575. Pair of stamp-sized miniatures by Nicholas Hilliard. The Queen's friendship with Dudley lasted for over thirty years, until his death.
From the start of Elizabeth's reign, it was expected that she would marry and the question arose to whom. Although she received many offers for her hand, she never married and was childless; the reasons for this are not clear. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile. She considered several suitors until she was about fifty. Her last courtship was with Francis, Duke of Anjou, 22 years her junior. While risking possible loss of power like her sister, who played into the hands of King Philip II of Spain, marriage offered the chance of an heir. However, the choice of a husband might also provoke political instability or even insurrection. Robert Dudley In the spring of 1559, it became evident that Elizabeth was in love with her childhood friend Robert Dudley. It was said that Amy Robsart, his wife, was suffering from a "malady in one of her breasts" and that the Queen would like to marry Dudley if his wife should die. By the autumn of 1559, several foreign suitors were vying for Elizabeth's hand; their impatient envoys engaged in ever more scandalous talk and reported that a marriage with her favourite was not welcome in England: "There is not a man who does not cry out on him and her with indignation ... she will marry none but the favoured Robert". Amy Dudley died in September 1560, from a fall from a flight of stairs and, despite the coroner's inquest finding of accident, many people suspected Dudley of having arranged her death so that he could marry the queen. Elizabeth seriously considered marrying Dudley for some time. However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton, and some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear. There were even rumours that the nobility would rise if the marriage took place. Among other marriage candidates being considered for the queen, Robert Dudley continued to be regarded as a possible candidate for nearly another decade. Elizabeth was extremely jealous of his affections, even when she no longer meant to marry him herself. In 1564, Elizabeth raised Dudley to the peerage as Earl of Leicester. He finally remarried in 1578, to which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure and lifelong hatred towards his wife, Lettice Knollys. Still, Dudley always "remained at the centre of [Elizabeth's] emotional life", as historian Susan Doran has described the situation. He died shortly after the defeat of the Armada. After Elizabeth's own death, a note from him was found among her most personal belongings, marked "his last letter" in her handwriting. Foreign candidates
Francis, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard. Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.
Marriage negotiations constituted a key element in Elizabeth's foreign policy. She turned down Philip's own hand early in 1559 but for several years entertained the proposal of King Eric XIV of Sweden. For several years she also seriously negotiated to marry Philip's cousin Archduke Charles of Austria. By 1569, relations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated, and Elizabeth considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henry, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother Francis, Duke of Anjou, formerly Duke of Alençon. This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands. Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her. In 1563, Elizabeth told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married". Later in the year, following Elizabeth's illness with smallpox, the succession question became a heated issue in Parliament. They urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death. She refused to do either. In April she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in 1566. Having promised to marry previously, she told an unruly House:
I will never break the word of a prince spoken in public place, for my honour's sake. And therefore I say again, I will marry as soon as I can conveniently, if God take not him away with whom I mind to marry, or myself, or else some other great let happen.
By 1570, senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor. William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem. For her failure to marry, Elizabeth was often accused of irresponsibility. Her silence, however, strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup; she remembered that the way "a second person, as I have been" had been used as the focus of plots against her predecessor.
The "Hampden" portrait, by Steven van der Meulen, ca. 1563. This is the earliest full-length portrait of the queen, made before the emergence of symbolic portraits representing the iconography of the "Virgin Queen".
Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity. In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. At first, only Elizabeth made a virtue of her virginity: in 1559, she told the Commons, "And, in the end, this shall be for me sufficient, that a marble stone shall declare that a queen, having reigned such a time, lived and died a virgin". Later on, poets and writers took up the theme and turned it into an iconography that exalted Elizabeth. Public tributes to the Virgin by 1578 acted as a coded assertion of opposition to the queen's marriage negotiations with the Duke of Alençon. Ultimately, Elizabeth would insist she was married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection. In 1599, she spoke of "all my husbands, my good people". Mary, Queen of Scots Elizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there. She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was considered by many to be the heir to the English crown, on the throne. Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north. When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth. Mary refused to ratify the treaty. In 1563 Elizabeth proposed her own suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband for Mary, without asking either of the two people concerned. Both proved unenthusiastic, and in 1565 Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, who carried his own claim to the English throne. The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth. Darnley quickly became unpopular in Scotland and then infamous for presiding over the murder of Mary's Italian secretary David Rizzio. In February 1567, Darnley was murdered by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. Shortly afterwards, on 15 May 1567, Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband. Elizabeth confronted Mary about the marriage, writing to her:
How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.
These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch
Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of
her son James, who had been born in June 1566. James was taken to
Sir Francis Walsingham, Principal Secretary 1573–1590. Being Elizabeth's spymaster, he uncovered several plots against her life.
Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. In 1569 there was a major
Catholic rising in the North; the goal was to free Mary, marry her to
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, and put her on the English
throne. After the rebels' defeat, over 750 of them were executed
on Elizabeth's orders. In the belief that the revolt had been
Pope Pius V
Silver sixpence, struck 1593, Royal Mint, (Tower of London)
Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive. The exception was
the English occupation of
Portrait of Elizabeth from Emanuel van Meteren: Historien der Nederlanden
After the occupation and loss of
We could never have imagined (had we not seen it fall out in experience) that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour ... And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name. Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril.
Elizabeth's "commandment" was that her emissary read out her letters of disapproval publicly before the Dutch Council of State, Leicester having to stand nearby. This public humiliation of her "Lieutenant-General" combined with her continued talks for a separate peace with Spain, irreversibly undermined his standing among the Dutch. The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth's repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers. Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester's own shortcomings as a political and military leader, and the faction-ridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics led to the failure of the campaign. Leicester finally resigned his command in December 1587. Spanish Armada
Portrait of Elizabeth commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power. One of three known versions of the "Armada Portrait".
My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people ... I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.
When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle. The defeat of the armada was a potent propaganda victory, both for Elizabeth and for Protestant England. The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen. However, the victory was not a turning point in the war, which continued and often favoured Spain. The Spanish still controlled the southern provinces of the Netherlands, and the threat of invasion remained. Sir Walter Raleigh claimed after her death that Elizabeth's caution had impeded the war against Spain:
If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times. But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own weakness.
Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds, Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory". Supporting Henry IV of France
Coat of arms
When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589,
Elizabeth sent him military support. It was her first venture into
France since the retreat from
Ivan the Terrible
Elizabeth continued to maintain the diplomatic relations with the
Tsardom of Russia
Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I in 1600.
Trade and diplomatic relations developed between England and the
Portrait of Elizabeth I attributed to
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger
The period after the defeat of the
Who keeps their sovereign from the lapse of error, in which, by ignorance and not by intent they might have fallen, what thank they deserve, we know, though you may guess. And as nothing is more dear to us than the loving conservation of our subjects' hearts, what an undeserved doubt might we have incurred if the abusers of our liberality, the thrallers of our people, the wringers of the poor, had not been told us!
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, by William Segar, 1588
This same period of economic and political uncertainty, however,
produced an unsurpassed literary flowering in England. The first
signs of a new literary movement had appeared at the end of the second
decade of Elizabeth's reign, with John Lyly's Euphues and Edmund
The Shepheardes Calender
Elizabeth's funeral cortège, 1603, with banners of her royal ancestors
Elizabeth as shown on her grave at Westminster Abbey.
Elizabeth's senior adviser, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, died on
4 August 1598. His political mantle passed to his son, Robert Cecil,
who soon became the leader of the government. One task he
addressed was to prepare the way for a smooth succession. Since
Elizabeth would never name her successor, Cecil was obliged to proceed
in secret. He therefore entered into a coded negotiation with
James VI of Scotland, who had a strong but unrecognised claim.
Cecil coached the impatient James to humour Elizabeth and "secure the
heart of the highest, to whose sex and quality nothing is so improper
as either needless expostulations or over much curiosity in her own
actions". The advice worked. James's tone delighted Elizabeth,
who responded: "So trust I that you will not doubt but that your last
letters are so acceptably taken as my thanks cannot be lacking for the
same, but yield them to you in grateful sort". In historian J. E.
Neale's view, Elizabeth may not have declared her wishes openly to
James, but she made them known with "unmistakable if veiled
The Queen's health remained fair until the autumn of 1602, when a
series of deaths among her friends plunged her into a severe
depression. In February 1603, the death of Catherine Carey, Countess
of Nottingham, the niece of her cousin and close friend Lady Knollys,
came as a particular blow. In March, Elizabeth fell sick and remained
in a "settled and unremovable melancholy", and sat motionless on a
cushion for hours on end. When Robert Cecil told her that she
must go to bed, she snapped "Must is not a word to use to princes,
little man". She died on 24 March 1603 at Richmond Palace, between two
and three in the morning. A few hours later, Cecil and the council set
their plans in motion and proclaimed James King of England.
While it has become normative to record the death of the Queen as
occurring in 1603, following English calendar reform in the 1750s, at
the time England observed
New Year's Day
Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.
Elizabeth was interred in Westminster Abbey, in a tomb shared with her
half-sister, Mary I. The
Elizabeth I. The "Rainbow Portrait", c. 1600, an allegorical representation of the Queen, become ageless in her old age
Elizabeth I, painted after 1620, during the first revival of interest in her reign. Time sleeps on her right and Death looks over her left shoulder; two putti hold the crown above her head.
Elizabeth was lamented by many of her subjects, but others were
relieved at her death. Expectations of King James started high
but then declined, so by the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of
the cult of Elizabeth. Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the
Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. James was depicted as
a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court. The
triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of
her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and
economic difficulties, was taken at face value and her reputation
inflated. Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we
had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive.
Then was her memory much magnified." Elizabeth's reign became
idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in
The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the
early 17th century has proved lasting and influential. Her memory
was also revived during the Napoleonic Wars, when the nation again
found itself on the brink of invasion. In the Victorian era, the
Elizabethan legend was adapted to the imperial ideology of the
day, and in the mid-20th century, Elizabeth was a romantic
symbol of the national resistance to foreign threat.
Historians of that period, such as
J. E. Neale
[At a time] when wars and seditions with grievous persecutions have vexed almost all kings and countries round about me, my reign hath been peacable, and my realm a receptacle to thy afflicted Church. The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.
Ancestry Family tree
Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire
Henry VII of England
Elizabeth of York
Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon
Elizabeth I of England
James V of Scotland
Mary, Queen of Scots
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
James VI and I
Ancestors of Elizabeth I of England
16. Owen Tudor
8. Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond
17. Catherine of Valois
4. Henry VII of England
18. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset
9. Margaret Beaufort
19. Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso
20. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
10. Edward IV of England
21. Cecily Neville
5. Elizabeth of York
22. Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
11. Elizabeth Woodville
23. Jacquetta of Luxembourg
1. Elizabeth I of England
24. Geoffrey Boleyn
12. William Boleyn
25. Anne Hoo
6. Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire
26. Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormonde
13. Margaret Butler
27. Anne Hankford
3. Anne Boleyn
28. John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
14. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
29. Catherine Moleyns
7. Elizabeth Howard
30. Frederick Tilney
15. Elizabeth Tilney
31. Elizabeth Cheney
Early modern Britain English Renaissance Portraiture of Elizabeth I of England Inventory of Elizabeth I of England Protestant Reformation Royal Arms of England Royal eponyms in Canada for Queen Elizabeth I Royal Standards of England Tudor period
^ Dates in this article before 14 September 1752 are in the Julian
calendar and January 1 is treated as the beginning of the year, even
though March 25 was treated as the beginning of the year in England
during Elizabeth's life.
^ "I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel."
Elizabeth's first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558.
^ a b Starkey Elizabeth: Woman, 5.
^ Neale, 386.
^ Somerset, 729.
^ Somerset, 4.
^ Loades, 3–5
^ Somerset, 4–5.
^ Stanley, Earl of Derby, Edward (1890). Correspondence of Edward,
Third Earl of Derby, During the Years 24 to 31 Henry VIII.: Preserved
in a Ms. in the Possession of Miss Pfarington, of Worden Hall, Volume
19. Chetham Society. p. 89.
^ Loades, 6–7.
^ An Act of July 1536 stated that Elizabeth was "illegitimate ...
and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or
demand any inheritance as lawful heir ... to [the King] by lineal
descent". Somerset, 10.
^ Loades, 7–8.
^ Somerset, 11. Jenkins (1957), 13
^ Richardson, 39–46.
^ Richardson, 56, 75–82, 136
^ Weir, Children of Henry VIII, 7.
^ Our knowledge of Elizabeth's schooling and precocity comes largely
from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward.
^ Somerset, 25.
^ Loades, 21.
^ "Venice: April 1603", Calendar of State Papers Relating to English
Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 9: 1592–1603 (1897),
562–570. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
^ Stoyle, Mark. West Britons, Cornish Identities and the Early Modern
British State, University of Exeter Press, 2002, p220.
^ Davenport, 32.
^ a b Loades, 11.
^ Starkey Elizabeth: Apprenticeship, p. 69
^ Loades, 14.
^ Haigh, 8.
^ Neale, 32.
^ Williams Elizabeth, 24.
^ Loades, 14, 16.
^ a b Neale, 33.
^ Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, "a remarkable tribute to the
size of her affinity". Loades 24–25.
^ Loades, 27.
^ Neale, 45.
^ Loades, 28.
^ Somerset, 51.
^ Loades, 29.
^ "The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter
became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop." Neale, 49.
^ Loades, 32.
^ Somerset, 66.
^ Neale, 53.
^ Loades, 33.
^ Neale, 59.
^ Kantorowicz, ix
^ Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37.
^ Somerset, 89–90. The "Festival Book" account, from the British
^ Neale, 70.
^ Loades, xv.
^ "'Queen Elizabeth I: The Pelican Portrait', called Nicholas Hilliard
(c. 1573)". Walker Art Gallery. Liverpool, United Kingdom: National
Museums Liverpool. 1998. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014.
Retrieved 29 July 2012.
^ Patrick Collinson, "Elizabeth I (1533–1603)" in Oxford Dictionary
of National Biography (2008) accessed 23 Aug 2011
^ Lee, Christopher (1998) . "Disc 1". This Sceptred Isle
1547–1660. ISBN 978-0-563-55769-2.
^ Loades, 46.
^ "It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant,
for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the
episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary's Archbishop
of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her
own death". Somerset, 98.
^ "There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or
illness and the carelessness of 'the accursed cardinal' [Pole]".
^ Somerset, 101–103.
^ "Stamp-sized Elizabeth I miniatures to fetch ₤80.000", Daily
Telegraph, 17 November 2009 Retrieved 16 May 2010
^ Loades, 38.
^ Haigh, 19.
^ Loades, 39.
^ Retha Warnicke, "Why Elizabeth I Never Married," History Review,
Sept 2010, Issue 67, pp 15–20
^ Loades, 42; Wilson, 95
^ Wilson, 95
^ Skidmore, 162, 165, 166–168
^ Chamberlin, 118
^ Somerset, 166–167. Most modern historians have considered murder
unlikely; breast cancer and suicide being the most widely accepted
explanations (Doran Monarchy, 44). The coroner's report, hitherto
believed lost, came to light in The National Archives in the late
2000s and is compatible with a downstairs fall as well as other
violence (Skidmore, 230–233).
^ Wilson, 126–128
^ Doran Monarchy, 45
^ Doran Monarchy, 212.
^ Adams, 384, 146.
^ Jenkins (1961), 245, 247; Hammer, 46.
^ Doran Queen Elizabeth I, 61.
^ Wilson, 303.
^ Frieda, 397.
^ a b c Haigh, 17.
^ Elizabeth Jenkins Elizabeth the Great London 1959 p 59; Karin
Tegenborg Falkdalen Vasadöttrarna ISBN 978-91-87031-26-7 p 126;
Michael Roberts The Early Vasas Cambridge 1968 pp 159 & 207
^ Loades, 53–54.
^ Loades, 54.
^ Somerset, 408.
^ Doran Monarchy, 87
^ Haigh, 20–21.
^ Haigh, 22–23.
^ Anna Dowdeswell (28 November 2007). "Historic painting is sold for
£2.6 million". bucksherald.co.uk. Retrieved 17 December
^ John N. King, "Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin
Queen," Renaissance Quarterly Vol. 43, No. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp.
30–74 in JSTOR
^ Haigh, 23.
^ Susan Doran, "Juno Versus Diana: The Treatment of Elizabeth I's
Marriage in Plays and Entertainments, 1561–1581," Historical Journal
38 (1995): 257–74 in JSTOR
^ Haigh, 24.
^ Haigh, 131.
^ Mary's position as heir derived from her great-grandfather Henry VII
of England, through his daughter Margaret. In her own words, "I am the
nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock,
the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister".
^ On Elizabeth's accession, Mary's Guise relatives had pronounced her
Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of
Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97.
^ By the terms of the treaty, both English and French troops withdrew
from Scotland. Haigh, 132.
^ Loades, 67.
^ Loades, 68.
^ Simon Adams: "Dudley, Robert, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588)"
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Adams, Simon (2002), Leicester and the Court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 978-0-7190-5325-2 . Black, J. B. (1945) , The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603, Oxford: Clarendon, OCLC 5077207 . Chamberlin, Frederick (1939), Elizabeth and Leycester, Dodd, Mead & Co. . Collinson, Patrick. "Elizabeth I (1533–1603)" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2008) Retrieved 23 Aug 2011 Collinson, Patrick (2007), Elizabeth I, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-921356-6 . Croft, Pauline (2003), King James, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-61395-5 . Davenport, Cyril (1899), Pollard, Alfred, ed., English Embroidered Bookbindings, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., OCLC 705685 . Dobson, Michael & Watson, Nicola (2003), "Elizabeth's Legacy", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 978-0-7011-7476-7 . Doran, Susan (1996), Monarchy and Matrimony: The Courtships of Elizabeth I, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-11969-6 . Doran, Susan (2003), Queen Elizabeth I, London: British Library, ISBN 978-0-7123-4802-7 . Doran, Susan (2003), "The Queen's Suitors and the Problem of the Succession", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 978-0-7011-7476-7 . Edwards, Philip (2004), The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-312-23614-4 . Flynn, Sian & Spence, David (2003), "Elizabeth's Adventurers", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 978-0-7011-7476-7 . Frieda, Leonie (2005), Catherine de Medici, London: Phoenix, ISBN 978-0-7538-2039-1 . Guy, John (2004), My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots, London and New York: Fourth Estate, ISBN 978-1-84115-752-8 . Haigh, Christopher (2000), Elizabeth I (2nd ed.), Harlow (UK): Longman Pearson, ISBN 978-0-582-43754-8 . Hammer, P. E. J. (1999), The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics: The Political Career of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, 1585–1597, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-01941-5 . Haynes, Alan (1987), The White Bear: The Elizabethan Earl of Leicester, Peter Owen, ISBN 978-0-7206-0672-0 . Hogge, Alice (2005), God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-715637-5 . Jenkins, Elizabeth (2002) , Elizabeth and Leicester, The Phoenix Press, ISBN 978-1-84212-560-1 . Jenkins, Elizabeth (1967) , Elizabeth the Great, New York: Capricorn Books, G.P. Putnam's and Sons, ISBN 978-1-898799-70-2 . Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig (1997). The king's two bodies: a study in mediaeval political theology (2 ed.). Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01704-4. Kenyon, John P. (1983), The History Men: The Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-78254-4 . Kupperman, Karen Ordahl (2007), The Jamestown Project, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-02474-8 . Lacey, Robert (1971), Robert Earl of Essex: An Elizabethan Icarus, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-00320-5 . Loades, David (2003), Elizabeth I: The Golden Reign of Gloriana, London: The National Archives, ISBN 978-1-903365-43-4 . McGrath, Patrick (1967), Papists and Puritans under Elizabeth I, London: Blandford Press . Neale, J. E. (1954) , Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography (reprint ed.), London: Jonathan Cape, OCLC 220518 . Parker, Geoffrey (2000), The Grand Strategy of Philip II, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-08273-9 . Richardson, Ruth Elizabeth (2007), Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth I's Confidante, Woonton: Logaston Press, ISBN 978-1-904396-86-4 . Rowse, A. L. (1950), The England of Elizabeth, London: Macmillan, OCLC 181656553 . Skidmore, Chris (2010), Death and the Virgin: Elizabeth, Dudley and the Mysterious Fate of Amy Robsart, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-84650-5 . Somerset, Anne (2003), Elizabeth I. (1st Anchor Books ed.), London: Anchor Books, ISBN 978-0-385-72157-8 . Starkey, David (2001), Elizabeth: Apprenticeship, London: Vintage, ISBN 978-0-09-928657-8 . Starkey, David (2003), "Elizabeth: Woman, Monarch, Mission", in Doran, Susan, Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum, London: Chatto and Windus, ISBN 978-0-7011-7476-7 . Strong, Roy C. (2003) , Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I, London: Pimlico, ISBN 978-0-7126-0944-9 . Strong, R. C. & van Dorsten, J. A. (1964), Leicester's Triumph, Oxford University Press . Weir, Alison (1997), The Children of Henry VIII, London: Random House, ISBN 978-0-345-40786-3 . Weir, Alison (1999), Elizabeth the Queen, London: Pimlico, ISBN 978-0-7126-7312-9 . Williams, Neville (1964), Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, London: Barrie & Rockliff . Williams, Neville (1972), The Life and Times of Elizabeth I, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-83168-6 . Willson, David Harris (1963) , King James VI & I, London: Jonathan Cape, ISBN 978-0-224-60572-4 . Wilson, Derek (1981), Sweet Robin: A Biography of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester 1533–1588, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 978-0-241-10149-0 . Woodward, Jennifer (1997), The Theatre of Death: The Ritual Management of Royal Funerals in Renaissance England, 1570–1625, Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 978-0-85115-704-7
Beem, Charles. The Foreign Relations of Elizabeth I (2011) excerpt and text search Bridgen, Susan (2001). New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485–1603. New York, NY: Viking Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-89985-2. Hodges, J. P. The Nature of the Lion: Elizabeth I and Our Anglican Heritage (London: Faith Press, 1962). 153 p. Jones, Norman. The Birth of the Elizabethan Age: England in the 1560s (Blackwell, 1993) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I (1993), political biography summarising his multivolume study:
MacCaffrey Wallace T. The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime: Elizabethan Politics, 1558–1572 (1969) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Queen Elizabeth and the Making of Policy, 1572–1588 (1988) MacCaffrey Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588–1603 (1994)
McLaren, A. N. Political Culture in the Reign of Elizabeth I: Queen and Commonwealth, 1558–1585 (Cambridge University Press, 1999) excerpt and text search Palliser, D. M. The Age of Elizabeth: England Under the Later Tudors, 1547–1603 (1983) survey of social and economic history Ridley, Jasper Godwin (1989). Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. Fromm International. ISBN 978-0-88064-110-4. Wernham, R. B. Before the Armada: the growth of English foreign policy, 1485-1588 (1966), a standard history of foreign policy
Primary sources and early histories
Elizabeth I (2002). Elizabeth I: Collected Works. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50465-0. Susan M. Felch, ed. Elizabeth I and Her Age (Norton Critical Editions) (2009); 700pp; primary and secondary sources, with an emphasis on literature Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072. William Camden. Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha. (1615 and 1625.) Hypertext edition, with English translation. Dana F. Sutton (ed.), 2000. Retrieved 7 December 2007. Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639.
Historiography and memory
Carlson, Eric Josef. "Teaching Elizabeth Tudor with Movies: Film,
Historical Thinking, and the Classroom," Sixteenth Century Journal,
Summer 2007, Vol. 38 Issue 2, pp 419–440
Collinson, Patrick. "Elizabeth I and the verdicts of history,"
Historical Research, Nov 2003, Vol. 76 Issue 194, pp 469–91
Doran, Susan, and Thomas S. Freeman, eds. The Myth of
Elizabeth.(2003). 280 pp.
Greaves, Richard L., ed. Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1974),
excerpts from historians
Haigh, Christopher, ed. The Reign of Elizabeth I (1984), essays by
Howard, Maurice. "Elizabeth I: A Sense Of Place In Stone, Print And
Paint," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Dec 2004, Vol.
14 Issue 1, pp 261–268
Hulme, Harold. "Elizabeth I and Her Parliaments: The Work of Sir John
Neale," Journal of Modern History Vol. 30, No. 3 (Sept. 1958),
pp. 236–240 in JSTOR
Montrose, Louis. The Subject of Elizabeth: Authority, Gender, and
Representation. (2006). 341 pp.
Watkins, John. Representing Elizabeth in Stuart England: Literature,
History, Sovereignty (2002) 264pp
Michael Dobson; Nicola Jane Watson (2002). England's Elizabeth: An
Afterlife in Fame and Fantasy. Oxford University Press, USA.
Woolf, D. R. "Two Elizabeths?
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