BIG BEN is the nickname for the Great
Bell of the clock at the north
end of the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster in
London and is usually extended
to refer to both the clock and the clock tower as well. The tower is
officially known as ELIZABETH TOWER, renamed to celebrate the Diamond
Elizabeth II in 2012; previously, it was known simply as
the CLOCK TOWER.
When completed in 1859, it was, says clockmaker Ian Westworth, “the
prince of timekeepers: the biggest, most accurate four-faced striking
and chiming clock in the world.” The tower had its 150th
anniversary on 31 May 2009, during which celebratory events took
A British cultural icon , the tower is one of the most prominent
symbols of the United Kingdom and is often in the establishing shot of
films set in London.
* 2.1 Dials
* 2.2 Movement
* 2.3 Malfunctions, breakdowns, and other interruptions in operation
* 3 Bells
* 3.1 Great
* 3.2 Chimes
* 4 Nickname
* 5 Cultural importance
* 5.1 Cultural depictions
* 6 2017 renovation
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 External links
Audio description of the tower by Gary O\'Donoghue Big
Ben from Victoria
Tower in the 1920s
Tower (previously called the
Clock Tower), more
popularly known as Big Ben, was raised as a part of
Charles Barry 's
design for a new palace, after the old
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster was
largely destroyed by fire on the night of 16 October 1834. The new
parliament was built in a neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the
chief architect of the palace, he turned to
Augustus Pugin for the
design of the clock tower, which resembles earlier Pugin designs,
including one for
Scarisbrick Hall in
Lancashire . The design for the
tower was Pugin's last design before his final descent into madness
and death, and Pugin himself wrote, at the time of Barry's last visit
to him to collect the drawings: "I never worked so hard in my life for
Mr Barry for tomorrow I render all the designs for finishing his bell
tower "> The
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster ,
Big Ben and Westminster Bridge
Big Ben and environs, including the
London Eye , Portcullis
Parliament Square , and St Margaret\'s Church
The bottom 200 feet (61.0 m) of the tower's structure consists of
brickwork with sand-coloured
Anston limestone cladding . The remainder
of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron . The tower is
founded on a 50 feet (15.2 m) square raft, made of 10 feet (3.0 m)
thick concrete, at a depth of 13 feet (4.0 m) below ground level. The
four clock dials are 180 feet (54.9 m) above ground. The interior
volume of the tower is 164,200 cubic feet (4,650 cubic metres).
Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the
interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United
Kingdom residents are able to arrange tours (well in advance) through
their Member of Parliament. However, the tower currently has no lift,
though one is planned, so those escorted must climb the 334 limestone
stairs to the top.
Due to changes in ground conditions since construction, the tower
leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 230 millimetres (9.1 in)
over 55 m height, giving an inclination of approximately 1/240. This
includes a planned maximum of 22 mm increased tilt due to tunnelling
Jubilee line extension. Due to thermal effects it oscillates
annually by a few millimetres east and west.
Big Ben at twilight
Queen Victoria 's reign called it St Stephen's
Tower. As MPs originally sat at St Stephen's Hall, these journalists
referred to anything related to the House of Commons as news from "St.
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster contains a feature called St
Tower , a smaller tower over the public entrance). The
usage persists in Welsh , where the Westminster district, and
Parliament by extension, is known as San Steffan.
On 2 June 2012,
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph reported that 331 Members of
Parliament , including senior members of all three main parties,
supported a proposal to change the name from
Tower to Elizabeth
Tower in tribute to Queen
Elizabeth II in her diamond jubilee year .
This was thought to be appropriate because the large west tower now
known as Victoria
Tower was renamed in tribute to
Queen Victoria on
her diamond jubilee. On 26 June 2012, the House of Commons confirmed
that the name change could go ahead. The Prime Minister , David
Cameron , announced the change of name on 12 September 2012 at the
start of Prime Minister\'s Questions . The change was marked by a
naming ceremony in which the Speaker of the House of Commons , John
Bercow , unveiled a name plaque attached to the tower on the adjoining
The dial of the Great
Clock of Westminster. The hour hand is 9
feet (2.7 m) long and the minute hand is 14 feet (4.3 m) long.
The clock and dials were designed by Augustus Pugin. The clock dials
are set in an iron frame 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter, supporting 312
pieces of opal glass, rather like a stained-glass window. Some of the
glass pieces may be removed for inspection of the hands. The surround
of the dials is gilded . At the base of each clock dial in gilt
letters is the
DOMINE SALVAM FAC REGINAM NOSTRAM VICTORIAM PRIMAM
Which means O Lord, keep safe our
Queen Victoria the First.
Unlike most other
Roman numeral clock dials, which show the '4'
position as 'IIII', the Great
Clock faces depict '4' as 'IV'.
The rear of the clock face The clock mechanism
The clock's movement is famous for its reliability. The designers
were the lawyer and amateur horologist Edmund Beckett Denison , and
George Airy , the
Astronomer Royal . Construction was entrusted to
Edward John Dent ; after his death in 1853 his stepson
Frederick Dent completed the work, in 1854. As the tower was not
complete until 1859, Denison had time to experiment: instead of using
the deadbeat escapement and remontoire as originally designed, Denison
invented the double three-legged gravity escapement . This escapement
provides the best separation between pendulum and clock mechanism. The
pendulum is installed within an enclosed windproof box beneath the
clockroom. It is 13 feet (4.0 m) long, weighs 660 pounds (300 kg),
suspended on a strip of spring steel 1/64 inch in thickness, and beats
every 2 seconds. The clockwork mechanism in a room below weighs 5
tons. On top of the pendulum is a small stack of old penny coins ;
these are to adjust the time of the clock. Adding a coin has the
effect of minutely lifting the position of the pendulum's centre of
mass , reducing the effective length of the pendulum rod and hence
increasing the rate at which the pendulum swings. Adding or removing a
penny will change the clock's speed by 0.4 seconds per day.
On 10 May 1941, a German bombing raid damaged two of the clock's
dials and sections of the tower's stepped roof and destroyed the House
of Commons chamber. Architect
Sir Giles Gilbert Scott designed a new
five-floor block. Two floors are occupied by the current chamber,
which was used for the first time on 26 October 1950. The clock ran
accurately and chimed throughout the Blitz .
MALFUNCTIONS, BREAKDOWNS, AND OTHER INTERRUPTIONS IN OPERATION
The south clock face being cleaned on 11 August 2007
* 1916: For two years during World War I, the bells were silenced
and the clock faces were not illuminated at night to avoid guiding
attacking German Zeppelins .
* 1 September 1939: Although the bells continued to ring, the clock
faces were not illuminated at night throughout World War II to avoid
guiding bomber pilots during the Blitz .
* 10 May 1941: A German bombing raid damaged two of the clock's
* 3–4 June 1941: The clock stopped from 10:13 p.m. until 10:13 the
following morning, after a workman repairing air-raid damage to the
clock face dropped a hammer into the works.
* 1949: The clock slowed by four and a half minutes after a flock of
starlings perched on the minute hand.
* 13 January 1955: The clock stopped at 3:24 a.m. due to drifts of
snow forming on the north and east dials. Small electric heaters were
placed just inside these two dials which faced the full fury of the
winter's blast, and this measure has helped to reduce incidences of
freezing in recent years.
* 31 December 1961: The clock slowed due to heavy snow and ice on
the hands, causing the pendulum to detach from the clockwork, as it is
designed to do in such circumstances, to avoid serious damage
elsewhere in the mechanism – the pendulum continuing to swing
freely. Thus, it chimed-in the 1962 new year ten minutes late.
* 30 January 1965: The bells were silenced during the funeral of
statesman and former prime minister
Winston Churchill .
* 5 August 1976: First and only major breakdown. The air brake speed
regulator of the chiming mechanism broke from torsional fatigue after
more than 100 years of use, causing the fully wound 4-ton weight to
spin the winding drum out of the movement, causing much damage. The
Clock was shut down for a total of 26 days over nine months –
it was reactivated on 9 May 1977. This was the longest break in
operation since its construction. During this time BBC Radio 4
broadcast the pips instead. Although there were minor stoppages from
1977 to 2002, when maintenance of the clock was carried out by the old
firm of clockmakers Thwaites since 2002, by parliamentary staff.
* 30 April 1997: The clock stopped 24 hours before the general
election, and stopped again three weeks later.
* 27 May 2005: The clock stopped at 10:07 p.m., possibly because of
hot weather; temperatures in
London had reached an unseasonable 31.8
°C (90 °F). It resumed, but stopped again at 10:20 p.m., and
remained still for about 90 minutes before resuming.
* 29 October 2005: The mechanism was stopped for about 33 hours to
allow maintenance work on the clock and its chimes. It was the
lengthiest maintenance shutdown in 22 years.
* 7:00 a.m. 5 June 2006: The clock tower's "Quarter Bells" were
taken out of commission for four weeks as a bearing holding one of
the quarter bells was worn and needed to be removed for repairs.
During this period,
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 broadcast recordings of British bird
song followed by the pips in place of the usual chimes.
* 11 August 2007: Start of 6-week stoppage for maintenance. Bearings
in the clock's chime train and the "great bell" striker were replaced,
for the first time since installation. During the maintenance the
clock was driven by an electric motor . Once again, BBC Radio 4
broadcast the pips during this time. The intention is that the clock
should run accurately for a further 200 years before major maintenance
is again required.
* 17 April 2013: The bells were silenced as a mark of "profound
dignity and deep respect" during the funeral of
Margaret Thatcher .
* August 2015: The clock was discovered to be running 7 seconds
fast, and coins were removed from its pendulum to correct the error,
which caused it to run slow for a time.
The second "Big Ben" (centre) and the Quarter Bells from The
News of the World , 4 December 1858
The main bell, officially known as the Great
Bell but better known as
Big Ben, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock
The original bell was a 16 ton (16.3-tonne ) hour bell, cast on 6
August 1856 in
Stockton-on-Tees by John Warner the comment is not
Since the tower was not yet finished, the bell was mounted in New
Palace Yard . The first bell was transported to the tower on a trolley
drawn by sixteen horses, with crowds cheering its progress. During the
bell's testing, it cracked beyond repair and a replacement had to be
made. The bell was recast on 10 April 1858 at the Whitechapel Bell
Foundry as a 13½ ton (13.76-tonne ) bell. This was pulled 200 ft
(61.0 m) up to the
Clock Tower’s belfry, a feat that took 18 hours.
It is 7 feet 6 inches (2.29 m) tall and 9 feet (2.74 m) diameter. This
new bell first chimed in July 1859; in September it too cracked under
the hammer. According to the foundry's manager, George Mears, the
horologist Denison had used a hammer more than twice the maximum
weight specified. For three years
Big Ben was taken out of commission
and the hours were struck on the lowest of the quarter bells until it
was repaired. To make the repair, a square piece of metal was chipped
out from the rim around the crack, and the bell given an eighth of a
turn so the new hammer struck in a different place.
Big Ben has
chimed with a slightly different tone ever since, and is still in use
today with the crack unrepaired.
Big Ben was the largest bell in the
British Isles until "Great Paul", a 16¾ ton (17 tonne) bell currently
hung in St Paul\'s Cathedral , was cast in 1881.
Big Ben A recording from the
BBC World Service
BBC World Service radio
station of the
Westminster Chimes and the twelve strikes of Big Ben,
as broadcast at midnight,
New Year's Day
New Year's Day 2009.
Along with the Great Bell, the belfry houses four quarter bells which
Westminster Quarters on the quarter hours. The four quarter
bells sound G♯, F♯, E, and B. They were cast by John Warner ">♯,
F♯ and B) and 1858 (E). The Foundry was in Jewin Crescent, in what
is now known as The Barbican , in the City of London. The bells are
sounded by hammers pulled by cables coming from the link room—a
low-ceiling space between the clock room and the belfry—where
mechanisms translate the movement of the quarter train into the
sounding of the individual bells.
The quarter bells play a once-repeating, 20-note sequence of rounds
and four changes in the key of
E major : 1–4 at quarter past, 5–12
at half past, 13–20 and 1–4 at quarter to, and 5–20 on the hour
(which sounds 25 seconds before the main bell tolls the hour). Because
the low bell (B) is struck twice in quick succession, there is not
enough time to pull a hammer back, and it is supplied with two wrench
hammers on opposite sides of the bell. The tune is that of the
Cambridge Chimes , first used for the chimes of Great St Mary 's
Cambridge , and supposedly a variation , attributed to William
Crotch , based on violin phrases from the air "I know that my Redeemer
liveth " in Handel 's Messiah . The notional words of the chime,
again derived from Great St Mary's and in turn an allusion to Psalm
37:23–24, are: "All through this hour/Lord be my guide/And by Thy
power/No foot shall slide". They are written on a plaque on the wall
of the clock room.
One of the requirements for the clock was that the first stroke of
the hour bell should be correct to within one second per day. The
tolerance is with reference to
Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time (BST in summer).
So, at twelve o'clock, for example, it is the first of the twelve
hour-bell strikes that signifies the hour (the New Year on New Year\'s
Day at midnight). The time signalled by the last of the "six pips"
UTC ) may be fractionally different.
The origin of the nickname
Big Ben is the subject of some debate. The
nickname was applied first to the Great Bell; it may have been named
after Sir Benjamin Hall , who oversaw the installation of the Great
Bell, or after boxing's English heavyweight champion
Benjamin Caunt .
Big Ben is often used, by extension, to refer to the clock, the
tower and the bell collectively, although the nickname is not
universally accepted as referring to the clock and tower. Some
authors of works about the tower, clock and bell sidestep the issue by
using the words
Big Ben first in the title, then going on to clarify
that the subject of the book is the clock and tower as well as the
Double-decker buses frame a busy
Big Ben in the
Big Ben replica at Legoland Windsor
The clock has become a cultural symbol of the United Kingdom ,
particularly in the visual media. When a television or film-maker
wishes to indicate a generic location in the country, a popular way to
do so is to show an image of the tower, often with a red double-decker
bus or black cab in the foreground.
In 2008 a survey of 2,000 people found that the tower was the most
popular landmark in the United Kingdom. It has also been named as the
most iconic film location in
The sound of the clock chiming has also been used this way in audio
media, but as the
Westminster Quarters are heard from other clocks and
other devices, the sound is by no means unique.
Big Ben is a focus of
New Year celebrations in the United Kingdom , with radio and TV
stations tuning to its chimes to welcome the start of the New Year. To
welcome in 2012, the clock tower was lit with fireworks that exploded
at every toll of Big Ben. Similarly, on
Remembrance Day , the chimes
Big Ben are broadcast to mark the 11th hour of the 11th day of the
11th month and the start of the two minutes' silence. Londoners who
live an appropriate distance from the tower and
Big Ben can, by means
of listening to the chimes both live and on analogue radio, hear the
bell strike thirteen times. This is possible because the
electronically transmitted chimes arrive virtually instantaneously,
while the "live" sound is delayed travelling through the air since the
speed of sound is relatively slow.
ITN 's News at Ten opening sequence formerly featured an image of the
tower with the sound of Big Ben's chimes punctuating the announcement
of the news headlines. The
Big Ben chimes (known within
ITN as "The
Bongs") continue to be used during the headlines and all ITV News
bulletins use a graphic based on the Westminster clock dial. Big Ben
can also be heard striking the hour before some news bulletins on BBC
Radio 4 (6 p.m. and midnight, plus 10 p.m. on Sundays) and the BBC
World Service , a practice that began on 31 December 1923. The sound
of the chimes is sent live from a microphone permanently installed in
the tower and connected by line to
Broadcasting House .
At the close of the polls for the 2010 general election the results
of the national exit poll were projected onto the south side of the
tower. On 27 July 2012, starting at 8:12 a.m,
Big Ben chimed 30
times, to welcome in the
London Olympic Games (i.e. the 30th
Olympiad), which officially began that day.
Tower features in many dramatic representations, and as a
specific location in:
My Learned Friend , 1943 film starring
* Peter Pan , 1953
Walt Disney animated feature
* The Nightmare Man, a 1978 episode of
Return of the Saint starring
* The Thirty-Nine Steps , 1978 film starring
Mars Attacks! , 1996 film.
The Great Mouse Detective , a 1986
Walt Disney animated feature
Shanghai Knights , a 2003 film starring
* Aliens of
London , a 2005
Doctor Who episode
Cars 2 , 2011
Pixar animated film (as "Big
* Overwatch , 2016 video game.
Tower and Great
Bell have been scheduled for a major
renovation which is expected to last three years and is due to begin
in early 2017. Essential maintenance will be carried out on the clock
mechanism, which will be stopped for several months during which there
will be no chimes. Striking and tolling will however be maintained for
The aim of the renovation is to repair and conserve the tower,
upgrade facilities as necessary, and to ensure its integrity for
future generations. The last significant renovation work was carried
out to the tower over 30 years ago in 1983-85. The most significant
addition to the tower in the forthcoming works will be the addition of
a lift .
Big Ben Aden
* ^ A B C D E F "The Story of Big Ben". Whitechapel
Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October
* ^ A B Fowler, H. W. (1976). The Concise Oxford dictionary of
current English. First edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler (Sixth
Clarendon Press . p. 95. ISBN 0-19-861121-8 . Big Ben, great
bell, clock, and tower, of Houses of Parliament
* ^ A B C "
Big Ben \'bongs\' to be silenced for £29m
refurbishment". BBC News. BBC. 26 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
* ^ "Why is
Big Ben falling silent?". BBC. 8 November 2016.
* ^ Sugden, Joanna (10 July 2009). "
Big Ben rings in its 150th
The Times . UK. p. 1. (Subscription required (help)).
* ^ A B "Join in the anniversary celebrations". UK Parliament.
* ^ A B "Great
Clock facts". Big Ben. London: UK Parliament. 13
November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved
23 November 2009.
* ^ "
Big Ben in films and popular culture". The Telegraph. 8
* ^ A B "Frequently asked questions:
Big Ben and Elizabeth Tower".
* ^ "1289-1834:
Big Ben and Elizabeth Tower". UK Parliament.
Retrieved 9 July 2014.
* ^ Hill, Rosemary (3 March 2009). God\'s Architect: Pugin & the
Building of Romantic Britain. Yale University Press. p. 482. Retrieved
9 July 2014.
* ^ A B C D E "Bong!
Big Ben rings in its 150th anniversary".
Associated Press . 29 May 2009. Archived from the original on 31 May
2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
* ^ "
Tower tour". UK Parliament. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 30
* ^ "Tunnel Vision" (PDF). Post Report Summary. Parliamentary
Office of Science and Technology. January 1997. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 21 November 2006.
* ^ Hough, Andrew (2 June 2012). "The Queen\'s Diamond Jubilee:
Big Ben to be renamed Elizabeth Tower\'". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved
9 July 2014.
* ^ Rath, Kayte (26 June 2012). "Big Ben\'s tower renamed Elizabeth
Tower in honour of Queen". BBC.
* ^ "Questions to the Prime Minister". House of Commons Hansard
Debates for 12 Sept 2012. Hansard. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
* ^ U K Parliament (12 September 2012). "Elizabeth
ceremony". Retrieved 30 April 2016.
* ^ "Denison, Dent and delays". Building the Great Clock. London:
UK Parliament. 13 November 2009. Archived from the original on 4
December 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
* ^ Jardine, Cassandra (29 May 2009). "Let\'s hear it again from
Big Ben". The Telegraph. London.
* ^ "
Big Ben stopped by hammer". The Morning Bulletin. Rockhampton.
6 June 1941. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
* ^ "Big Ben\'s big clean". BBC News. 21 August 2001.
* ^ MacDonald, Peter (13 October 2005). Big Ben: The Bell, the
Clock and the Tower.
The History Press
The History Press . Retrieved 18 June 2017.
* ^ Namih, Carina (11 August 2007). "
Big Ben silenced for
maintenance". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
* ^ "
Big Ben to be silent for Baroness Thatcher\'s funeral". BBC
News. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
* ^ A B Macdonald, Peter G (25 January 2005). Big Ben: The Bell,
Clock And The Tower. Stroud, Gloucestershire. ISBN
* ^ A B "
Big Ben chimes stoppage mystery". BBC News. 28 May 2005.
Retrieved 26 April 2010.
* ^ "In pictures: Big Ben\'s big turn off". BBC News. 29 October
2005. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
* ^ Hutton, Robert (4 June 2006). "Big Ben\'s Chime Won\'t Sound
the Same to Londoners for a While". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 September
* ^ Rippon, Peter (12 June 2006). "The Editors: Bongs and Birds".
BBC News. Retrieved 10 April 2017. CS1 maint: Date and year (link )
* ^ "
Big Ben silenced for repair work". BBC News. 11 August 2007.
Retrieved 26 April 2010.
* ^ "
Big Ben 1859 – 2009 – Keeping the Great
Clock ticking". UK
Parliament. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 27
* ^ Brand, Stewart (1999). The
Clock of the Long Now. New York.
ISBN 0-465-04512-X .
* ^ Watt, Nicholas (15 April 2013). "
Margaret Thatcher funeral: Big
Ben to be silenced as mark of respect".
The Guardian . London.
Retrieved 17 May 2013.
* ^ Phipps, Claire (25 August 2015). "Clockwatchers ticked off as
Big Ben\'s chimes run seven seconds fast".
The Guardian . Retrieved 30
* ^ A B "The Great
Bell — Big Ben". UK Parliament. Retrieved 9
* ^ "
Big Ben of Westminster".
The Times .
London (22505): 5. 22
October 1859. It is proposed to call our king of bells 'Big Ben' in
honour of Sir Benjamin Hall, the President of the Board of Works,
during whose tenure of office it was cast
* ^ A B "The Great
Bell – Big Ben". Living Heritage. UK
Parliament. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
* ^ ICONS England. "
Big Ben – How did
Big Ben get its Name?".
Icons of England. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010.
Retrieved 30 April 2016.
* ^ The actual weight quoted by the founders is 13 tons 10 cwts 3
qtrs 15 lbs .
* ^ "The History of Great Paul".
Bell foundry museum, Leicester.
Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 19 October
* ^ "The New Houses of Parliament". The Standard . London. 16
November 1855. p. 2.
* ^ McKay, Chris (27 May 2010). Big Ben: the Great
Clock and the
Bells at the Palace of Westminster. Oxford University Press.
2.47–48. ISBN 978-019-958569-4 . Retrieved 13 April 2017.
* ^ Phillips, Alan (1959). The Story of Big Ben. Her Majesty's
Stationery Office. p. 13.
* ^ Starmer, William Wooding (1910). Quarter Chimes and Chime
Tunes. London: Novello. pp. 6–8.
* ^ Milmo, Cahel (5 June 2006). "Bong! A change of tune at
Westminster". The Independent. London. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
* ^ Lockyer, Herbert (1993). A devotional commentary on psalms.
Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Christian Books. p. 149. ISBN 0-8254-3146-8 .
* ^ Steve Jaggs, Keeper of the Clock, interviewed on Sky News, 26
* ^ "The Story of Big Ben". Whitechapel
Bell Foundry. Retrieved 9
* ^ Betts, Jonathan D. (26 November 2008). "Big Ben". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the
original on 2 November 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
* ^ "Big Ben". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University
Press. July 2001. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008.
Retrieved 27 October 2008.
* ^ "Big Ben". Encarta World English Dictionary . Microsoft
Corporation. 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
Retrieved 14 January 2009.
* ^ Lockhart, Ann (1997).
Big Ben and the Westminster
Stroud, Gloucestershire. ISBN 0853728399 .
* ^ Patterson, John (1 June 2007). "City Light".
The Guardian .
London. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 26
* ^ "
Big Ben \'UK\'s favourite landmark\'". BBC News. 9 April 2008.
Retrieved 26 April 2010.
* ^ Metro (21 October 2007). "
Big Ben most iconic
location". London. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
* ^ "Fireworks going off at the
London Eye and
Big Ben to welcome
2012 in London" .
BBC One . Retrieved 31 December 2011.
* ^ "
Remembrance Day across the UK". BBC News. 14 November 2004.
Retrieved 13 August 2012.
* ^ "How to make Big Ben\'s clock strike 13". BBC News. 4 November
2010. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
* ^ Robinson, James (22 October 2009). "ITV to drop
Big Ben from
News at Ten titles".
The Guardian . London. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
* ^ "
Big Ben Microphone". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
* ^ "General election results beamed onto Big Ben". UK Parliament.
Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 30 April
* ^ "
Big Ben strikes to celebrate start of 2012 Olympics". YouTube.
Retrieved 27 July 2012.
* ^ UK Parliament (April 2016). "Frequently asked questions about
the conservation refurbishment of the Elizabeth
Tower and Big Ben".
Retrieved 30 April 2016.
Wikimedia Commons has media related