Eli Lilly (July 8, 1838 – June 6, 1898) was an American
soldier, pharmacist, chemist, and businessman who founded the Eli
Lilly and Company pharmaceutical corporation. Lilly enlisted in the
Union Army during the
American Civil War
American Civil War and recruited a company of
men to serve with him in the 18th Independent Battery
Artillery. He was later promoted to major and then colonel, and was
given command of the 9th Regiment
Indiana Cavalry. Lilly was captured
in September 1864 and held as a prisoner of war until January 1865.
After the war, he attempted to run a plantation in Mississippi, but it
failed and he returned to his pharmacy profession after the death of
his first wife. Lilly remarried and worked with business partners in
several pharmacies in
Illinois before opening his own
business in 1876 in Indianapolis. Lilly's company manufactured drugs
and marketed them on a wholesale basis to pharmacies. Lilly's
pharmaceutical firm proved to be successful and he soon became wealthy
after making numerous advances in medicinal drug manufacturing. Two of
the early advances he pioneered were creating gelatin capsules to
contain medicines and developing fruit flavorings.
Eli Lilly and
Company became one of the first pharmaceutical firms of its kind to
staff a dedicated research department and put into place numerous
Using his wealth, Lilly engaged in numerous philanthropic pursuits. He
turned over the management of the company to his son, Josiah K. Lilly,
Sr., around 1890 to allow himself more time to continue his
involvement in charitable organizations and civic advancement. Colonel
Lilly helped found the Commercial Club, the forerunner to the
Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce, and became the primary patron of
Indiana's branch of the Charity Organization Society. He personally
funded a children's hospital in Indianapolis, known as Eleanor
Hospital (closed in 1909). Lilly continued his active involvement with
many other organizations until his death from cancer in 1898.
Colonel Lilly was an advocate of federal regulation of the
pharmaceutical industry, and many of his suggested reforms were
enacted into law in 1906, resulting in the creation of the Food and
Drug Administration. He was also among the pioneers of the concept of
prescriptions, and helped form what became the common practice of
giving addictive or dangerous medicines only to people who had first
seen a physician. The company he founded has since grown into one of
the largest and most influential pharmaceutical corporations in the
world, and the largest corporation in Indiana. Using the wealth
generated by the company, his son, J. K., and grandsons, Eli Jr. and
Josiah Jr. (Joe), established the
Lilly Endowment in 1937; it remains
as one of the largest charitable benefactors in the world and
continues the Lilly legacy of philanthropy.
1 Early life
1.1 Family and background
American Civil War
American Civil War service
2.2 Early business ventures
Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company founder
3 Later life
5 Honors and tributes
6 See also
7 Notes and references
9 External links
Family and background
Eli Lilly, the son of Gustavus and Esther Lilly, was born in
Baltimore, Maryland, on July 8, 1838. His family was of Swedish
descent and had moved to the low country of
France before his
great-grandparents immigrated to
Maryland in 1789. When Eli, the
first of eleven children, was still an infant, the family moved to
Kentucky, where they eventually settled on a farm near Warsaw in
In 1852 the family settled at Greencastle, Indiana, where Lilly's
parents enrolled him at
Indiana Asbury University (later known as
DePauw University). Eli attended classes from 1852 to 1854. He also
assisted at a local printing press as a printer's devil. Lilly
grew up in a Methodist household, and his family was prohibitionist
and anti-slavery; their beliefs served as part of their motivation for
moving to Indiana. Lilly and his family were members of the
Democratic Party during his early life, but they became Republicans
during the years leading up to the Civil War.
Lilly became interested in chemicals as a teen. In 1854, while on a
trip to visit his aunt and uncle in Lafayette, Indiana, the
sixteen-year-old Lilly visited Henry Lawrence's Good Samaritan Drug
Store, a local apothecary shop, where he watched Lawrence prepare
pharmaceutical drugs. Lilly completed a four-year apprenticeship
with Lawrence to become a chemist and pharmacist. In addition to
learning to mix chemicals, Lawrence taught Lilly how to manage funds
and operate a business. In 1858, after earning a certificate of
proficiency from his apprenticeship, Lilly left the Good Samaritan to
work for Israel Spencer and Sons, a wholesale and retail druggist in
Lafayette, before moving to
Indianapolis to take a position at the
Perkins and Coons Pharmacy.
Lilly returned to Greencastle in 1860 to work in Jerome Allen's
drugstore. He opened his own drugstore in the city in January 1861,
and married Emily Lemon, the daughter of a Greencastle merchant, on
January 31, 1861. During the early years of their marriage the
couple resided in Greenfield. The couple's son, Josiah
Kirby, later called "J. K.", was born on November 18, 1861, while Eli
was serving in the military during the American Civil War.
American Civil War
American Civil War service
Lilly's war recruitment poster
In 1861, a few months after the start of the American Civil War, Lilly
enlisted in the Union Army. He joined the 21st
Regiment and mustered into service on July 24. Lilly was commissioned
as a second lieutenant on July 29, 1861. On August 3 the 21st Indiana
reached Baltimore, Maryland, where it remained for several months.
Lilly resigned his commission in December 1861 and returned to Indiana
to form an artillery unit.
In early 1862 Lilly actively recruited volunteers for his unit among
his classmates, friends, local merchants and farmers. He had
recruitment posters created and posted them around Indianapolis,
promising to form the "crack battery of Indiana". His unit, the
Indiana Light Artillery, was known as the Lilly Battery
and consisted of six, three-inch ordinance rifles and 150 men. Lilly
was commissioned as a captain in the unit. The 18th
into service at
Camp Morton in
Indianapolis on August 6, 1862, and
spent a brief time drilling before it was sent into battle under Major
William Rosecrans in
Kentucky and Tennessee. Lilly's artillery
unit was transferred to the Lightning Brigade, a mounted infantry
under the command of Colonel, later General,
John T. Wilder
John T. Wilder on
December 16, 1862.
Lilly was elected to serve as the commanding officer of his battery
from August 1862 until the winter of 1863, when his three-year
enlistment expired. His only prior military experience had been in a
Lafayette, Indiana, militia unit. Several of his artillerymen
considered him too young and intemperate to command; however, despite
his initial inexperience, Lilly became a competent artillery officer.
His battery was instrumental in several important battles, including
Battle of Hoover's Gap in June 1863 and in the Second Battle of
Chattanooga and the
Battle of Chickamauga
Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863.
In 1864, when Lilly's term of enlistment ended, he resigned his
commission and left the 18th Indiana. Lilly joined the 9th Indiana
Cavalry (121st Regiment
Indiana Volunteers) and was promoted to major.
Battle of Sulphur Creek Trestle
Battle of Sulphur Creek Trestle in
Alabama in September 1864,
he was captured by Confederate troops under the command of Major
Nathan B. Forrest
Nathan B. Forrest and held in a prisoner-of-war camp at
Mississippi until his release in a prisoner exchange in
January 1865. Lilly was promoted to colonel on June 4, 1865, and was
stationed at Vicksburg, Mississippi, in the spring of 1865 when the
war ended. In recognition of his service, he was brevetted
to the rank of lieutenant colonel and mustered out of service with the
Indiana Cavalry on August 25, 1865.
In later life Lilly obtained a large atlas and marked the path of his
movements in the war and the location of battles and skirmishes. He
often used the atlas when telling war stories. His colonel's title
stayed with him for the rest of his life, and his friends and family
used it as a nickname for him. Lilly served as chairman of the Grand
Army of the Republic, a brotherhood of Union Civil War veterans, in
1893. During his term he helped organize an event that brought tens of
thousands of Union war veterans, including Lilly's battery, together
Indianapolis for a reunion and a large parade.
Early business ventures
After the war, Lilly remained in the South to begin a new business
venture. Lilly and his business partner leased a 1,200-acre
(490 ha) cotton plantation in Mississippi. Lilly traveled to
Greencastle, Indiana, and returned with his wife, Emily, his sister,
Anna Wesley Lilly, and son, Josiah. Shortly after the move the
entire family was stricken with a mosquito-borne disease, probably
malaria, that was common in the region at that time. Although the
others recovered, Emily died on August 20, 1866, eight months pregnant
with a second son, who was stillborn. The death devastated Lilly; he
wrote to his family, "I can hardly tell you how it glares at
me ...it's a bitter, bitter truth ... Emily is indeed
dead." Lilly abandoned the farm and returned to Indiana. The
plantation fell into disrepair and a drought caused its cotton crop to
fail. Lilly's business partner, unable to maintain the plantation
because of the drought, disappeared with the venture's remaining cash.
Lilly was forced to file for bankruptcy in 1868. Lilly worked to
resolve the situation on the plantation and find other employment
while his young son, Josiah, lived with
Colonel Lilly's parents in
Greencastle. In 1867 Lilly found work at the Harrison Daily and
Company, a wholesale drug firm. In 1869 he began working for
Patterson, Moore and Talbott, another medicinal wholesale company,
before he moved to
Illinois to establish a new business. In 1869
Indiana to open a drugstore with James W. Binford, his
business partner. Binford and Lilly opened The Red Front Drugstore in
Paris, Illinois, in August 1869.
In November 1869
Colonel Lilly married Maria Cynthia Sloan. Soon after
their marriage they sent for his son, Josiah, who was living
Greencastle, to join them in Illinois. Eli and Maria's only
child, a daughter named Eleanor, was born on January 25, 1871, and
died of diphtheria in 1884 at the age of thirteen. Maria died
Although the business in
Illinois was profitable and allowed Lilly to
save money, he was more interested in medicinal manufacturing than
running a pharmacy. Lilly began formulating a plan to create a
medicinal wholesale company of his own. Lilly left the partnership
with Binford in 1873 to return to Indianapolis, where he opened a drug
manufacturing operation on January 1, 1874, called Johnston and Lilly
with John F. Johnston as his partner. Three years later, on March 27,
1876, Lilly dissolved the partnership. His share of the assets
amounted to an estimated $400 in merchandise (several pieces of
equipment and a few gallons of unmixed chemicals) and about $1,000 in
When Lilly approached Augustus Keifer, a wholesale druggist and family
friend, for a job, Keifer encouraged Lilly to established his own drug
manufacturing business in Indianapolis. Keifer and two associated
drugstores agreed to purchase their drugs from Lilly at a cost lower
than they were currently paying.
Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company founder
Eli Lilly and Company
A photo of Lilly's first laboratory building. Lilly and son Josiah K.
Lilly, Sr. are on the right side of the doorway.
On May 10, 1876, Lilly opened his own laboratory in a rented two-story
building (now demolished) at 15 West Pearl Street and began to
manufacture drugs. The sign for the business said "Eli Lilly,
Chemist". Lilly's manufacturing venture began with $1,400
($31,163 in 2015 chained dollars) in working capital and three
employees: Albert Hall (chief compounder), Caroline Kruger (bottler
and product finisher), and Lilly's fourteen-year-old son, Josiah, who
had quit school to work with his father as an apprentice.
Lilly's first innovation was gelatin-coated pills and capsules. Other
early innovations included fruit flavorings and sugarcoated pills,
which made medicines easier to swallow. Following his experience
with the low-quality medicines used in the Civil War, Lilly committed
himself to producing only high-quality prescription drugs, in contrast
to the common and often ineffective patent medicines of the day. One
of the first medicines he began to produce was quinine, a drug used to
treat malaria, that resulted in a "ten fold" increase in
sales. Lilly products gained a reputation for quality and became
popular in the city. At the end of 1876, his first year of business,
sales reached $4,470 ($99,499 in 2015 chained dollars), and by 1879
they had grown to $48,000 ($1,221,086 in 2015 chained dollars).
As sales expanded rapidly he began to acquire customers outside of
Indiana. Lilly hired his brother, James, as his first full-time
salesman in 1878. James, and the subsequent sales team that developed,
marketed the company's drugs nationally. Other family members were
also employed by the growing company; Lilly's cousin Evan Lilly was
hired as a bookkeeper and his grandsons, Eli and Josiah (Joe), were
hired to run errands and perform other odd jobs. In 1881 Lilly
formally incorporated the firm as
Eli Lilly and Company, elected a
board of directors, and issued stock to family members and close
associates. By the late 1880s
Colonel Lilly had become one of
Indianapolis area's leading businessmen, with a company of more
than one hundred employees and $200,000 ($5,276,296 in 2015 chained
dollars) in annual sales.
An 1886 drawing of Lilly's plant on McCarty Street.
To accommodate his growing business, Lilly acquired additional
facilities for research and production. Lilly's business remained at
the Pearl Street location from 1876 to 1878, then moved to larger
quarters at 36 South Meridian. In 1881 he purchased a complex of
buildings at McCarty and
Alabama Streets, south of downtown
Indianapolis, and moved the company to its new headquarters. Other
businesses followed and the area developed into a major industrial and
manufacturing district of the city. In the early 1880s the company
also began making its first, widely-successful product, called Succus
Alteran (a treatment for venereal disease, types of rheumatism, and
skin diseases). Sales of the product provided funds for company
research and additional expansion.
Believing that it would be an advantage for his son to gain a greater
technical knowledge, Lilly sent Josiah to the Philadelphia College of
Pharmacy in 1880. Upon returning to the family business in 1882,
Josiah was named superintendent of the laboratory. In 1890,
Lilly turned over the day-to day management of the business to Josiah,
who ran the company for thirty-four years. The company flourished
despite the tumultuous economic conditions in the 1890s. In
1894, Lilly purchased a manufacturing plant to be used solely for
creating capsules. The company made several technological advances in
the manufacturing process, including the automation of capsule
production. Over the next few years, the company annually created tens
of millions of capsules and pills.
Although there were many other small pharmaceutical companies in the
Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company distinguished itself from the
others by having a permanent research staff, inventing superior
techniques for the mass production of medicinal drugs, and its strong
focus on quality. At first, Lilly was the company's only
researcher, but as the business grew, he established a research
laboratory and employed others who were dedicated to creating new
drugs. Lilly hired his first full-time research chemist, Ernest G.
Eberhards, and botanist, Walter H. Evans, in 1886. The
department's methods of research were based on Lilly's. He insisted on
quality assurance and instituted mechanisms to ensure that the drugs
being produced would be effective and perform as advertised, had the
correct combination of ingredients, and had the correct dosages of
medicines in each pill. He was aware of the addictive and dangerous
nature of some of his drugs, and pioneered the concept of giving such
drugs only to people who had first seen a physician to determine if
they needed the medicine.
By the time of his retirement from his business, around 1890, Lilly
was a millionaire who had been involved in civic affairs for several
years. Later in life he had become increasingly more philanthropic,
granting funds to charitable groups in the city.
In 1879, with a group of twenty-five other businessmen, Lilly began
Charity Organization Society and soon became the
primary patron of its
Indiana chapter. The society merged with other
charitable organizations to form the Family Welfare Society of
Indianapolis, a forerunner to the Family Service Association of
Indiana and the United Way. The associated group organized
charitable groups under a central leadership structure that
allowed them to easily interact and better assist people by
coordinating their efforts and identifying areas with the greatest
Indiana Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Indianapolis. The
Lilly Civil War Museum is inside it.
Lilly was especially interested in encouraging economic growth and
general development in Indianapolis. He attempted to achieve those
goals by supporting local commercial organizations financially and
through his personal advocacy and promotion. In 1879 he made a
proposal for a public water company to meet the needs of the city,
which lead to the formation of the
Indianapolis Water Company.
In 1890 Lilly and other civic leaders founded the Commercial Club;
Lilly was elected as its first president. The club, renamed the
Chamber of Commerce
Chamber of Commerce in 1912, was the primary vehicle for
Lilly's city development goals. It was instrumental in making
numerous advances for the city, including citywide paved streets,
elevated railways to allow vehicles and people to pass beneath them,
and a city sewage system. The companies that provided these services
were created through private and public investments and operated at
low-cost; in practice they belonged to the companies' customers, who
slowly bought each company back from its initial investors. The model
was later followed other regions of
Indiana to establish water and
electric utility companies. The Commercial Club members also helped
fund the creation of parks, monuments, and memorials, as well as
successfully attracted investment from other businessmen and
organizations to expand Indianapolis's growing industries.
After the Gas Boom began to sweep the state in the 1880s, Lilly and
other Commercial Club members advocated the creation of a public
corporation to pump natural gas from the ground, pipe it to
Indianapolis from the Trenton Gas Field, and provide it at low cost to
businesses and homes. The project led to the creation of the Consumer
Gas Trust Company, which Lilly named. The gas company provided
low-cost heating fuel that made urban living much more desirable. The
gas was further used to create electricity to run Indianapolis's first
public transportation venture, a streetcar system.
During the Panic of 1893, Lilly created a commission to help provide
food and shelter to the poor people who were adversely affected.
His work with the commission led him to make a personal donation of
funds and property to the Flower Mission of
Indianapolis in 1895.
Lilly's substantial donation allowed it to establish Eleanor Hospital,
a children's hospital in
Indianapolis named in honor of his deceased
daughter. The hospital cared for children from families who had no
money to pay for routine medical care; it closed in 1909.
Lilly's friends often urged him to seek public office, and they
attempted to nominate him to run for Governor of
Indiana as a
Republican in 1896, but he refused. Lilly shunned public office,
preferring to focus his attention on his philanthropic organizations.
He did regularly endorse candidates, and made substantial donations to
politicians who advanced his causes. After former
Oliver P. Morton
Oliver P. Morton and others suggested the creation of a memorial to
Indiana's many Civil War veterans, Lilly began raising funds to build
Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. Construction began in
1888, but the monument was not completed until 1901, three years after
Lilly's death. The interior of the monument houses a civil war museum,
established in 1918, that is named in Lilly's honor.
Colonel Lilly's main resident was a large home in
Tennessee Street (renamed Capitol Street in 1895), where he spent most
of his time. Lilly, an avid fisherman, built a family vacation cottage
Lake Wawasee in Kosciusko County, Indiana, in 1886–87. He had
enjoyed regular vacations and recreation at the lake since the early
1880s. Lilly also founded the Wawasee Golf Club in 1891. Lilly's
lakeside property became a haven for the family. His son, Josiah,
built his own cottage on the estate in the mid-1930s.
Lilly developed cancer in 1897 and died in his
Indianapolis home on
June 6, 1898. His funeral was held on June 9 and attended by
thousands. His remains are interred in a large mausoleum at
Indianapolis's Crown Hill Cemetery.
Eli Lilly (right) with son
Josiah K. Lilly Sr.
Josiah K. Lilly Sr. (left) and
Eli Lilly (center)
At the time of Lilly's death in 1898, his company had a product line
of 2,005 items and annual sales of more than $300,000 ($8,547,600 in
2015 chained dollars). His son, Josiah, inherited the company
following his father's death, and became its president in 1898.
Josiah continued to expand its operations before passing it on to his
own sons, Eli Jr. and Josiah Jr. (Joe).
Lilly's son and two grandsons, as well as the Lilly company, continued
the philanthropic efforts that Lilly practiced.
Eli Lilly and Company
played an important role in delivering medicine to the victims of the
devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake. In 1937 Lilly's son and
grandsons established the Lilly Endowment, which became the largest
philanthropic endowment in the world in terms of assets and charitable
giving in 1998. (Other endowments have since surpassed it, but it
still remains among the top ten.)
Lilly's firm grew into one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in
the world. Under the leadership of Lilly's son, Josiah (J. K.) and two
grandsons, Eli and Joe, it developed many new innovations, including
the pioneering and development of insulin during the 1920s, the mass
production of penicillin during the 1940s, and the promotion of
advancements in mass-produced medicines. Innovation continued at the
company after it was made a publicly traded corporation in 1952; it
developed Humulin, Merthiolate, Prozac, and many other
medicines. According to Forbes,
Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company ranked as
the 243rd largest company in the world in 2016, with sales of
$20 billion and a market value of $86 billion (USD).
It is the largest corporation and the largest charitable benefactor in
Lilly's greatest contributions to the industry were his standardized
and methodical production of drugs, his dedication to research and
development, and the therapeutic value of the drugs he created. As a
pioneer in the modern pharmaceutical industry, many of his innovations
later became standard practice. Lilly's ethical reforms, in a trade
that was marked by outlandish claims of miracle medicines, began a
period of rapid advancement in the development of medicinal drugs.
During his lifetime, Lilly had advocated for federal regulation on
medicines; his son, Josiah, continued that advocacy following his
Honors and tributes
Eli Lilly Civil War Museum, located beneath the Sailors'
and Soldiers' Monument in Indianapolis, is named in Lilly's honor. It
features exhibits about
Indiana during the war period and the war in
Colonel Lilly is featured in the
Indiana Historical Society
exhibition, "You Are There:
Eli Lilly at the Beginning," at the Eugene
and Marilyn Glick
Indiana History Center in Indianapolis. The
temporary exhibition (October 1, 2016, to January 20, 2018) includes a
recreation of the first Lilly laboratory on Pearl Street in
Indianapolis and a costumed interpreter portraying Lilly.
Eli Lilly and Company
History of Indiana
Indiana in the American Civil War
Notes and references
^ a b Price,
Indiana Legends, p. 58
^ a b c d e f g h i Price,
Indiana Legends, p. 59
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "
Eli Lilly (1838-1898)" (pdf). Lilly
Archives. January 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
^ Kahn, pp. 15–16.
^ a b "On-line biography". Archived from the original on August 15,
2004. Retrieved April 14, 2009.
^ a b c d Madison, p. 1
^ a b c d e Price,
Indiana Legends, p. 60
^ Hallett and Hallett, p. 313
^ a b c d e f g h i Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 911
^ a b c d e f Hallett and Hallett, p. 314
^ Madison, p. 7
^ Terrell, v. II, pp. 197, 208–09
^ a b Terrell, v. III, pp. 226, 231.
^ Dyer, p. 1109
^ Madison, p. 2
^ Price, Legendary Hoosiers, p. 103
^ She was initially buried on the plantation, but her remains were
later exhumed and moved to
Indiana for reburial at Indianapolis's
Crown Hill Cemetery. See Hallett and Hallett, p. 314.
^ a b c d e f g Madison, p. 6
^ Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., pp. 585–86.
^ a b Madison, p. 4
^ a b c d "
Eli Lilly & Company" (PDF).
Indiana Historical Society.
Archived from the original (pdf) on July 29, 2016. Retrieved October
^ a b c d e f Price,
Indiana Legends, p. 57
^ a b Price, Legendary Hoosiers, p. 104
^ Kahn, p. 23
^ Madison, p. 27
^ Podczeck, pp. 12–13
^ Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 540
^ "Milestones in Medical Research".
Eli Lilly and Company. Archived
from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2009.
^ Madison, p. 3
^ a b c d Madison, p. 5
^ Justin Torres. "The
Philanthropy Hall of Fame: Eli Lilly".
Philanthropy Roundtable. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
^ a b c Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 912
^ Glass, p. 16
^ a b c d "
Eli Lilly & Co". The
Indianapolis Star. January 1,
2001. Archived from the original on August 23, 2009. Retrieved April
Indiana Legends, pp. 59–60
^ Rose, p. 50
^ Taylor, Stevens, Ponder, and Brockman, p. 544
^ Wissing, Tobias, Dolan, and Ryder, pp. 69–70
Indiana Legends, pp. 60–61, and Madison, pp. 83, 119–20.
^ "Top 100 U.S. Foundations by Asset Size". Foundation Center.
Retrieved April 10, 2009.
^ "World's Biggest Public Companies". Forbes. Retrieved October 27,
Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company as the 229th largest company in
the world and 152nd in the United States in 2007, with a worth of
$17 billion (USD). See "
Eli Lilly & Company (NYSE: LLY) At A
Glance". Forbes. Retrieved April 8, 2009.
^ Madison, pp. 17–18, 21
^ Madison, pp. 51, 112–115
Eli Lilly Civil War Museum".
Indiana Historical Bureau.
^ "The Man Behind State's Most Successful Startup". Kendallville New
Sun. Kendallville, Indiana: KPC News. September 9, 2016. Retrieved
October 21, 2016. See also Tom Alvarez, ed. (Fall 2016). "Fall
Arts Guide". UNITE Indianapolis. Indianapolis: Joey Amato: 32.
Retrieved October 24, 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Bodenhamer, David J., and Robert G. Barrows, eds. (1994). The
Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana
University Press. ISBN 0-253-31222-1. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Eli Lilly (1838-1898)" (pdf). Lilly Archives. January 2008.
Retrieved October 24, 2016.
Dyer, Frederick H. (1908). A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion:
Compiled and Arranged from Official Records of the Federal and
Confederate Armies, Reports of the Adjutant Generals of the Several
States, the Army Registers, and Other Reliable Documents and Sources.
Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Company. p. 1109.
Glass, James A.; Kohrman, David (2005). The Gas Boom of East Central
Indiana. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing.
Hallett, Anthony; Dianne Hallett (1997). Entrepreneur Magazine
Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurs. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Kahn, E. J. (1975). All In A Century: The First 100 Years of Eli Lilly
and Company. West Cornwall, CT. pp. 15–16.
Madison, James H (1989). Eli Lilly: A Life, 1885–1977. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Society. ISBN 0-87195-047-2.
Podczeck, Fridrun; Jones, Brian E (2004).
Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 0-85369-568-7.
Price, Nelson (1997).
Indiana Legends: Famous Hoosiers From Johnny
Appleseed to David Letterman. Carmel, Indiana: Guild Press of Indiana.
pp. 57–61. ISBN 1-57860-006-5.
Price, Nelson (2001). Legendary Hoosiers: Famous Folks from the State
of Indiana. Zionsville, Indiana: Guild Press of Indiana.
Rose, Ernestine Bradford (1971). The Circle: The Center of
Indianapolis. Indianapolis: Crippin Printing Corporation.
Taylor Jr.; Robert M.; Errol Wayne Stevens; Mary Ann Ponder; Paul
Brockman (1989). Indiana: A New Historical Guide. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Society. p. 544.
Terrell, William H. H. (1869).
Indiana in the War of the Rebellion:
Report of the Adjutant
General of the State of Indiana. II.
Indianapolis: State of Indiana, Office of the Adjutant General.
pp. 197, 208–09.
Wissing, Douglas A.; Marianne Tobias; Rebecca W. Dolan; Anne Ryder
(2013). Crown Hill: History, Spirit, and Sanctuary. Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Society Press. pp. 69–70.
"World's Biggest Public Companies". Forbes. Retrieved October 27,
"On-line biography". Archived from the original on 2004-08-15.
Eli Lilly & co. website". Retrieved 2009-04-14.
Ivcevich, Kelly A. "Lilly Endowment". Community League. Retrieved
Founder and President of the
Eli Lilly and Company
Josiah K. Lilly, Sr.
American Civil War
American Civil War portal