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Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
(pronounced /ˈkeɪɡən/; born April 28, 1960)[2] is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She is the Court's fourth female justice. Kagan was born and raised in New York City. After attending Princeton, Oxford, and Harvard Law School, she completed federal Court of Appeals and Supreme Court clerkships. She began her career as a professor at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Law School, leaving to serve as Associate White House
White House
Counsel, and later as policy adviser, under President Clinton. After a nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, which expired without action, she became a professor at Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
and was later named its first female dean. In 2009, Kagan became the first female Solicitor General of the United States. On May 10, 2010, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the vacancy arising from the impending retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, and she resigned her position as Solicitor General in August 2010 upon her confirmation to the Supreme Court.[3] After confirmation, Kagan was sworn in on August 7, 2010, by Chief Justice John G. Roberts
John G. Roberts
in a private ceremony. Kagan's formal investiture ceremony before a special sitting of the United States Supreme Court took place on October 1, 2010.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education 3 Early career 4 White House
White House
and judicial nomination 5 Return to academia 6 Solicitor General 7 Supreme Court

7.1 Nomination 7.2 Confirmation Hearings 7.3 Tenure as Justice 7.4 Voting Relationships 7.5 Judicial Prose

8 Recognition 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Early life[edit] Kagan was born on the Upper West Side
Upper West Side
of Manhattan, the middle of three children. Her father, Robert Kagan, was an attorney, and her mother, Gloria (Gittelman) Kagan, taught at Hunter College Elementary School.[5][6] Kagan has two brothers who are public school teachers.[7] Kagan and her family lived in a third-floor apartment at West End Avenue and 75th Street[8] and attended Lincoln Square Synagogue.[1] Kagan was independent and strong-willed in her youth and, according to a former law partner, clashed with her Orthodox rabbi over aspects of her bat mitzvah.[8] "She had strong opinions about what a bat mitzvah should be like, which didn't parallel the wishes of the rabbi," said her former colleague. "But they finally worked it out. She negotiated with the rabbi and came to a conclusion that satisfied everybody." Kagan's rabbi, Shlomo Riskin, had never performed a ritual bat mitzvah before.[1] " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
felt very strongly that there should be ritual bat mitzvah in the synagogue, no less important than the ritual bar mitzvah. This was really the first formal bat mitzvah we had," said Riskin. Kagan asked to read from the Torah
Torah
on a Saturday morning but ultimately read on a Friday night, May 18, 1973, from the Book of Ruth.[1] Today, she identifies with Conservative Judaism.[1] Childhood friend Margaret Raymond recalled that Kagan was a teenage smoker but not a partier. On Saturday nights, she and Kagan "were more apt to sit on the steps of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
and talk."[8] Kagan also loved literature and re-read Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice every year.[8] In her Hunter College High School yearbook of 1977, Kagan was pictured in a judge's robe and holding a gavel.[9] Next to her photo was a quote from former Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter: "Government is itself an art, one of the subtlest of arts."[10] Education[edit] Kagan attended Hunter College High School
Hunter College High School
where her mother still taught classes. The school had a reputation as one of the most elite learning institutions for high school girls and it attracted students from all over the city and from a wide range of backgrounds. Kagan managed to emerge as one of the school's more outstanding students. She pursued coursework that centered on legal and constitutional issues. [11] While attending Hunter, she became involved as president of the student government and she was also appointed to serve on a faculty committee. [12] After graduating from high school, Kagan attended Princeton University, where she earned an A.B., summa cum laude in history in 1981. Among the subjects she studied was the socialist movement in New York City in the early 20th century. She wrote a senior thesis under historian Sean Wilentz titled "To the Final Conflict: Socialism in New York City, 1900–1933". In it she wrote, "Through its own internal feuding, then, the SP [Socialist Party] exhausted itself forever. The story is a sad but also a chastening one for those who, more than half a century after socialism's decline, still wish to change America."[13] Wilentz insists that she did not mean to defend socialism, noting that she "Was interested in it. To study something is not to endorse it."[14] Wilentz called Kagan "one of the foremost legal minds in the country, she is still the witty, engaging, down-to-earth person I proudly remember from her undergraduate days."[15] As an undergraduate, Kagan also served as editorial chair of The Daily Princetonian. Along with eight other students (including Eliot Spitzer, who was student body president at the time), Kagan penned the Declaration of the Campaign for a Democratic University, which called for "a fundamental restructuring of university governance" and condemned Princeton's administration for making decisions "behind closed doors".[16] Despite the liberal tone of the editorials in The Daily Princetonian, Kagan was politically restrained in her dealings with fellow reporters. Steven Bernstein, Kagan's colleague on The Daily Princetonian "can not recall a time in which Kagan expressed her political views. Bernstein would describes Kagan's political stances as "sort of liberal, democratic, progressive tradition, and everything with lower case." [17]

Kagan graduates from Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
in 1986.

In 1980, Kagan received Princeton's Daniel M. Sachs Class of 1960 Graduating Scholarship,[18] one of the highest general awards conferred by the university, which enabled her to study at Worcester College, Oxford. As part of her graduation requirement, Kagan wrote a thesis on "The Development and Erosion of the American Exclusionary Rule: A Study in Judicial Method." This thesis presented a critical look at the idea of exclusionary rule and its evolution on the Supreme Court in particular the Warren Court. [19] With this as her thesis, Kagan tackled one of the most important and valued legal precepts in American law. She earned a Master of Philosophy in Politics at Oxford in 1983.[20] At 23, she entered Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
in 1983. Her adjustment to the atmosphere of Harvard was rocky, she received the worst grades of her entire law school career in her first semester. Kagan would go on to earn 17 As out of the 21 courses she took at Harvard. [21] She was also immersed in the law as a summer associate in the law offices of Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson, a Park Avenue firm in New York, where she worked in the litigation department. [22] She received a Juris Doctor, magna cum laude, at Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
in 1986, where she was supervisory editor of the Harvard Law Review. Friend Jeffrey Toobin recalled that Kagan "stood out from the start as one with a formidable mind. She's good with people. At the time, the law school was a politically charged and divided place. She navigated the factions with ease, and won the respect of everyone."[23] Early career[edit] Kagan was a law clerk for Judge Abner J. Mikva
Abner J. Mikva
of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 1987. She emerged as one of Mikva's favorite clerks; he called Kagan "the pick of the litter." [24] She also clerked for Justice Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
of the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
in 1988 ending the clerkship at the end of the year. Justice Marshall hired Kagan to help him put the spark back in his legal decisions because the court was undergoing a shift to the more conservative Rehnquist Court, which began in 1986. [25] Marshall nicknamed the 5 foot 3 inch Kagan "Shorty".[8] She later entered private practice as an associate at the Washington, D.C., law firm of Williams & Connolly.[2] As a junior associate, Kagan drafted briefs and conducted discovery, which meant looking at evidence in preparation for trial. [26] She also argued several cases before judges. During her short time at Williams & Connolly, she handled five lawsuits that involved First Amendment or media law issues and libel issues. [27] Kagan joined the faculty of the University of Chicago Law School
University of Chicago Law School
as an assistant professor in 1991 and became a tenured professor of law in 1995.[28] While at the University of Chicago, she published a law review article on the regulation of First Amendment hate speech in the wake of the Supreme Court's ruling in R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul;[29] an article discussing the significance of governmental motive in regulating speech;[30] and a review of a book by Stephen L. Carter discussing the judicial confirmation process.[31] In the first article, which became highly influential, Kagan argued that the Supreme Court should examine governmental motives when deciding First Amendment cases and analyzed historic draft-card burning and flag burning cases in light of free speech arguments.[32] In 1993, Senator Joe Biden appointed Kagan as a special counsel for the Senate Judiciary Committee. During this time, she worked on Ruth Bader Ginsberg's Supreme Court confirmation hearings. [33] According to her colleagues, Kagan's students complimented and admired her from the beginning, and she was granted tenure "despite the reservations of some colleagues who thought she had not published enough."[34] White House
White House
and judicial nomination[edit] Kagan served as Associate White House Counsel
White House Counsel
for Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
from 1995–1996, when her mentor Judge Mikva served as White House Counsel. Kagan worked on controversial issues that plagued the Clinton White House
White House
such as the Whitewater controversy, White House
White House
travel office controversy, and Clinton v. Jones. [35] From 1997–1999 she worked as Deputy Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy and Deputy Director of the Domestic Policy Council. Kagan worked on topics like budget appropriations, campaign finance reform, and social welfare issues. Her work is cataloged in the Clinton Library.[36] Kagan co-authored a 1997 memo urging Clinton to support a ban on late-term abortions: "We recommend that you endorse the Daschle amendment in order to sustain your credibility on HR 1122 and prevent Congress from overriding your veto."[37] On June 17, 1999, Clinton nominated Kagan to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, to replace James L. Buckley, who had taken senior status in 1996. The Senate Judiciary Committee's Republican Chairman Orrin Hatch
Orrin Hatch
scheduled no hearing, effectively ending her nomination. When Clinton's term ended, her nomination to the D.C. Circuit Court lapsed, as did the nomination of fellow Clinton nominee Allen Snyder.[38] Return to academia[edit] After her service in the White House
White House
and her lapsed judicial nomination, Kagan returned to academia in 1999. She initially sought to return to the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Law School. However, she had given up her tenured position during her extended stint in the Clinton Administration. Thus, she needed to be rehired and the school chose not to do so; reportedly due to doubts about her commitment to academia.[39] Kagan quickly found a position as a visiting professor at Harvard Law School. While at Harvard, she authored a law review article on United States administrative law, including the role of aiding the President of the United States
President of the United States
in formulating and influencing federal administrative and regulatory law, which was honored as the year's top scholarly article by the American Bar Association's Section on Administrative Law and Regulatory Practice, and is being developed into a book to be published by Harvard University Press.[40]

Kagan as Dean of Harvard Law School

In 2001, she was named a full professor and in 2003 was named Dean of the Law School by Harvard University
Harvard University
President Lawrence Summers.[41] She succeeded Robert C. Clark, who had served as dean for over a decade. The focus of her tenure was on improving student satisfaction. Efforts included constructing new facilities and reforming the first-year curriculum as well as aesthetic changes and creature comforts, such as free morning coffee. She has been credited for employing a consensus-building leadership style, which surmounted the school's previous ideological discord.[42][43][44]

Kagan's official portrait as Dean of Harvard Law School

In her capacity as dean, Kagan inherited a $400 million capital campaign, "Setting the Standard", in 2003. It ended in 2008 with a record breaking $476 million raised, 19% more than the original goal.[45] Kagan made a number of prominent new hires, increasing the size of the faculty considerably. Her coups included hiring legal scholar Cass Sunstein
Cass Sunstein
away from the University of Chicago[46] and Lawrence Lessig
Lawrence Lessig
away from Stanford.[47] She also broke a logjam on conservative hires by bringing in scholars such as Jack Goldsmith, who had been serving in the Bush administration.[43] According to Kevin Washburn, then-dean of the University of New Mexico School of Law, Kagan transformed Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
from a harsh environment for students to one that was much more student-centric.[48] During her deanship, Kagan upheld a decades-old policy barring military recruiters from the Office of Career Services because she felt that the military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy discriminated against gays and lesbians. According to Campus Progress,

As dean, Kagan supported a lawsuit intended to overturn the Solomon Amendment so military recruiters might be banned from the grounds of schools like Harvard. When a federal appeals court ruled The Pentagon could not withhold funds, she banned the military from Harvard's campus once again. The case was challenged in the Supreme Court, which ruled the military could indeed require schools to allow recruiters if they wanted to receive federal money. Kagan, though she allowed the military back, simultaneously urged students to demonstrate against Don't Ask, Don't Tell.[49][50]

In October 2003, Kagan sent an e-mail to students and faculty deploring that military recruiters had shown up on campus in violation of the school's anti-discrimination policy. It read, "This action causes me deep distress. I abhor the military's discriminatory recruitment policy." She also wrote that it was "a profound wrong—a moral injustice of the first order."[51] From 2005 through 2008, Kagan was a member of the Research Advisory Council of the Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
Global Markets Institute and received a $10,000 stipend for her service in 2008.[52] By early 2007, Kagan was a finalist for the presidency of Harvard University as a whole after Lawrence Summers' resignation the previous year, but lost out to Drew Gilpin Faust. She was reportedly disappointed not to be chosen, and supportive law school students threw her a party to express their appreciation for her leadership.[53] Solicitor General[edit] On January 5, 2009, President-elect Barack Obama
Barack Obama
announced he would nominate Kagan to be Solicitor General.[54][55] Upon taking office, Kagan pledged to defend any statute as long as there is a colorable argument to be made, even though she might not personally agree with the policy she was obligated to defend. [56] Before this appointment she had never argued a case before any court.[57] At least two previous solicitors general, Robert Bork
Robert Bork
and Kenneth Starr, also had no previous Supreme Court appearances, though Starr was a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit before becoming Solicitor General.[58] The two main issues senators had with Kagan during confirmation hearings were: 1. Would Kagan defend statutes that she personally opposed, and 2. if she was qualified to hold the position of solicitor general given her lack of courtroom experience. [59] Kagan was confirmed by the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
on March 19, 2009, by a vote of 61 to 31,[60] becoming the first woman to hold the position. She made her first appearance before the Supreme Court on September 9, 2009, in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
in which she asked the Supreme Court to uphold a 1990 precedent that the government could restrict corporations from using their treasuries to campaign for or against political candidates.[61] </ref> [62] The Supreme Court reversed laws on how much corporations could spend on elections, a major defeat for the Obama administration. During her 15 months as solicitor general, Kagan argued only six cases before the Supreme Court. [63] She helped win four cases: Salazar v. Buono, United States v. Comstock, and Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, Free Enterprise Fund v. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. [64] Another case she argued as solicitor general was Robertson v. United States ex rel. Watson which was decided by a per curiam opinion. [65] The First Amendment Center and the Cato Institute
Cato Institute
later expressed concern over arguments Kagan advanced as a part of her role as Solicitor General. For example, during her time as Solicitor General, Kagan prepared a brief defending a law later ruled unconstitutional that criminalized depictions of animal cruelty.[66][67] During her confirmation hearing, she said that "there is no federal constitutional right to same-sex marriage." Also during her confirmation hearing, she was asked about the Defense of Marriage Act, pursuant to which states were not required to recognize same-sex marriages originating in other states. Kagan indicated that she would defend the act "if there is any reasonable basis to do so".[68] Supreme Court[edit] Nomination[edit]

Play media

Obama nominates Kagan.

Main article: Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
Supreme Court nomination For the Senate's roll call vote on confirmation, see Elena Kagan Supreme Court nomination § Full Senate. Prior to the election of President Barack Obama, Kagan was the subject of media speculation regarding her potential to be nominated to the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
if a Democratic president were elected in 2008.[69][70][71][72][73] This speculation increased after the retirement announcement of Associate Justice David H. Souter, effective at the start of the Court's summer 2009 recess.[74] Upon the death of Justice Antonin Scalia
Antonin Scalia
in 2016, CNN political commentator and former senior advisor to Obama David Axelrod
David Axelrod
reported that Scalia had personally recommended Kagan as an adequate replacement for Souter upon Souter's retirement.[75] It was speculated that her position as Solicitor General would increase Kagan's chances for nomination, since Solicitors General have been considered potential nominees to the Supreme Court in the past. On May 13, 2009, the Associated Press
Associated Press
reported that Obama was considering Kagan, among others, for possible appointment to the United States Supreme Court.[76] On May 26, 2009, however, Obama announced that he was nominating Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Sotomayor
to the post.[77]

Kagan meets with Obama in the Oval Office, April 2010.

On April 9, 2010, Justice John Paul Stevens
John Paul Stevens
announced that he would retire at the start of the Court's summer 2010 recess, triggering new speculation about Kagan's potential nomination to the bench.[78] In a Fresh Dialogues interview, Jeffrey Toobin, a Supreme Court analyst and Kagan's friend and law school classmate,[79] speculated that Kagan would likely be President Obama's nominee, describing her as "very much an Obama type person, a moderate Democrat, a consensus builder."[80] This possibility alarmed many liberals and progressives, who worried that "replacing Stevens with Kagan risks moving the Court to the right, perhaps substantially to the right."[81] While Kagan's name was mentioned as a possible replacement for Justice Stevens, the New York Times noted that she "has supported assertions of executive power."[82] This view of vast executive power has caused some commentators to fear that she would reverse the majority in favor of protecting civil liberties on the Supreme Court were she to replace Stevens.[83] On May 10, 2010, Obama nominated Kagan to the Supreme Court to fill the vacancy left by Justice Stevens.[84] The deans of over one-third of the country's law schools, sixty-nine people in total, endorsed Kagan's nomination in an open letter in early June. It lauded what it considered her coalition-building skills and "understanding of both doctrine and policy" as well as her written record of legal analysis.[85]

Kagan, Obama, and Roberts before her investiture ceremony

Confirmation Hearings[edit] The confirmation hearings began June 28. Kagan's testimony and her answers to the Senate Judiciary Committee's questions on July 20 were uneventful, containing no new revelations about her character or background. Arlen Specter
Arlen Specter
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
cited an article Kagan had published in the Chicago Law Review in 1995, criticizing the evasiveness of Supreme Court nominees in their hearings.[86] Kagan, noted Specter, was now practicing that very evasiveness.[87] On July 20, 2010, the Senate Judiciary Committee
Senate Judiciary Committee
voted 13–6 to recommend Kagan's confirmation to the full Senate. On August 5 the full Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 63–37.[88] The voting was largely on party lines, with five Republicans (Richard Lugar, Judd Gregg, Lindsey Graham, Susan Collins, and Olympia Snowe) supporting her and one Democrat (Ben Nelson) opposing. The Senate's two independents voted in favor of confirmation. She was sworn in by Chief Justice John Roberts
John Roberts
on Saturday August 7, in a private ceremony.[4][89] Kagan is the first justice appointed without any prior experience as a judge since William Rehnquist
William Rehnquist
in 1972.[90][91][92] She is the fourth female justice in the Court's history (and, for the first time, part of a Court with three female justices) and the eighth Jewish justice,[93] making three of the nine current justices Jewish. Tenure as Justice[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2016)

Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
with Jeanne Shaheen

Kagan's first opinion, Ransom v. FIA Card Services, was filed on January 11, 2011. In an 8–1 decision, Kagan found that an individual declaring bankruptcy could not count expenses for a car he had paid off in his "applicable monthly expenses".[94][95] Kagan's opinion in Kimble v. Marvel Entertainment, LLC
Kimble v. Marvel Entertainment, LLC
was decided on June 22, 2015. In the 6-3 decision in favor of Marvel, Kagan held that a patentee cannot receive royalties after the patent has expired. [96] The opinion written by Kagan included several references to Spider-Man. [97] In 2015, Kagan continued to make history when she sided with two landmark Supreme Court rulings. She was one of six justices to uphold Obamacare in King v. Burwell. Kagan also joined the majority in Obergfell v. Hodges
Obergfell v. Hodges
that made same sex marriage legal in all 50 states. [98] Having acted as Solicitor General before her nomination to the Supreme Court, Kagan had numerous conflicts of interests during her first year on the court. Between October and June 2011, she had to recuse herself from 28 out of the 78 cases heard.[99] More recently, Kagan recused from the immigrant-detention case Jennings v. Rodriguez in 2017 because she authorized a filing in the case when she was Solicitor General.[100] Voting Relationships[edit] During the 2017-2018 term, Kagan has voted 100% in agreement with Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Sonia Sotomayor, and Stephen Breyer. She agreed with Chief Justice John Roberts
John Roberts
81.25% of the time, with Justice Neil Gorsuch
Neil Gorsuch
75% of the time, and with Justices Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito
Samuel Alito
68.75% of the time. [101] Judicial Prose[edit] Kagan's writing style has been characterized as conversational, employing a range of rhetorical strategies to engage the reader.[102] She has said that she approaches writing on the court like she used to approach the classroom with numerous strategies of engagement between author and reader.[103] Her opinions employ examples and analogies to make it more understandable to a broad audience. Recognition[edit] In 2013, a painting featuring Kagan, Sonia Sotomayor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor
was unveiled at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C. According to the Smithsonian at the time, the painting was on loan to the museum for three years.[104] See also[edit]

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Supreme Court candidates Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
judicial appointment controversies Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e "Growing Up, Kagan Tested Boundaries of Her Faith." The New York Times. May 12 2010. May 19 2010. ^ a b Who's Who In America (2008). " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
– WhosWhoInAmerica.Com". Marquis. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2009.  ^ https://www.justice.gov/osg/bio/elena-kagan ^ a b Julie Hirschfeld Davis (August 5, 2010). "Senate Kagan sworn in as Supreme Court justice: She won't be formally installed as a justice until Oct. 1". Associated Press. Retrieved August 7, 2010.  ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths Kagan, Gloria Gittelman". The New York Times, July 13, 2008. ^ "Robert Kagan, 67, Lawyer for Tenants". The New York Times, July 25, 1994. ^ "Kagan's remarks on her Supreme Court nomination". Associated Press, May 10, 2010. ^ a b c d e Sheryl Gay Stolberg; Katharine Q. Seelye; Lisa W. Foderaro (May 10, 2010). "A Climb Marked by Confidence and Canniness". The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2010.  ^ "Pals from student days remember a determined Elena Kagan". CNN. May 11, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ " Manhattan
Manhattan
Renders Its Verdict on Court Pick". Fordham Law Newsroom. May 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2011.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 23.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. 25: Greenwood Biographies.  ^ Brad DeLong (May 17, 2010). "Elena Kagan's Undergraduate Thesis – Grasping Reality with Both Hands". Delong.typepad.com. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Seelye, Katharine Q; Lisa W. Foderaro; Sheryl Gay Stolberg (May 10, 2010). "A Climb Marked by Confidence and Canniness". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2010.  ^ Cliatt, Cass (May 10, 2010). "Princeton alumna Kagan nominated to Supreme Court". Princeton University. Retrieved May 10, 2010.  ^ Romano, Andrew (May 19, 2010). "Elena Kagan: Cub Reporter". Newsweek. Retrieved May 19, 2010.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 39.  ^ Fellowship in memory of Rhodes Scholar
Rhodes Scholar
from Princeton, Daniel M. Sachs. See http://www.princeton.edu/oip/fellowships/major-awards/sachs/ http://dwkcommentaries.com/tag/rhodes-scholarship/ Other notable Sachs Scholars include Anne-Marie Slaughter
Anne-Marie Slaughter
and Christine Whelan. ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 46.  ^ "Kagan '81 nominated for U.S. solicitor general", Daily Princetonian, December 12, 2008. ^ Kagan, Elena (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 52.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 53.  ^ "Elena Kagan's Nomination". The New Yorker. May 10, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 56.  ^ Greene, Meg. Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 63.  ^ Greene, Meg. Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 77.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 78.  ^ Sweet, Lynn (November 20, 2007). " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
played Chicago-style 16-inch softball at U of Chicago". Chicago Sun Times Blogs. Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2010.  ^ The Changing Face of First Amendment Neutrality: R.A.V. v. St. Paul, Rust v. Sullivan and the Problem of Content-Based Underinclusion, The Supreme Court Review, Vol. 1992 pp. 29-77 (1992) ^ Private Speech, Public Purpose: The Role of Governmental Motive in First Amendment Doctrine, 63 U.Chicago L.Rev. Vol.63, No.2 (Spring 1996) pp. 413-517 ^ Review of The Confirmation Mess, U.Chicago L.Rev. Vol. 62 (Spring 1995) pp. 919-942 ^ http://www.scotusblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Private-Speech-Public-Purpose.pdf ^ " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ Seelye, Katharine Q; Lisa W. Foderaro; Sheryl Gay Stolberg (May 10, 2010). "A Climb Marked by Confidence and Canniness". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2010.  ^ Meg, Greene. Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 94.  ^ Main page, Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
Collection Archived December 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Clinton Library, accessed July 22, 2013. ^ Jill Zeman Bleed, Kagan in '97 urged Clinton to ban late abortions, MSNBC
MSNBC
(May 10, 2010). ^ Savage, David G. (September 27, 2002). "Little Light Shed on Bush Judicial Pick". Los Angeles Times. p. A-18. Retrieved January 5, 2009. The post Estrada hopes to fill is vacant because Republicans blocked action on two Clinton picks for the court: Washington attorney Allen Snyder and Harvard law professor Elena Kagan.  ^ Sweet, Lynn (May 11, 2010). "Kagan's Chicago ties :: Chicago Sun-Times :: 44: Barack Obama". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
law articles not so easy to count". @politifact.  ^ Berman, Russell (August 21, 2008). "Summers Manages Low Profile While Advising Senator Obama; Some Women Warn Democrat About Former Harvard President". New York Sun. Retrieved January 5, 2009.  ^ Saltzman, Jonathan; Jan, Tracy (April 15, 2010). "At Harvard, dean eased faculty strife". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 13, 2010.  ^ a b Woolhouse, Megan (January 4, 2009). "Kagan, possible Obama pick, thawed Harvard Law". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 13, 2010.  ^ " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
and the Miracle at Harvard". Social Science Research Network. June 28, 2010. SSRN 1631496 .  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ " Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
Celebrates Record-setting Capital Campaign". Harvard Law School. October 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009. Harvard Law School's "Setting the Standard" campaign has raised $476,475,707, making it the most successful fund-raising drive in the history of legal education.  ^ Woolhouse, Megan (January 4, 2009). "She's thawed Harvard Law". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 10, 2010.  ^ "The Harvard Law Record – Lessig rejoining faculty". Hlrecord.org. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2010.  ^ Washburn, Kevin K. (July 26, 2010). " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
and the Miracle at Harvard". University of New Mexico School of Law
University of New Mexico School of Law
Legal Studies Research Paper Series. SSRN. SSRN 1631496 .  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Matthews, Dylan (May 5, 2009). "A More Gay Friendly Supreme Court". Campus Progress. Retrieved April 16, 2010.  ^ Totenberg, Nina (December 22, 2009). "Solicitor General Kagan Holds Views Close To Her Chest". NPR. Retrieved December 22, 2009.  ^ Goldstein, Amy (April 18, 2010). "Foes may target Kagan's stance on military recruitment at Harvard". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Kelley, Matt (April 27, 2010). "Possible Supreme Court pick had ties with Goldman Sachs". USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2010.  ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl (May 25, 2010). "At Harvard, Kagan Aimed Sights Higher". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^ "More Obama Justice Dept Picks Announced". CNN. January 5, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ "Obama names Jewish woman as solicitor general". JTA. January 6, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2010.  ^ Greene, Meg. Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 126.  ^ Totenberg, Nina (May 9, 2010), Seen As Rising Star, Kagan Has Limited Paper Trail, NPR, retrieved August 5, 2010  ^ Healey, Jon (March 26, 2009). " Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
and the GOP's perilous partisanship". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ Greene, Meg. Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 126.  ^ "On the Nomination (Confirmation Elena Kagan, of Massachusetts, to be Solicitor General)". United States Senate. March 19, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2009.  ^ Mauro, Tony (September 9, 2009). "Supreme Court Majority Critical of Campaign Law Precedents". The Blog of LegalTimes. Retrieved November 28, 2009.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 131.  ^ Greene, Meg (2014). Elena Kagan: A Biography. Greenwood Biographies. p. 136.  ^ "Elena Kagan". Oyez. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ "Robertson v. United States ex rel Watson". Oyez. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ David L. Hudson Jr. (May 10, 2010). "Kagan's First Amendment record causes concern". First Amendment Center. [permanent dead link] ^ Ilya Shapiro (May 10, 2010). "Initial Kagan Critiques Miss the (First Amendment) Point". Cato Institute.  ^ Lee, Carol E. (May 12, 2010). "Gay rights central to Elena Kagan fight". Politico.  ^ "As Harvard Seeks a President, Dean Kagan's Star Is Rising – March 10, 2006 – The New York Sun". Nysun.com. March 10, 2006. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ McGough, Michael (August 9, 2004). "Campaign 2004: Election likely to alter make-up of Supreme Court". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ "The Democratic (Not So) Short List". SCOTUSblog. July 12, 2007. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ "Follow-Up to the Democratic (Not So) Short List". SCOTUSblog. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ "Dems sketch Obama staff, Cabinet – Mike Allen". Politico.com. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ Souter, David H. (May 1, 2009). " David H. Souter
David H. Souter
Letter to President Obama, May 1, 2009" (PDF). The New York Times.  ^ Axelrod, David. "David Axelrod: A surprise request from Justice Scalia – CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2016-02-16.  ^ "AP source: Obama has more than 6 people for court". Archived from the original on May 30, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009.  ^ Totenberg, Nina (April 30, 2009). "Supreme Court Justice Souter to Retire". NPR. Retrieved April 30, 2009.  ^ "Justice Stevens Says He Is Retiring This Summer". The New York Times. April 9, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010. [dead link] ^ Rothstein, Betsy (May 10, 2010) NBC Breaks Kagan News When Toobin Could Have Called Archived May 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Mediabistro.com ^ Fresh Dialogues Interview Series with Alison van Diggelen on YouTube, April 9, 2010. ^ Glenn Greenwald
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(April 13, 2010) The case against Elena Kagan, Salon ^ Possible Candidates, The New York Times
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(April 9, 2010) ^ Glenn Greenwald, Justice Stevens' retirement and Elena Kagan, Salon (April 9, 2010) ^ " Elena Kagan
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Elena Kagan
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Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ " Elena Kagan
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Biography". Biography. Retrieved 7 March 2018.  ^ Fitzpatrick, Olivia. "When do Supreme Court Justices Recuse Themselves from Cases?". Constitution Center. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ Wickham, Allissa. Law 360 https://www.law360.com/articles/984302/justice-kagan-steps-back-from-immigrant-detention-case. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Scotus Blog http://www.scotusblog.com/statistics/. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Krugman Ray, Laura (2014). "Doctrinal Conversation: Justice Kagan's Supreme Court Opinions". Indiana Law Journal. 89 (5). Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ "Interview with Dean Wendy Purdue, University of Richmond School of Law". C-Span. Retrieved 4 April 2018.  ^ Reilly, Mollie (October 28, 2013). "The Women Of The Supreme Court Now Have The Badass Portrait They Deserve". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2015. 

References[edit]

Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutElena Kaganat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote

Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
at Ballotpedia Issue positions and quotes at OnTheIssues Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
Through the Years – slideshow by ABC News Appearances on C-SPAN Supreme Court Associate Justice Nomination Hearing on Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
in July 2010 United States Government Publishing Office

Academic offices

Preceded by Robert C. Clark Dean of Harvard Law School 2003–2009 Succeeded by Martha Minow

Legal offices

Preceded by Edwin Kneedler Acting Solicitor General of the United States 2009–2010 Succeeded by Neal Katyal Acting

Preceded by John Paul Stevens Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 2010–present Incumbent

Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)

Preceded by Sonia Sotomayor as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Order of Precedence of the United States as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Succeeded by Neil Gorsuch as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court

v t e

United States Solicitors General

Bristow Phillips Goode Jenks Chapman Taft Aldrich Maxwell Conrad Richards Hoyt Bowers Lehmann Bullitt Davis King Frierson Beck Mitchell Hughes Thacher Biggs Reed Jackson Biddle Fahy McGrath Perlman Cummings Sobeloff Rankin Cox Marshall Griswold Bork McCree Lee Fried Starr Days Dellinger Waxman Underwood Olson Clement Garre Kneedler Kagan Katyal Verrilli Gershengorn Francisco Wall Francisco

Acting officeholders shown in italics

v t e

Judicial opinions of Elena Kagan

Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
(August 7, 2010 - present); by term

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

v t e

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts

Seat 1

J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy

Seat 2

Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer

Seat 3

Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor

Seat 4

Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan

Seat 5

Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne

Seat 6

Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg

Seat 7

Catron

Seat 8

McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito

Seat 9

Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch

Seat 10

Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas

Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct

  Supreme Court of the United States

The Roberts Court

Chief Justice: John Roberts
John Roberts
(2005–present)

2010–2016:

A. Scalia A. Kennedy C. Thomas R. B. Ginsburg S. Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan

2017–present:

A. Kennedy C. Thomas R. B. Ginsburg S. Breyer S. Alito S. Sotomayor E. Kagan N. Gorsuch

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61128699 LCCN: no95027

.