Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) is an American manufacturer of
diesel-electric locomotives, locomotive products and diesel engines
for the rail industry. The company is owned by Caterpillar through its
Progress Rail Services.
Electro-Motive Diesel traces its roots to the Electro-Motive
Engineering Corporation, a designer and marketer of gasoline-electric
self-propelled rail cars founded in 1922 and later renamed
Electro-Motive Company (EMC). In 1930,
General Motors purchased
Electro-Motive Company and the Winton Engine Co., combining the two to
form its Electro-Motive Division (EMD) in 1941.
In 2005, GM sold EMD to Greenbriar Equity Group and Berkshire
Partners, which formed
Electro-Motive Diesel to facilitate the
purchase. In 2010,
Progress Rail Services
Progress Rail Services completed the purchase of
Electro-Motive Diesel from Greenbriar, Berkshire, and others.
EMD's headquarters, engineering facilities and parts manufacturing
operations are based in McCook, Illinois,[note 1] while its final
locomotive assembly line is located in Muncie, Indiana. EMD also
operates a traction motor maintenance, rebuild and overhaul facility
in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
As of 2008, EMD employed approximately 3,260 people, and in 2010 it
held approximately 30 percent of the market for diesel-electric
locomotives in North America.
1.1 Early years
2 Manufacturing and assembly facilities
2.1 EMD La Grange (McCook)
2.2 EMD London
2.3 EMD San Luis Potosí
2.4 EMD Muncie
2.5 Subcontractors and licensees
3 Maintenance and support facilities
4.2 Stationary and marine engines
4.2.1 EMD 'pancake' diesels
4.2.2 Yard Slug
5 Reporting marks
6 See also
8 External links
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Harold L. Hamilton and Paul Turner founded the Electro-Motive
Engineering Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1922, soon renaming it
to Electro-Motive Company (EMC). The company developed and
marketed self-propelled railcars using General Electric's newly
developed internal combustion-electric propulsion and control systems.
Hamilton started his railroading career as a fireman, then locomotive
engineer, on the Southern Pacific Railroad, then became a manager with
the Florida East Coast Railway. On leaving railroading for an
automotive marketing position in Denver, Hamilton, aware of recent
developments in electric propulsion, the technology of heavy vehicles,
and the needs of branch line services of railroads, recognized the
opportunities for internal combustion power with railroading.
Financing himself, he quit his truck sales position and set up shop in
a hotel with his partner and a designer. In 1923 EMC sold two
gasoline-powered rail motor cars, one to the Chicago Great Western and
the other to the Northern Pacific. EMC subcontracted the body
construction to St. Louis Car Company, electrical components to
General Electric, and the prime mover to Winton Engine Company. The
motorcars were delivered in 1924 and worked well, fortunate for the
fledgling company, because the sales were conditional on satisfactory
performance. In 1925, EMC entered full-scale production, selling 27
General Motors (GM) was seeking to improve their Diesel
technology and broaden its range of applications. They purchased the
Winton Engine Company who, in addition to their Diesel products, sold
Diesel engines for EMC-developed rail motorcars. The combined
resources of GM and their new Winton subsidiary were focused on
Diesel engines with improved power-to-weight ratios and
output flexibility suitable for mobile use. GM saw EMC's role in
marketing and applications development as fitting their objectives and
purchased the company shortly after the Winton acquisition, renaming
it Electro-Motive Corporation (EMC). In 1933 EMC designed the power
setups for the Zephyr and
M-10000 streamliners, a breakthrough in the
power and speed available with their propulsion systems. The Zephyr
used the first major product of the new GM-Winton venture, the
600 hp Winton 201A
2-stroke Diesel engine.
Encouraged by the success of the new custom streamliners, EMC invested
in a new locomotive factory and started development work on the
locomotives that it would produce. The new headquarters on
55th Street in McCook, Illinois, west of Chicago, remains the
corporate headquarters.[note 1] The 1935
EMC 1800 hp B-B
EMC 1800 hp B-B boxcab
development design locomotives featured the multiple-unit control
systems that became the basis of cab/booster locomotive sets, and the
twin 900 hp Winton
Diesel engine power unit format that would be
adopted for the Budd-built Zephyr power units in 1936 and EMC's E
series streamlined passenger locomotives that the new factory began
producing in 1937. Prior to their introduction of the E units EMC was
in production of switch engines, which remained the mainstay of their
Dieselization of freight and passenger service hit
full stride in the mid-1940s.
In 1938 EMC started production of locomotives using GM's new 567
engine, which upgraded the horsepower of the E series locomotives to
2000 per locomotive unit and increased reliability. The 567, named for
its displacement-per-cylinder of 567.45 in³ (bore 8½ inches,
stroke 10 inches), was a two-cycle (or two-stroke) Roots-blown,
Uniflow-scavenged, Unit-injected engine with overhead camshafts and
four exhaust valves per cylinder. It was built as a V-6, V-8, V-12 and
Charles F. Kettering
Charles F. Kettering and the
General Motors Research Corporation
were in charge of its development.
GM-Winton-EMC's long development efforts put the company in a unique
position relative to other developers of Diesel-electric locomotion
who had remained focused on the lower power and speed requirements of
switch engines. Their nearest competitor was the American Locomotive
Company (ALCO), who started production of less-developed Diesel
locomotives to compete with the E-units in 1939. EMC's other main
competitor, the venerable Baldwin
Locomotive Works, had their
development work in Diesel delayed by their belief through 1930s that
the future of mainline service remained with steam, and by financial
difficulties that effectively froze their Diesel development while EMC
and ALCO continued theirs. Baldwin's response to the challenge of the
E-units was to develop a steam locomotive design that pushed beyond
the limits of practicality.
Passenger trains made little money for the railroads, but replacement
of steam engines with reliable Diesel units could provide railroads
with a crucial difference for profitability. With standardized
production of locomotives, EMC simplified the process for ordering,
manufacturing, and servicing locomotives and introduced economies of
scale that would lower unit costs. EMC offered support services
including training and field maintenance that would ease the
transition from steam to Diesel. The lowered hurdles for ordering
Diesel locomotives lent momentum to their market in the last years
before US entry into World War II. The performance of the new 567
engine in passenger locomotives also built confidence in the viability
of Diesel power for freight service.
In 1939 the company built a four-unit freight locomotive demonstrator,
the FT, and began a tour of the continent's railroads. The tour was a
success. Western railroads in particular saw that the Diesels could
free them from dependence on scarce water supplies for steam
locomotives. In 1940, after incorporating dynamic braking at the
suggestion of customers, they were receiving their first orders for
the new freight locomotive.
Burlington Northern EMD F3
General Motors merged EMC and part of Winton Engine to create the
Electro-Motive Division (EMD) on January 1, 1941. Production of
Winton's nonlocomotive products (large submarine, marine, and
stationary diesel engines) continued under GM's Cleveland Diesel
Engine Division for another twenty years.
In January 1941 EMD delivered the first FT unit to the Atchison,
Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, numbered Unit 100, and through that year
they were in full-stride production of road and switch locomotives.
World War II temporarily slowed EMD's locomotive production; Navy
ships gained priority for Diesel power and the petroleum crisis of
1942-43 made coal-fired steam a more attractive option. The War
Production Board stopped production of new passenger equipment between
September 1942 and December 1944. By 1944, Diesel locomotive
production for freight service was regaining momentum as more
locomotives were needed to haul wartime supplies. By the time the FT
model was replaced in 1945, 555 cab units and 541 booster units were
EMD emerged from the war years with major advantages for over
competitors in Diesel locomotive production, having entered the war
years with fully developed lines of mainline road Diesel locomotives
while war production allocations restricted their competitors,
American Locomotive Company
American Locomotive Company (ALCO) and the Baldwin
Locomotive Works, to selling mainly diesel switchers and steam
locomotives of pre-existing designs. That gave an advantage to EMD's
state of technical development with higher powered Diesels in the
critical postwar years. New model passenger EMD E-units were delivered
starting in February 1945. New models of their freight locomotive
followed later in 1945 and 1946.
By the late 1940s the majority of American railroads had decided to
transition from steam to Diesel power, known as Dieselization. The
demand for Diesel-powered passenger service did not grow at the same
rate as for freight service, as air and automobile travel were the
burgeoning modes of passenger travel. Nevertheless, the lower profit
margins of passenger service made the cost advantages of Diesel over
steam all the more critical and steam power was increasingly seen as
dirty, smelly, and dated among the travelling public. To meet post-war
demands, EMD opened another locomotive production facility in 1948 at
ALCO-GE was EMD's most serious competitor during the Dieselization
era, having produced the first road-switcher Diesel locomotives in
1941 and gained about a 40% market share of Diesel locomotives, mostly
for switching and short-haul applications, as of 1948. ALCO's attempts
to develop higher powered locomotives for mainline service had been
less successful, as they were plagued by reliability problems. In 1948
ALCO-GE partnership developed a prototype gas-turbine-electric
locomotive; customer delivery began in 1952. Baldwin's early ventures
into road Diesel production, while innovative, borrowed ill-suited
design and production concepts from steam and electric locomotives,
and were not sufficiently reliable to gain acceptance. Baldwin's
postwar steam turbine-electric locomotives were spectacularly
Fairbanks-Morse entered the locomotive industry at the
end of the war by partnering with
General Electric to produce
"Erie-built" locomotives using F-M's opposed-piston engine that they
had developed for marine use. In early 1949 GE ended the partnership,
undermining F-M's tentative foothold in the industry. Facing
desperation as the market for steam power collapsed, Lima-Hamilton
produced a total of 174 Diesel locomotives of various models starting
in 1949 but it was too little too late to make the company a serious
player in the Diesel business. By 1950 it was clear that EMD's
competitors could not crack their position in mainline road Diesels
and their introduction of the
EMD GP7 road switcher locomotive in 1949
marked their arrival in the mainstay of ALCO's business.
EMD GP7 (left) and E9A (right)
In 1949, EMD opened a new plant in London, Ontario, Canada, which was
operated by subsidiary
General Motors Diesel (GMD), producing existing
EMD as well as unique GMD designs for the Canadian domestic and export
markets. That same year, EMD introduced a new locomotive that broke
into the short-haul market dominated by ALCO while also serving as a
competent long distance hauler, the EMD GP7. The road-switcher design
resembles an expanded diesel switcher, with the engine, main
generator, and other equipment covered with an easily removed hood
(thus more recent name for these locomotives, hood units). This hood
being narrower than the locomotive, the crew has visibility in both
directions from a cab placed near one end and access to the exterior
of the locomotive while underway. The structural strength in the hood
unit is in the chassis, rather than in a carbody as with EMD's earlier
models (The sag-prone chassis of the GP7 became a known flaw,
corrected with EMD's later road-switchers). Owing to their ease of
maintenance and versatility, most locomotives produced in North
America for domestic use since the 1960s have been hood
The 1950s left EMD with only one serious competitor, the General
Electric Company. Lima-Hamilton failed first, in 1951 merging with
Baldwin to form Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton. Baldwin's own position was
precarious, with their market share continuing to dwindle as they
continued to offer what were essentially development design
locomotives in the road Diesel market. By the mid-1950s Baldwin was
effectively shut out of the market but made one more attempt at steam
turbine-electric power, resulting in one customer delivery, then left
the locomotive business in 1956. Fairbanks-Morse, after partnering
with General Electric, Westinghouse, then Canadian
to produce a series of locomotives that never established a solid
reputation and sold poorly, left the locomotive field in 1963. ALCO
remained competitive while backed by the industrial might of General
Electric, however, GE dissolved the partnership in the wake of ALCO's
lackluster development of higher powered engines for mainline road
locomotives. General Electric's new subsidiary GE Rail took over the
ALCO-GE gas-turbine-electric venture in 1953. From the mid-1950s
onward, ALCO's position slipped steadily until the company went out of
business in 1969. By 1956 GE was marketing its own Universal series
Cooper-Bessemer powered Diesel-electrics as export locomotives. In
1959 the U25B was the first of GE's road locomotives powered by GE's
FDL-16 Diesel engine, which would seriously challenge EMD's position
in the mainline locomotive market.
The 567 engine was continuously improved and upgraded. The original
six-cylinder 567 produced 600 hp (450 kW), the V-12
1,000 hp (750 kW), and the V-16 1,350 hp
(1,010 kW). EMD began turbocharging the 567 around 1958; the
final version, the 567D3A (built from October, 1963, to about January,
1966) produced 2,500 hp (1,900 kW) in its V-16 form.
As the 1960s opened EMD was compelled to respond to the challenge
offered by GE's U25B, upgrading the features of their GP (General
Purpose) and SD (
Special Duty/Standard Duty) series locomotives,
boosting the power of their 567 engines, then developing the more
powerful 645 engines. Those endeavors as well as the feature upgrades
introduced with the SD40-2 were sufficient to maintain EMD's
competitive advantage over GE until the mid-1980s.
In late 1965, EMD introduced the enlarged 645 engine. Power ratings
were 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-12 nonturbocharged, 1,500 hp
(1,100 kW) V-8 turbocharged, 2,300 hp (1,700 kW) V-12
turbocharged, 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) V-16 nonturbocharged, and
3,000 hp (2,200 kW) V-16 turbocharged. In late 1965 EMD
built their first twenty-cylinder engine, a turbocharged 3,600 hp
(2,700 kW) V20 for the EMD SD45. The final variant of the sixteen
cylinder 645 (the 16-645F) produced 3,500 hp (2,600 kW).
In 1972, EMD introduced modular control systems with the Dash-2 line;
EMD SD40-2 became one of the most successful diesel locomotive
designs in history. A total of 3,945 SD40-2 units were built; if the
earlier SD40 class locomotives are included, the total increases to
EMD introduced their new 710 engine in 1984 with the 60 Series
EMD SD60 and EMD GP60), the
EMD 645 engine continued to
be offered in certain models (such as the 50 Series) until 1988. The
710 is produced as an eight-, twelve-, sixteen-, and twenty-cylinder
engine for locomotive, marine and stationary applications.
Concurrently with the introduction of the 710, EMD's control systems
on locomotives changed to microprocessors, with computer-controlled
wheel slip prevention, among other systems.
Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement came into effect in 1989,
EMD decided to consolidate all locomotive production at the GMD plant
in London, Ontario, a development which ended locomotive production at
La Grange, Illinois
La Grange, Illinois plant in 1991,[note 1] although the Illinois
facility continued to produce engines and generators.
EMD's North American market share dropped below that of its main
General Electric in 1987.
In the late 1980s and 1990s EMD introduced AC induction motor drive in
EMD locomotives using
Siemens technology. In the early 1990s, EMD
introduced the radial steering truck, which reduced wheel and track
In 1998 EMD introduced the four-stroke sixteen cylinder 265H-Engine,
at 6,300 hp (4,700 kW) the most powerful engine ever
produced by EMD, used as the prime mover in the EMD SD90MAC-H
locomotive. Instead of completely replacing the 710 series engine, the
H-engine was concurrently produced alongside EMD's two stroke engines,
although mainly for export. Acceptance of the 265H was limited over
reliability issues. As a historical note, the 265H was the first
four-stroke engine offered to the market by EMD or its ancestral
companies since the Winton 201A introduced their breakthrough in
two-stroke Diesel power in 1933.
Post-1995 710 engines have electronically controlled unit injectors
(EUIs) in the same position and space as the former (1938–1995) unit
In 1999, Union Pacific placed the largest single order for diesel
locomotives in North American railroad history when they ordered 1,000
units of the EMD SD70M. Union Pacific's fleet of SD70Ms has since been
expanded by more than 450 additional units. In addition, Union Pacific
also owns nearly 500 EMD SD70ACe's, a number of which have been
painted in "Fallen Flags" (acquired/merged railroads) commemorative
liveries. All of these locomotives are 710G-powered.
The year 2004 saw
CSX Transportation take delivery of the first
SD70ACe units, which were advertised by EMD as more reliable, fuel
efficient, and easier to maintain than predecessor model SD70MAC. The
model meets the EPA Tier 2 emission requirements using the two-stroke
710 diesel engine.
The following year
Norfolk Southern became the first carrier to
receive the new SD70M-2 - successor to the SD70M. Like its sister
roadswitcher, the SD70ACe, the SD70M-2 meets EPA Tier 2 requirements
using the same engine. And like the "ACe", the "M-2" is certified to
be in conformance with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004.
In June 2004,
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal published an article indicating
EMD was being put up for sale. On January 11, 2005,
a story indicating a sale to "two private U.S. equity groups" was
likely to be announced "this week". Confirmation came the following
day, with a press release issued by General Motors, stating it had
agreed to sell EMD to a partnership led by Greenbriar Equity Group LLC
Berkshire Partners LLC. The newly spun-off company was called
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc., thus retaining the famous "EMD" initials.
The sale closed on April 4, 2005.
On June 1, 2010,
Caterpillar Inc. announced it had agreed to buy
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire et al. for $820
million. Caterpillar's wholly owned subsidiary,
Progress Rail Services
Corporation, completed the transaction on August 2, 2010, making
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail
Services Corporation. Although Caterpillar announced that John S.
Hamilton would continue in his roles of president and CEO of EMD after
the close of the transaction, Mr. Hamilton left EMD for unspecified
reasons in late August 2010.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Tier-4 locomotive emissions
regulations on new locomotives went into effect on January 1, 2015. As
of that date EMD's 710-engined locomotives (e.g. SD70ACe's) could be
built only for use outside the contiguous United States (i.e. Canada,
Alaska, Mexico, and overseas). EMD had originally thought the 710
engine could be modified or "tuned-up" to meet Tier-4 standards, but
it was not able to meet those requirements while maintaining optimum
performance and reliability during rigorous "real world conditions"
tests. Development of a Tier-4 compliant locomotive shifted from its
original focus on the two-stroke 710 to the four-stroke 1010J engine,
derived from the 265H engine.
The first (pre-production) locomotive using the 1010J engine, the
SD70ACe-T4, using a 4,600 horsepower (3,400 kW) (4,400 traction
hp) 12 cylinder engine was unveiled in late 2015. Testing of
the new locomotives began in the Spring of 2016. The first two
units of a 65 unit order for the new locomotive were delivered to
Union Pacific in December 2016.
EMD continues to offer 710-powered locomotives for export as well as
"ECO" upgrade packages for modernizing of older locomotives, which
sustained their business during the hiatus of locomotive production
for the domestic market.
Manufacturing and assembly facilities
EMD currently maintains major facilities in McCook, Illinois,[note 1]
Muncie, Indiana in the United States, Sete Lagoas, Brazil and San
Luis Potosí, Mexico. The company operated a manufacturing facility in
London, Ontario, Canada until its closure in 2012.
EMD La Grange (McCook)
Postcard depiction of the plant circa late 1930s.
Denver Zephyr train inset top left)
Since its ground breaking in 1935, the La Grange facility has been the
headquarters for EMD. In addition to the corporation's administrative
offices, La Grange houses design engineering, emissions testing,
rebuild operations, and manufacturing of major components, including
prime mover engines, traction alternators, electrical cabinets, and
turbochargers. The La Grange facility includes three main buildings,
with over 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of office and
manufacturing space. Ancillary buildings are used to provide
maintenance and testing capabilities. EMD La Grange is ISO 9001:2008
Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental
The EMD London plant, in London, Ontario, Canada, opened in 1949 as
General Motors Diesel Division (GMDD) to produce locomotives.
The facility was at times used to produce a variety of products in the
General Motors family, including transit buses, and military
vehicles. Situated on a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site, the EMD
London facility included two main buildings and multiple ancillary
buildings with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of office and
manufacturing space, as well as a locomotive test track. London was
the primary site for the assembly, painting and testing of EMD
locomotives. The facility also manufactured components, such as
locomotive underframes, traction motors, truck assemblies, and
locomotive equipment racks. EMD London was ISO 9001:2000 Certified for
Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management. The
plant was closed in 2015.
EMD London's Canadian location was useful for General Motors' when
attempting to procure Canadian federal contracts.
In January 2012, 450
Canadian Auto Workers
Canadian Auto Workers union workers were locked
out of the EMD London facility, after refusing to ratify EMD's
proposed new contract which included a pay cut of 50% for some workers
- labour costs at the Canadian plant were much greater than in some of
the company's US plants. In February 2012
Progress Rail Services
announced the closure of the plant; Caterpillar's actions were
criticised in Canada; the company stated it would relocate production
to other sites in North and South America, including the un-unionised
plant in Muncie, Indiana. At the time of closure the
plant employed approximately 775 people directly.
EMD San Luis Potosí
On April 14, 2010, Electro-Motive opened a facility in San Luis
Potosí, Mexico for the maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul of traction
motors and other electrical equipment.
In October 2010,
Caterpillar Inc. announced it was investing US$50
million to acquire and to renovate an existing 740,000-square-foot
(69,000 m2) building for assembly of EMD brand locomotives and to
build a locomotive test track on a 75-acre (0.30 km2) site
located in Muncie, Indiana. The Muncie facility allows EMD to supply
locomotives to publicly funded passenger rail agencies that require
their rail equipment be assembled in the United States exclusively.
(see Buy America Act.)
On July 25, 2011, it was announced that production at the facility was
planned to begin by the end of the year, with 125 workers having been
hired and plans to add more. On October 28, the plant was
officially opened, and the first locomotive produced at the plant,
Ferromex SD70ACe #4092, was rolled out.
Subcontractors and licensees
Victorian Railways S class (EMD A7) locomotive, built by Australian
licensee Clyde Engineering
The company also entered into subcontracting and licensing
arrangements, both for whole locomotives, and diesel and electrical
drivetrains (genset plus traction motors and control electronics)
In Europe licensees included
Henschel (Germany), 1950s-80s which
manufactured locomotives for export to African, South Asian, and
Scandinavian counties as well as Austria;
1950s-70s, and after NOHAB's closure
Kalmar Verkstad (KVAB)
(Sweden), 1980s. When the KVAB and
Henschel factories were
ABB Group in 1990 EMD-license manufacture ended.
In Belgium EMD-engined locomotives were manufactured by Société
Anglo-Franco-Belge, and then by
La Brugeoise et Nivelles
La Brugeoise et Nivelles in the 1950s
MACOSA and its successors assembled and manufactured EMD
locomotives including standard EMD export designs as well as variants
for the domestic market, as of 2011 EMD-engined diesels are still
manufactured in Spain as the
Vossloh Euro series.
Đuro Đaković of
Croatia (Yugoslavia) also held a license from EMD
and manufactured locomotives for the Yugoslav Railways.
By 2000 EMD had produced with its collaborators around 300 locomotives
using EMD technology in Scandinavia, 500 in western Europe, and 400 in
eastern Europe. Approximately 75% of EMD's European locomotives
sold by 2000 were license built in Europe. The company also
entered into a collaboration (early 2000s) with Lyudinovsky Locomotive
Plant (Russia) (Людиновский
тепловозостроительный завод), (now part of
Sinara Group) creating a single-body eight axle 3MW (Bo'Bo')'(Bo'Bo')'
diesel locomotive ТЭРА1, powered by an
EMD 710 16-cylinder
engine. In the early 2010s the company began a collaboration
with Croatian rolling stock company TŽV Gredelj.
Locomotives were also assembled by
General Motors Industria Argentina,
General Motors South African (Pty) Ltd, and under license by Delta
Motor Corporation (South Africa), Equipamentos Villares S.A. (Brazil),
Bombardier Transportation has also acted as
subcontrator, manufacturing units at its plant in Sahagun, Mexico
since 1998; with over one-thousand locomotives completed by 2007. The
manufacturing agreement continued under
Progress Rail ownership.
Clyde Engineering used EMD components in locally
manufactured locomotives beginning in the 1950s. That company was
absorbed into what is now
Downer Rail (EDI rail division).
Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) has manufactured EMD
designs since the late 1990s. In 2010 EMD announced its intention
to establish its own manufacturing facility in India, potentially in
Bihar through a PPP project with the state government, or in Uttar
Pradesh. As of 2011 EMD's cooperative development association with
Indian Railways is ongoing.
In China CNR
Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Company
Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Company has
manufactured the EMD-designed units
China Railways HXN3
China Railways HXN3 (JT56ACe)
In 2012 the EMD formed a joint venture with Barloworld, Electro-Motive
Diesel Africa (Proprietary) Limited, to supply locomotive and rail
related products to the sub-saharan African market. In September
2012, EMD also signed a deal with Bombardier Transportation;
Bombardier's factory in Savli, in India, would assemble EMD products
for Asian customers.
Maintenance and support facilities
EMD also provides maintenance services, technical support, parts
inventory, and sales and marketing services from many other locations
spread throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the United
Kingdom, China, India, Pakistan, Australia, Germany, Switzerland,
Brazil, Egypt, and South Africa.
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EMD has produced the following series of engines:
EMD 567 — no longer in production; 567AC, 567BC, 567C, 567D and
"567E" engines may be retrofitted with 645 Power assemblies and other
major components, mainly for so-called "life-extension" programs; 567E
engines are actually 645E blocks which were originally manufactured
with 567 power assemblies
EMD 645 — "E- and F-Engines"; Currently in production by request;
most 645 major assemblies remain in new production for replacement
EMD 710 — "G-Engine"; Currently in production, but restricted to use
outside the U.S. due to EPA Tier 4 emissions regulations taking effect
in 2015; unit injectors on pre-1995 engines, electronically controlled
unit injectors on post-1995 engines
EMD 265 — "H-Engine"; no longer in domestic production, and most
existing 265-powered locomotives in North America have been removed
EMD 1010 — "J-Engine"; Currently in production. First introduced at
the Railway Interchange Expo 2015 at BNSF North Town Yard,
Minneapolis, Minnesota, from October 4 to October 7, 2015. This new
engine is first used on SD70ACe-T4, the new Tier 4 freight locomotive
from EMD. This engine features a two-stage turbocharging system
consisting of three turbochargers: one turbo (the primary/high
pressure turbo) for low-mid RPM range and two turbos (the
secondary/low pressure turbos) for mid-high RPM range. The results are
bigger power throughout a broader RPM range, better fuel efficiency,
and lower emission.
Stationary and marine engines
Most of the above locomotive engines were available, in modified form,
for stationary and marine work. Marine engines differ from railroad
and stationary engines mainly in the shape and depth of the engine's
oil sump, which has been altered to accommodate the rolling and
pitching motions encountered in marine applications.
EMD 'pancake' diesels
A new aluminum block lightweight compact engine was designed that ran
at a higher rpm. These engines feature a vertical crankshaft and the
cylinders were arranged in an X pattern of four cylinder banks in four
cylinder rows. These were the 16-184 and 16-338 "pancake" engines. The
16-388 engine was 13.5 feet (4.1 m) from the base of the
generator to the top of the air intake filter and 4 feet (1.2 m)
wide. It is a mechanically injected two-stroke diesel engine that used
a roots blower. The 16-184A was installed in some 110-foot (34 m)
subchasers of the SC-497 class during World War II. The two
1,540 bhp (1,150 kW) 16-184A diesel engines driving two
shafts produced a faster subchaser that achieved 21 knots.
The EMD 16-338 developed 1,090 bhp (810 kW) at 1600 rpm. On
the top was an air intake then four layers of four cylinders each.
Each cylinder had a 6-inch (15 cm) bore and a 6 1⁄2-inch
(17 cm) stroke. On the bottom of the crank shaft was an Elliot
generator which developed 817 kW at a maximum of 710 volts DC.
This proved problematic as the engine fluids ran down into the
generator. The whole engine weighed just over eight tons. Being 4 feet
wide it allowed for four engines in an engine room only 22 feet
(6.7 m) long and also allowed design engineers to eliminate a
submarine engine room. The
Tang-class submarine and the research
submarine USS Albacore used the troublesome EMD 16-338. On the
Tang-class the Navy decided to replace the "pancake" engines with
Fairbanks-Morse opposed-piston 38D 8-1/8 diesels. The
unreliability and lack of spares led to the decommissioning of USS
Albacore in 1972 as further cannibalized parts became
EMD has produced yard slugs used by railways to provide additional
power to primary locomotives in rail yards. Some are rebuilt from EMD
The following reporting marks are listed for rolling stock:
EMDX — Electro-Motive Division Leasing
EMLX — Electro-Motive Division Leasing
General Motors Corporation
General Motors Diesel Canada
List of GM-EMD locomotives
^ a b Paul D. Schneider (May 1, 2006), "Who built the diesels",
^ "EMD - Company - Company Overview - About Electro-Motive Diesel".
www.emdiesel.com. Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. 2010. Archived from the
original on 2010-09-20.
^ a b "
Progress Rail Services
Progress Rail Services Finalizes Electro-Motive Diesel
Acquisition" (PDF). www.cat.com (Press release). Caterpillar Inc.
2010-08-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-20.
^ "Company profile from Hoover's - Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc".
www.hoovers.com. Hoovers, Inc. 2010. Archived from the original on
2010-03-10. 2008 Employees 3,260
^ Tita, Bob (2010-06-04). "Caterpillar expected to make Electro-Motive
more competitive". www.ble-t.org. Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Hamilton said Electro-Motive
has about 30% of the North American market...
^ a b Solomon, Brian (2006). "The Winton Era". In Pernu, Dennis; Noel,
Leah. EMD Locomotives. United States of America: Voyageur Press.
pp. 15–18. ISBN 0760323968.
^ a b Solomon, Brian (2011). Electro-Motive E-Units and F-Units: The
Illustrated History of America's Favorite Locomotives. Voyageur Press.
p. 14. ISBN 9780760340073. At Google Books
^ a b Brazeau, Mike. "The Electro-Motive Story". GM Heritage Center.
Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
External link in publisher= (help)
^ Wesby, Vernon (1976). History and Progress of the Village of McCook.
McCook, IL: Village of McCook. pp. 88–90.
^ Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter’s Guide.
Kalmbach Books. pp. 53–56. LCCN 66-22894.
^ Johnston, Howard; Harris, Ken (2005). Jane’s Train Recognition
Guide. HarperCollins Publishing. pp. 416–417.
^ Ross, David, ed. (2003). The Encyclopedia of Trains and Locomotives.
p. 280. ISBN 978-0-7607-9679-5.
^ Pinkpank (1973), pp. 137, 207, 163-167, 203-206, 281, 323-324.
^ Ross (2003), p. 305.
^ a b Pinkpank (1973), p. 26.
^ Pinkpank (1973), p. 51-57, 61.
^ Pinkepank, Jerry A.; Marre, Louis A. (1979). Diesel Spotters Guide
Update. Kalmbach Books. pp. 51–52, 54–57.
^ Johnston (2003), pp. 425.
^ Johnston (2003), p. 432-433.
^ Ross (2003), pp. 360-361.
^ David Lustig (1 July 2006), "US loco market still a two-horse race",
"Diesel-Electric Locomotives : Reference list" (PDF),
www.mobility.siemens.com, Siemens, Cooperations with Electro Motive
Division (EMD), pp.19-32, archived from the original (PDF) on
Siemens win AAR Technology Achievement Award",
www.freelibrary.com, Association of American Railroads, 21 September
^ EMD:ISO Certifications
^ "Greenbriar Equity Group and
Berkshire Partners Complete Acquisition
of Electro-Motive from
General Motors -- John Hamilton Named President
and CEO --". www.emdiesels.com. Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc.
2005-04-05. Archived from the original on 2010-03-10. Greenbriar
Equity Group LLC,
Berkshire Partners LLC and certain related parties
today announced the completion of the acquisition of Electro-Motive
Division from General Motors.
^ "BREAKING: Electro-Motive President John Hamilton resigns". Trains
magazine. Kalmbach Publishing Co. 2010-08-27.
^ "EMD unveils its first Tier 4 diesel locomotive",
www.railwaygazette.com, 5 Oct 2015
^ Vantuono, William C. (11 Oct 2015), Take a tour of EMD's
^ "CSX begins testing of
EMD SD70ACe T4 demonstrators". Trains
Magazine, June 22, 2016.
Progress Rail EMD Tier 4 units headed to first customer". Trains
Magazine, December 15, 2016.
^ a b Neville Britto (24 February 2012), "Canadians gearing up to
derail CAT, literally!", logospathosethos.com, archived from the
original on 27 January 2013
^ Austen, Ian (2012-01-02), "Caterpillar Locks Out Workers in Canada",
The New York Times
Progress Rail closes EMD plant in London", www.railwaygazette.com,
Railway Gazette International, 3 February 2012
^ Sian Griffiths (15 February 2012), "Caterpillar feels force of
Canada's anger as it closes country's last train plant",
^ James R. Hagerty; Alistair MacDonald (18 March 2012), "As Unions
Lose Their Grip, Indiana Lures Manufacturing Jobs",
^ Shruti Date Singh (6 February 2012), "Caterpillar to Close Canadian
Locomotive Plant Due to Costs", www.businessweek.com, archived from
the original on 13 November 2012
^ "EMD Launches New Traction Motor MRO Facility" (Press release).
Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. 201-04-14. Archived from the original on
2010-10-30. Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. today held a ribbon cutting
ceremony at its new traction motor maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul
(MRO) facility in
San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí Mexico. Check date values in:
^ James B. Kelleher (29 October 2010), "UPDATE 3-Caterpillar unit to
build rail locomotives in US", www.reuters.com, Thomson Reuters
^ Tita, Bob (2010-10-29). "CORRECT: UPDATE: Caterpillar To Build
Locomotives in Muncie, Ind". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones &
Company, Inc. Archived from the original on 2010-10-30. Caterpillar
Inc. (CAT) said Friday it will open a railroad locomotive assembly
plant in Muncie, Ind.,...
Progress Rail Services
Progress Rail Services plans to begin locomotive, production at
Muncie, Ind., this fall". Trains Magazine. July 25, 2011.
Progress Rail Announces Grand Opening of
Muncie, Indiana Locomotive
Assembly Operation", www.prnewswire.com,
Progress Rail Services, 28
^ "EMD rolls out its first U.S.-made diesel in almost 20 years".
Trains Magazine. 28 October 2011.
^ a b "Worldwide Historic Overview : The origins – North
America's E and F units", www.nohab-gm.hu, NOHAB-GM Foundation
^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", Henschel
^ a b c Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", NOHAB
^ Lolke Bijlsma, "GM
Locomotives in Europe", Belgium
^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", SAFB (Societe Anglo Franco Belge),
and, BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Metalliques S.A.
^ "Devis y Macosa, las constructoras valencianas de material
ferroviario", www.vialibre-ffe.com (in Spanish) , from VÍA
LIBRE, Nº 431, May 2000
^ Brian Solomon (2006), EMD Locomotives, Voyageur Press,
^ a b c Sources:
"EMD GM на европейском рынке подвижного
состава", Железные дороги мира (in Russian)
(11), 2000, archived from the original on 2007-08-16
"General Motors' EMD Expands in Europe", International Railway
Journal, Simmons-Boardman Publishing, 40 (10): 24–25,
2000 ,alternative link via findarticles.com
^ ТЭРА-1, www.tdltz.ru (in Russian), ТД
^ Gredelj signes export deals amounting to 34 million kunas, TŽV
Gredelj, 20 February 2012, archived from the original on 7 March 2013,
For the company
Electro-Motive Diesel – EMD ..
TŽV Gredelj will
construct 88 bogie frames for locomotives ... this deal is the first
concrete result of the recently signed agreement on joint development
and promotion with the aforementioned American company, and TŽV
Gredelj hopes that the collaboration with EMD will also be successful
in the future
^ Larry Russell, "EMD Export Page", GMIC, GMSA, Hyundai, Villares
"Bombardier awarded contract to assemble 100 locomotives",
www.transportweekly.com, 3 April 2007
"Bombardier Unveils the First
Locomotive to be Assembled
in Ciudad Sahagún, Mexico", www.bombardier.com, Bombardier
Transportation, 9 Sep 2011
^ "Diesel Traction (Chapter 7, page 473)". Technology in Australia
1788–1988. www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2009-09-06.
^ "Company History". Downer Group. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
^ "Manufacturers". Larry Russell's
General Motors Export Pages.
^ "DLW Official Website : Current products :
Locomotives : EMD", www.dlw.indianrailways.gov.in, retrieved 5
Anandita Singh Mankotia (14 August 2010), "EMD set to build
manufacturing base, supply hub in India",
Virendra Singh Rawat (17 September 2010), "US-based EMD to invest $100
Million in India", www.business-standard.com
Locomotive maker EMD plans to set up india plant",
www.hindustandtimes.com, Hindustan Times, 16 August
2010 [permanent dead link]
^ Jagdish-Kumar (13 October 2011), "EMD &
Indian Railways to
develop high-power locomotive", www.rail.co, archived from the
original on 7 September 2012
news.xinhuanet.com (in Chinese), 2 July 2008, archived from the
original on 15 July 2012
"EMD and Barloworld form African locomotive joint venture",
www.railwaygazette.com, 2 July 2012
Mark Allix (26 June 2012), "Barloworld offers EMD locomotives",
^ "Bombardier to assemble EMD locomotives for southeast Asia - Railway
Gazette". Railway Gazette International. 19 September 2012.
^ a b c d e The plant and headquarters commonly referred to as being
in "La Grange, Illinois" are actually within the Chicago suburb
McCook, Illinois, but uses a postal address of La Grange.
Lolke Bijlsma (ed.), "GM
Locomotives in Europe",
Larry Russell (ed.), "EMD Export Page", emdexport.railfan.net
Wikimedia Commons has media related to EMD locomotives.
"Electro Motive Diesel", www.emdiesels.com , company website
"EMD China", www.emd-china.com.cn (in Chinese), archived from the
original on 2010-07-30 , EMD China website
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