ELECTRO-MOTIVE DIESEL (EMD) is an American manufacturer of diesel-electric locomotives , locomotive products and diesel engines for the rail industry. The company is owned by Caterpillar through its subsidiary Progress Rail Services Corporation .
In 2005, GM sold EMD to Greenbriar Equity Group and Berkshire
Partners , which formed ELECTRO-MOTIVE DIESEL to facilitate the
purchase. In 2010,
Progress Rail Services completed the purchase of
EMD's headquarters, engineering facilities and parts manufacturing operations are based in McCook, Illinois , while its final locomotive assembly line is located in Muncie, Indiana . EMD also operates a traction motor maintenance, rebuild and overhaul facility in San Luis Potosí , Mexico.
As of 2008, EMD employed approximately 3,260 people, and in 2010 it held approximately 30 percent of the market for diesel-electric locomotives in North America.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early years * 1.2 1940-60 * 1.3 1960–1985 * 1.4 1985–2000 * 1.5 2000-present
* 2 Manufacturing and assembly facilities
* 2.1 EMD La Grange (McCook) * 2.2 EMD London * 2.3 EMD San Luis Potosí * 2.4 EMD Muncie * 2.5 Subcontractors and licensees
* 3 Maintenance and support facilities
* 4 Engines
* 4.2 Stationary and marine engines
* 4.2.1 EMD \'pancake\' diesels * 4.2.2 Yard Slug
* 7 References
* 7.1 Notes * 7.2 Sources
* 8 External links
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Harold L. Hamilton and Paul Turner founded the ELECTRO-MOTIVE
ENGINEERING CORPORATION in
Encouraged by the success of the new custom streamliners, EMC
invested in a new locomotive factory and started development work on
the locomotives that it would produce. The new headquarters on 55th
McCook, Illinois , west of Chicago, remains the corporate
headquarters. The 1935
EMC 1800 hp B-B
In 1938 EMC started production of locomotives using GM's new 567
engine, which upgraded the horsepower to 2000 per locomotive unit and
increased reliability. The 567 , named for its
displacement-per-cylinder of 567.45 in³ (bore 8½ inches, stroke 10
inches), was a two-cycle (or two-stroke) Roots-blown ,
Uniflow-scavenged , Unit-injected engine with overhead camshafts and
four exhaust valves per cylinder. It was built as a V-6 , V-8 , V-12
and V-16 .
Charles F. Kettering and the
GM-Winton-EMC's long development efforts put the company in a unique position relative to other developers of Diesel-electric locomotion who had remained focused on the lower power and speed requirements of switch engines. Their nearest competitor was the American Locomotive Company (ALCO), who started production of less-developed Diesel locomotives to compete with the E-units in 1939 . EMC's other main competitor, the venerable Baldwin Locomotive Works , had their development work in Diesel delayed by their belief through 1930s that the future of mainline service remained with steam, and by financial difficulties that effectively froze their Diesel development while EMC and ALCO continued theirs. Baldwin's response to the challenge of the E-units was to develop a steam locomotive design that pushed beyond the limits of practicality .
Passenger trains made little money for the railroads, but replacement of steam engines with reliable Diesel units could provide railroads with a crucial difference for profitability. With standardized production of locomotives, EMC simplified the process for ordering, manufacturing, and servicing locomotives and introduced economies of scale that would lower unit costs. The lowered hurdles for ordering Diesel locomotives lent momentum to their market in the last years before US entry into World War II. The performance of the new 567 engine in passenger locomotives built confidence in the viability of Diesel power for freight service. The market for mainline passenger locomotives also gave EMC experience and future contacts for breaking into the largest market, freight service.
In 1939 the company built a four-unit freight locomotive demonstrator, the FT , and began a tour of the continent's railroads. The tour was a success. Western railroads in particular saw that the Diesels could free them from dependence on scarce water supplies for steam locomotives. In 1940, after incorporating dynamic braking at the suggestion of customers, they were receiving their first orders for the new freight locomotive.
Burlington Northern EMD F3
In January 1941 EMD delivered the first FT unit to the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway , numbered Unit 100, and through that year they were in full-stride production of passenger and freight locomotives. World War II temporarily slowed EMD's locomotive production; Navy ships gained priority for Diesel power and the petroleum crisis of 1942-43 made coal-fired steam a more attractive option. The War Production Board stopped production of new passenger equipment between September 1942 and December 1944. By 1944, Diesel locomotive production for freight service was regaining momentum as more locomotives were needed to haul wartime supplies. By the time the FT model was replaced in 1945, 555 cab units and 541 booster units were produced.
EMD emerged from the war years with major advantages for over
competitors in Diesel locomotive production, having entered the war
years with a fully developed line of mainline road Diesel locomotives
while war production allocations restricted their competitors,
American Locomotive Company
By the late 1940s the majority of American railroads had decided to
transition from steam to Diesel power, known as
ALCO-GE was EMD's most serious competitor during the Dieselization era, having produced the first road-switcher Diesel locomotives in 1941 and gained about a 40% market share of Diesel locomotives, mostly for switching and short-haul applications, as of 1948. ALCO's attempts to develop higher powered locomotives for mainline service had been less successful, as they were plagued by reliability problems. In 1948 the ALCO-GE partnership developed a prototype gas-turbine-electric locomotive; customer delivery began in 1952. Baldwin's early ventures into road Diesel production, while innovative , borrowed ill-suited design and production concepts from steam and electric locomotives, and were not sufficiently reliable to gain acceptance. Baldwin's postwar steam turbine-electric locomotives were spectacularly unsuccessful. Fairbanks-Morse entered the locomotive industry at the end of the war by partnering with General Electric to produce " Erie-built " locomotives using F-M's opposed-piston engine that they had developed for marine use. In early 1949 GE ended the partnership, undermining F-M's tentative foothold in the industry. Facing desperation as the market for steam power collapsed, Lima-Hamilton produced a total of 174 Diesel locomotives of various models starting in 1949 but it was too little too late to make the company a serious player in the Diesel business. By 1950 it was clear that EMD's competitors could not crack their position in mainline road Diesels and their introduction of the EMD GP7 road-switcher locomotive in 1949 marked their arrival in the mainstay of ALCO's business. EMD GP7 (left) and E9A (right)
In 1949, EMD opened a new plant in
London, Ontario , Canada, which
was operated by subsidiary
The 1950s left EMD with only one serious competitor, the General
Electric Company . Lima-Hamilton failed first, in 1951 merging with
Baldwin to form Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton. Baldwin's own position was
precarious, with their market share continuing to dwindle as they
continued to offer what were essentially development design
locomotives in the road Diesel market. By the mid-1950s Baldwin was
effectively shut out of the market but made one more attempt at steam
turbine-electric power, resulting in one customer delivery, then left
the locomotive business in 1956. Fairbanks-Morse, after partnering
with General Electric, Westinghouse , then Canadian
The 567 engine was continuously improved and upgraded. The original six-cylinder 567 produced 600 hp (450 kW), the V-12 1,000 hp (750 kW), and the V-16 1,350 hp (1,010 kW). EMD began turbocharging the 567 around 1958; the final version, the 567D3A (built from October, 1963, to about January, 1966) produced 2,500 hp (1,900 kW) in its V-16 form.
As the 1960s opened EMD was compelled to respond to the challenge
offered by GE's U25B, upgrading the features of their GP (General
Purpose) and SD (
In late 1965, EMD introduced the enlarged 645 engine . Power ratings were 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-12 nonturbocharged, 1,500 hp (1,100 kW) V-8 turbocharged, 2,300 hp (1,700 kW) V-12 turbocharged, 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) V-16 nonturbocharged, and 3,000 hp (2,200 kW) V-16 turbocharged. In late 1965 EMD built their first twenty-cylinder engine, a turbocharged 3,600 hp (2,700 kW) V20 for the EMD SD45 . The final variant of the sixteen cylinder 645 (the 16-645F) produced 3,500 hp (2,600 kW).
In 1972, EMD introduced modular control systems with the Dash-2 line; the EMD SD40-2 became one of the most successful diesel locomotive designs in history. A total of 3,945 SD40-2 units were built; if the earlier SD40 class locomotives are included, the total increases to 5,752 units.
EMD introduced their new 710 engine in 1984 with the 60 Series locomotives ( EMD SD60 and EMD GP60 ), the EMD 645 engine continued to be offered in certain models (such as the 50 Series) until 1988. The 710 is produced as an eight-, twelve-, sixteen-, and twenty-cylinder engine for locomotive, marine and stationary applications. Concurrently with the introduction of the 710, EMD's control systems on locomotives changed to microprocessors, with computer-controlled wheel slip prevention, among other systems.
After the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement came into effect in 1989, EMD decided to consolidate all locomotive production at the GMD plant in London, Ontario , a development which ended locomotive production at the La Grange, Illinois plant in 1991, although the Illinois facility continued to produce engines and generators. EMD's North American market share dropped below that of its main competitor General Electric in 1987.
In the late 1980s and 1990s EMD introduced AC induction motor drive
in EMD locomotives using
In 1998 EMD introduced the four-stroke sixteen cylinder 265H-Engine , at 6,300 hp (4,700 kW) the most powerful engine ever produced by EMD, used as the prime mover in the EMD SD90MAC-H locomotive. Instead of completely replacing the 710 series engine, the H-engine was concurrently produced alongside EMD's two stroke engines, although mainly for export. Acceptance of the 265H was limited over reliability issues. As a historical note, the 265H was the first four-stroke engine offered to the market by EMD or its ancestral companies since the Winton 201A introduced their breakthrough in two-stroke Diesel power in 1933.
Post-1995 710 engines have electronically controlled unit injectors (EUIs) in the same position and space as the former (1938–1995) unit injectors (UIs).
In 1999, Union Pacific placed the largest single order for diesel locomotives in North American railroad history when they ordered 1,000 units of the EMD SD70M . Union Pacific's fleet of SD70Ms has since been expanded by more than 450 additional units. In addition, Union Pacific also owns nearly 500 EMD SD70ACe 's, a number of which have been painted in "Fallen Flags " (acquired/merged railroads) commemorative liveries. All of these locomotives are 710G-powered.
The year 2004 saw CSX Transportation take delivery of the first SD70ACe units, which were advertised by EMD as more reliable, fuel efficient, and easier to maintain than predecessor model SD70MAC . The model meets the EPA Tier 2 emission requirements using the two-stroke 710 diesel engine.
The following year Norfolk Southern became the first carrier to receive the new SD70M-2 - successor to the SD70M . Like its sister roadswitcher, the SD70ACe, the SD70M-2 meets EPA Tier 2 requirements using the same engine. And like the "ACe", the "M-2" is certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004 .
In June 2004,
The Wall Street Journal
On June 1, 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it had agreed to buy Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. from Greenbriar, Berkshire et al. for $820 million. Caterpillar's wholly owned subsidiary, Progress Rail Services Corporation , completed the transaction on August 2, 2010, making Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Progress Rail Services Corporation. Although Caterpillar announced that John S. Hamilton would continue in his roles of president and CEO of EMD after the close of the transaction, Mr. Hamilton left EMD for unspecified reasons in late August 2010.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's TIER-4 locomotive emissions regulations on new locomotives went into effect on January 1, 2015. As of that date EMD's 710-engined locomotives (e.g. SD70ACe's) could be built only for use outside the contiguous United States (i.e. Canada, Alaska, Mexico, and overseas). EMD had originally thought the 710 engine could be modified or "tuned-up" to meet Tier-4 standards, but it was not able to meet those requirements while maintaining optimum performance and reliability during rigorous "real world conditions" tests. Development of a Tier-4 compliant locomotive shifted from its original focus on the two-stroke 710 to the four-stroke 1010J engine, derived from the 265H engine.
The first (pre-production) locomotive using the 1010J engine, the SD70ACe-T4, using a 4,600 horsepower (3,400 kW) (4,400 traction hp) 12 cylinder engine was unveiled in late 2015. Testing of the new locomotives began in the Spring of 2016. The first two units of a 65 unit order for the new locomotive were delivered to Union Pacific in December 2016.
EMD continues to offer 710-powered locomotives for export as well as "ECO" upgrade packages for modernizing of older locomotives, which sustained their business during the hiatus of locomotive production for the domestic market.
MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY FACILITIES
EMD currently maintains major facilities in McCook, Illinois , and Muncie, Indiana in the United States, Sete Lagoas, Brazil and San Luis Potosí, Mexico . The company operated a manufacturing facility in London, Ontario , Canada until its closure in 2012.
EMD LA GRANGE (MCCOOK)
Postcard depiction of the plant circa late 1930s. ( Denver Zephyr train inset top left)
Since its ground breaking in 1935, the La Grange facility has been the headquarters for EMD. In addition to the corporation's administrative offices, La Grange houses design engineering, emissions testing, rebuild operations, and manufacturing of major components, including prime mover engines, traction alternators, electrical cabinets, and turbochargers. The La Grange facility includes three main buildings, with over 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of office and manufacturing space. Ancillary buildings are used to provide maintenance and testing capabilities. EMD La Grange is ISO 9001:2008 Certified for Quality and ISO 14001 Certified for Environmental Management.
The EMD London plant opened in 1950 as part of
EMD London's Canadian location was useful for General Motors' when attempting to procure Canadian federal contracts.
In January 2012, 450 Canadian Auto Workers union workers were locked out of the EMD London facility, after refusing to ratify EMD's proposed new contract which included a pay cut of 50% for some workers - labour costs at the Canadian plant were much greater than in some of the company's US plants. In February 2012 Progress Rail Services announced the closure of the plant; Caterpillar's actions were criticised in Canada; the company stated it would relocate production to other sites in North and South America, including the un-unionised plant in Muncie. At the time of closure the plant employed approximately 775 people directly.
EMD SAN LUIS POTOSí
On April 14, 2010, Electro-Motive opened a facility in San Luis Potosí, Mexico for the maintenance, rebuild, and overhaul of traction motors and other electrical equipment.
In October 2010, Caterpillar Inc. announced it was investing US$50 million to acquire and to renovate an existing 740,000-square-foot (69,000 m2) building for assembly of EMD brand locomotives and to build a locomotive test track on a 75-acre (0.30 km2) site located in Muncie, Indiana. The Muncie facility allows EMD to supply locomotives to publicly funded passenger rail agencies that require their rail equipment be assembled in the United States exclusively. (see Buy America Act (1983) .)
On July 25, 2011, it was announced that production at the facility was planned to begin by the end of the year, with 125 workers having been hired and plans to add more. On October 28, the plant was officially opened, and the first locomotive produced at the plant, a Ferromex SD70ACe #4092, was rolled out.
SUBCONTRACTORS AND LICENSEES
Victorian Railways S class (EMD A7) locomotive, built by Australian licensee Clyde Engineering
The company also entered into subcontracting and licensing arrangements, both for whole locomotives, and diesel and electrical drivetrains (genset plus traction motors and control electronics)
In Europe licensees included
In Belgium EMD-engined locomotives were manufactured by Société Anglo-Franco-Belge , and then by La Brugeoise et Nivelles in the 1950s and 60s.
In Spain MACOSA and its successors assembled and manufactured EMD locomotives including standard EMD export designs as well as variants for the domestic market, as of 2011 EMD-engined diesels are still manufactured in Spain as the Vossloh Euro series.
By 2000 EMD had produced with its collaborators around 300
locomotives using EMD technology in Scandinavia, 500 in western
Europe, and 400 in eastern Europe. Approximately 75% of EMD's
European locomotives sold by 2000 were license built in Europe. The
company also entered into a collaboration (early 2000s) with
Lyudinovsky Locomotive Plant (Russia) (Людиновский
тепловозостроительный завод), (now part of
In 2012 the EMD formed a joint venture with Barloworld ,
MAINTENANCE AND SUPPORT FACILITIES
EMD also provides maintenance services, technical support, parts inventory, and sales and marketing services from many other locations spread throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, China, India, Pakistan, Australia, Germany, Switzerland, Brazil, Egypt, and South Africa.
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EMD has produced the following series of engines:
STATIONARY AND MARINE ENGINES
Most of the above locomotive engines were available, in modified form, for stationary and marine work. Marine engines differ from railroad and stationary engines mainly in the shape and depth of the engine's oil sump, which has been altered to accommodate the rolling and pitching motions encountered in marine applications.
EMD \'pancake\' Diesels
A new aluminum block lightweight compact engine was designed that ran at a higher rpm. These engines feature a vertical crankshaft and the cylinders were arranged in an X pattern of four cylinder banks in four cylinder rows. These were the 16-184 and 16-338 "pancake" engines. The 16-388 engine was 13.5 feet (4.1 m) from the base of the generator to the top of the air intake filter and 4 feet (1.2 m) wide. It is a mechanically injected two-stroke diesel engine that used a roots blower. The 16-184A was installed in some 110-foot (34 m) subchasers of the SC-497 class during World War II. The two 1,540 bhp (1,150 kW) 16-184A diesel engines driving two shafts produced a faster subchaser that achieved 21 knots.
The EMD 16-338 developed 1,090 bhp (810 kW) at 1600 rpm. On the top was an air intake then four layers of four cylinders each. Each cylinder had a 6-inch (15 cm) bore and a 6 1⁄2-inch (17 cm) stroke. On the bottom of the crank shaft was an Elliot generator which developed 817 kW at a maximum of 710 volts DC. This proved problematic as the engine fluids ran down into the generator. The whole engine weighed just over eight tons. Being 4 feet wide it allowed for four engines in an engine room only 22 feet (6.7 m) long and also allowed design engineers to eliminate a submarine engine room. The Tang-class submarine and the research submarine USS Albacore used the troublesome EMD 16-338. On the Tang-class the Navy decided to replace the "pancake" engines with ten-cylinder Fairbanks-Morse opposed-piston 38D 8-1/8 diesels . The unreliability and lack of spares led to the decommissioning of USS Albacore in 1972 as further cannibalized parts became unavailable.
EMD has produced yard slugs used by railways to provide additional power to primary locomotives in rail yards. Some are rebuilt from EMD GP9 locomotives.
The following reporting marks are listed for rolling stock:
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* ^ "DLW Official Website : Current products :
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* ^ Jagdish-Kumar (13 October 2011), "EMD &
* ^ Sources:
* "EMD and Barloworld form African locomotive joint venture", www.railwaygazette.com, 2 July 2012 * Mark Allix (26 June 2012), "Barloworld offers EMD locomotives", www.businessday.co.za
* ^ "Bombardier to assemble EMD locomotives for southeast Asia - Railway Gazette". Railway Gazette International . 19 September 2012. * ^ http://www.navsource.org/archives/12/150499.htm * ^ http://www.ss563.org/t-class.html * ^ http://www.ussalbacore.org/html/albacore_story.html * ^ https://oldmachinepress.wordpress.com/2014/08/17/general-motors-electro-motive-16-184-diesel-engine/
* ^ A B C D E The plant and headquarters commonly referred to as being in "La Grange, Illinois" are actually within the Chicago suburb McCook, Illinois , but uses a postal address of La Grange.
* Lolke Bijlsma (ed.), "GM
Wikimedia Commons has media related to EMD LOCOMOTIVES .
* "Electro Motive Diesel", www.emdiesels.com , company website * "EMD China", www.emd-china.com.cn (in Chinese), archived from the original