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An Electress (German: Kurfürstin, Latin: electrix) was the consort of a Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of the Holy Roman Empire, one of the Empire's greatest princes.[1] The Golden Bull of 1356
Golden Bull of 1356
established by Emperor Charles IV settled the number of Electors at seven. However, three of these were Roman Catholic archbishops, and so had no formal consorts; while of the four secular Electors, one was King of Bohemia, and his consort was always known by the more prestigious title of "Queen of Bohemia". The consorts usually referred to as Electresses, therefore, were:

The Electress of the Palatinate; The Electress of Saxony; The Electress of Brandenburg.

To these were added, in 1623 and 1692 respectively:

The Electress of Bavaria; The Electress of Hanover.

In the final years of the Empire, several Electors were added, who however only held their offices for less than three years before the Empire's final dissolution. The consorts of these last Electors were:

The Electress of Württemberg; The Electress of Hesse-Kassel.

There was also an Elector of Baden, but the only ruler to use this title was married morganatically and so his spouse did not share his title. The rulers of Hesse-Kassel continued to use the title of "Elector" until the annexation of the principality by Prussia in 1866. Persons using or entitled to use the title of "Electress" are listed below. Spouses of Electors in morganatic or unequal marriages are given in a separate table at the bottom of the page.

Contents

1 Electresses

1.1 Electresses of the Palatinate 1.2 Electresses of Bavaria 1.3 Electresses of Saxony 1.4 Electresses of Brandenburg 1.5 Electresses Palatine (junior line) 1.6 Electresses of Hanover, Württemberg and Hesse

2 Morganatic
Morganatic
spouses of Electors 3 Notes

Electresses[edit] Electresses of the Palatinate[edit] See also: List of Rhenish consorts

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Wittelsbach Dynasty

Elizabeth

John I, Count of Namur 1340 1350 1356 1382 Rupert I

Beatrice

William I, Duke of Berg 1360 1385 16 Feb 1390 1395

Elizabeth

Frederick V, Burggrave of Nuremberg 1358 27 Jun 1374 6 Jan 1398 18 May 1410 26 Jul 1411 Rupert III

Matilda

Amadeo, Prince of Achaea 1390 30 Nov 1417 30 Dec 1436 14 May 1438 Louis III

Margaret

Amadeus VIII of Savoy 7 Aug 1420 18 Oct 1445 13 Aug 1449 30 Sep 1479 Louis IV

Margaret

Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut 7 Nov 1456 21 Feb 1474 12 Dec 1476 25 Feb 1501 Philip

Sibylle

Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria 16 Jun 1489 23 Feb 1511 18 Apr 1519 Louis V

Dorothea

Christian II of Denmark 10 Nov 1520 26 Sep 1535 16 Mar 1544 26 Feb 1556 20 Sep 1580 Frederick II

Line of Simmern

Marie

Casimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 13 Oct 1519 12 Jun 1537 12 Feb 1559 31 Oct 1567 Frederick III

Amalia

Gumprecht IV, Count of Neuenahr c. 1540 25 Apr 1569 26 Oct 1576 10 Apr 1602

Elisabeth

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse 13 Feb 1539 8 Jul 1560 26 Oct 1576 14 Mar 1582 Louis VI

Anne

Edzard II, Count of East Frisia 26 June 1562 12 Jul 1583 22 Oct 1583 21 Apr 1621

Louise Juliana

William I of Orange 31 Mar 1576 12 Jun 1593 19 Sep 1610 15 Mar 1644 Frederick IV

Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia

James I of England 19 Aug 1596 14 Feb 1613 23 Feb 1623 deposition 14 Feb 1662 Frederick V

House of Wittelsbach
House of Wittelsbach
– Bavaria

Elisabeth Renata

Charles III of Lorraine 9 Oct 1574 6 Feb 1595 23 Feb 1623 4 Jan 1635 Maximilan I

Maria Anna

Emperor Ferdinand II 13 Jan 1610 15 Jul 1635 1648 25 Sep 1665

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Electresses of Bavaria[edit] See also: List of Bavarian consorts

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Wittelsbach Dynasty

Elisabeth Renata

Charles III, Duke of Lorraine 9 Oct 1574 6 Feb 1595 23 Feb 1623 4 Jan 1635 Maximilan I

Maria Anna

Emperor Ferdinand II 13 Jan 1610 15 Jul 1635 27 Sep 1651 25 Sep 1665

Henriette Adelaide

Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy 6 Nov 1636 8/11 Dec 1650 27 Sep 1651 13 Jun 1676 Ferdinand Maria

Maria Antonia

Emperor Leopold I 1669 15 Jul 1685 24 Dec 1692 Maximilian II

Teresa Kunegunda

John III of Poland 4 Mar 1676 2 Jan 1695 26 Feb 1726 10 Mar 1730

Maria Amalia Holy Roman Empress 1742–1745

Emperor Joseph I 22 Oct 1701 5 Oct 1722 26 Feb 1726 20 Jan 1745 11 Dec 1756 Charles Albert

Maria Anna Sophia

Augustus III of Poland 29 Aug 1728 9 Jul 1747 30 Dec 1777 17 Feb 1797 Maximilian III

Elizabeth Maria Augusta

Joseph Charles of Sulzbach 17 Jan 1721 17 Jan 1742 30 Dec 1777 17 Aug 1794 Charles Theodore

Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este

Ferdinand of Austria 10 Dec 1776 15 Feb 1795 16 Feb 1799 23 Jun 1848

Frederica Caroline Wilhelmina

Charles Louis of Baden 13 Jul 1776 9 Mar 1797 16 Feb 1799 1 Jan 1806 became Queen of Bavaria 13 Nov 1841 Maximilian IV

Electresses of Saxony[edit] See also: List of Saxon consorts

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Ascanian Dynasty

Elizabeth

Landgrave Otto I of Hesse ? ? ? 6 Dec 1370 15 Nov 1373 Rudolph II

Caecilia

Francis of Carrara, Duke of Padua ? 23 Jan 1367 or 1376 15 May 1388 1430–1434 Wenceslaus I

Anna

Balthasar, Landgrave of Thuringia ? 1387/1389 ? 4 Jul 1395 Rudolph III

Barbara

Rupert, Duke of Silesia-Liegnitz ? 6 Mar 1396 11 Jun 1419 17 May 1435

Euphemia

Conrad II of Silesia ? 14 Jan 1402 11 Jun 1419 12 Nov 1422 1444 Albert

Wettin Dynasty

Katharine

Henry II of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1395 8 Feb 1402 6 Jan 1423 4 Jan 1428 1442 Frederick I

Margaret

Ernest, Duke of Austria 1416/17 3 Jun 1431 7 Sep 1464 12 Feb 1486 Frederick II

Elizabeth

Albert III, Duke of Bavaria 2 Feb 1443 19 Nov 1460 7 Sep 1464 5 Mar 1486 Ernest

Sybille

John III, Duke of Cleves 17 Jan 1512 9 Feb 1527 16 Aug 1532 4 Jun 1547 husband deposed 21 Feb 1554 John Frederick I

Agnes

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse 31 May 1527 9 Jan 1541 4 Jun 1547 9 Jul 1553 4 Nov 1555 Maurice

Anna

Christian III of Denmark 22 Nov 1532 7 Oct 1548 11 Jul 1553 1 Oct 1585 Augustus

Agnes Hedwig

Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau 1573 3 Jan 1586 11 Feb 1586 1616

Sophia

John George, Elector of Brandenburg 6 Jun 1568 25 Apr 1582 11 Feb 1586 25 Sep 1591 7 Dec 1622 Christian I

Hedwig

Frederick II of Denmark 5 Aug 1581 12 Sep 1602 23 Jun 1611 26 Nov 1641 Christian II

Magdalena Sibylla (1)

Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia 31 Dec 1586 19 Jul 1607 23 Jun 1611 8 Oct 1656 12 Feb 1659 John George I

Magdalena Sibylla (2)

Christian of Brandenburg-Kulmbach-Bayreuth 1 Nov 1612 13 Nov 1638 8 Oct 1656 22 Aug 1680 20 Mar 1687 John George II

Anna Sophia

Frederick III of Denmark 1 Sep 1647 9 Oct 1666 22 Aug 1680 12 Sep 1691 1 Jul 1717 John George III

Eleonore Erdmuthe Luise

John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach 13 Apr 1662 17 Apr 1692 27 Apr 1694 9 Sep 1696 John George IV

Christiane Eberhardine Queen of Poland

Christian Ernest, Margrave of Bayreuth 29 Dec 1671 20 Jan 1693 27 Apr 1694 4 Sep 1727 Frederick Augustus I

Maria Josepha Queen of Poland

Emperor Joseph I 8 Dec 1699 20 Aug 1719 1 Feb 1733 17 Nov 1757 Frederick Augustus II

Maria Antonia Walpurgis Symphorosa

Emperor Charles VII 18 July 1724 20 Jun 1747 5 Oct 1763 17 Dec 1763 23 Apr 1780 Frederick Christian

Maria Amalia Augusta

Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld 10 May 1752 29 January 1769 20 Dec 1806 became Queen of Saxony 15 November 1828 Frederick Augustus III

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Electresses of Brandenburg[edit] See also: List of consorts of Brandenburg

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Wittelsbach Dynasty

Cunigunde

Casimir III of Poland 1334-5 1 Jan 1352 1356 1357 Louis

Ingeborg

Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg 1340 15 Feb 1360 17 May 1365 1395

Catherine

Emperor Charles IV 19 Aug 1342 19 Mar 1366 1373 26 Apr 1395 Otto

Luxemburg Dynasty

Joan

Albert I, Duke of Bavaria 1362 29 Sep 1370 1373 1378 31 Dec 1386 Wenceslaus

Mary

Louis I of Hungary 1371 Oct 1385 1388 17 May 1395 Sigismund

Agnes

Bolko II of Opole 1360? 1374 1388 18 Jan 1411 1413? Jodocus

Barbara

Hermann II, Count of Celje 1390–1395 1406–1408 18 Jan 1411 30 Apr 1415 11 Jul 1451 Sigismund

Hohenzollern Dynasty

Elizabeth

Frederick, Duke of Bavaria 1383 18 Sep 1401 30 Apr 1415 20 Sep 1440 13 Nov 1442 Frederick I

Catherine

Frederick I, Elector of Saxony 1421 11 June 1441 10 Feb 1470 23 Aug 1476 Frederick II

Anne

Frederick II, Elector of Saxony 7 Mar 1437 12 Nov 1458 10 Feb 1470 11 Mar 1486 31 Oct 1512 Albert III

Margaret

William III, Duke of Luxembourg 1449 25 Aug 1476 11 Mar 1486 9 Jan 1499 13 Jul 1501 John Cicero

Elizabeth

John of Denmark 24 Jun 1485 10 Apr 1502 9 Jan 1499 11 Jul 1535 10 Jun 1555 Joachim I Nestor

Hedwig

Sigismund I of Poland 15 Mar 1513 1 Sep 1535 3 Jan 1571 7 Feb 1573 Joachim II Hector

Sabina

George of Ansbach 12 May 1529 12 Feb 1548 3 Jan 1571 2 Nov 1575 John George

Elizabeth

Joachim Ernest of Anhalt-Dessau 15 Sep 1563 6 Oct 1577 8 Jan 1598 8 Nov 1607

Catherine

John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin 10 Aug 1549 8 Jan 1570 8 Jan 1598 10 Oct 1602 Joachim Frederick

Eleanor

Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia 21 Aug 1583 2 Nov 1603 9 Apr 1607

Anne

3 Jul 1576 30 Oct 1594 18 Jul 1608 23 Dec 1619 30 Aug 1625 John Sigismund

Elizabeth Charlotte

Frederick IV, Elector Palatine 19 Nov 1597 24 Jul 1616 23 Dec 1619 1 Dec 1640 26 Apr 1660 George William

Louise Henriette Duchess of Prussia

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange 7 Dec 1627 7 Dec 1646 18 Jun 1667 Frederick William I

Sophia Dorothea Duchess of Prussia

Philip of Holstein 28 Sep 1636 14 Jun 1668 29 Apr 1688 6 Aug 1689

Sophia Charlotte Queen in Prussia

Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover 30 Oct 1668 8 Oct 1684 29 Apr 1688 1 Feb 1705 Frederick III (I)

Sophia Louise Queen in Prussia

Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 6 May 1685 28 Nov 1708 25 Feb 1713 29 Jul 1735

Sophia Dorothea Queen in Prussia

George I of Great Britain 16 Mar 1687 28 Nov 1706 25 Feb 1713 31 May 1740 28 Jun 1757 Frederick William II (I)

Elizabeth Christine Queen of Prussia

Ferdinand Albert II of Brunswick 8 Nov 1715 12 Jun 1733 31 May 1740 17 Aug 1786 13 Jan 1797 Frederick IV (II)

Frederica Louise Queen of Prussia

Ludwig IX of Hesse 16 Oct 1751 14 Jul 1769 17 Aug 1786 16 Nov 1797 25 Feb 1805 Frederick William III (II)

Louise Augusta Wilhelmina Amalie Queen of Prussia

Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 10 Mar 1776 24 Dec 1793 16 Nov 1797 1806 9 Jul 1810 Frederick William IV (III)

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Electresses Palatine (junior line)[edit] See also: List of Rhenish consorts

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Line of Simmern

Charlotte

William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel 20 Nov 1627 22 Feb 1650 14 Apr 1657 26 Mar 1686 Charles I Louis

Wilhelmina Ernestine

Frederick III of Denmark 20 Jun 1650 20 Sep 1671 28 Aug 1680 26 May 1685 22 Apr 1706 Charles II

Line of Neuburg

Elizabeth Amalia Magdalena

George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt 20 Mar 1635 3 Sep 1653 26 May 1685 2 Sep 1690 4 Aug 1709 Philip William

Anna Maria Luisa

Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 11 Aug 1667 5 Jun 1691 8 Jun 1716 18 Feb 1743 John William

Line of Sulzbach

Elizabeth Maria Augusta

Joseph Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Palatinate-Sulzbach 17 Jan 1721 17 Jan 1742 31 Dec 1742 30 Dec 1777 became Electress of Bavaria 17 Aug 1794 Charles IV Theodore

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Electresses of Hanover, Württemberg and Hesse[edit] See also: List of Hanoverian consorts, List of consorts of Württemberg, and List of Hessian consorts

Name Image Father Born Married Became Electress Ceased to be Electress Died Husband

Hanover

Sophia

Frederick V, Elector Palatine 14 Oct 1630 30 Sep 1658 1692 23 Jan 1698 8 Jun 1714 Ernest Augustus

Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline Queen of Great Britain

John Frederick, Margrave of Ansbach 1 Mar 1683 22 Aug 1705 11 Jun 1727 20 Nov 1737 George II

Sophia Charlotte Queen of Great Britain

Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 19 May 1744 8 Sep 1761 12 Oct 1814 became Queen of Hanover 17 Nov 1818 George III

Württemberg

Charlotte Augusta Matilda

George III of the United Kingdom 29 Sep 1766 18 May 1797 25 February 1803 1 Jan 1806 became Queen of Württemberg 5 Oct 1828 Frederick I

Hesse

Wilhelmina Caroline

Frederick V of Denmark 10 July 1747 1 Sep 1764 1803 14 Jan 1820 William I

Augusta Christina Frederica

Frederick William II of Prussia 1 May 1780 13 Feb 1797 27 Feb 1821 19 Feb 1841 William II

Morganatic
Morganatic
spouses of Electors[edit]

Name Father Born Married Died Husband

Clara Tott ? ? 1471 29 Apr 1520 Frederick I, Elector Palatine

Maria Susanna Loysa, Raugravine Christoph Martin von Degenfeld 28 Nov 1634 6 Jan 1658 18 Mar 1677 Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine

Elizabeth Höllander von Bernau ? 1659 11 Dec 1679 8 Mar 1702

Violante Maria Theresa, Countess of Thurn and Taxis Count Philipp-Wilhelm of Thurn and Taxis 1 Apr 1683 1729 2 Nov 1734 Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine

Louise Caroline, Countess of Hochberg Ludwig Heinrich Philipp Geyer von Geyersberg 26 May 1768 24 Nov 1787 23 Jun 1820 Charles Frederick of Baden

Emilie Ortlöpp, Countess of Reichenbach Johann Christian Ortlöpp 13 May 1791 8 July 1841 12 Feb 1843 William II, Elector of Hesse

Caroline of Berlepsch, Baroness of Bergen Hermann Ludwig von Berlepsch 1820 28 Aug 1843 1877

Gertrude, Princess of Hanau Johann Gottfried Falkenstein 1805 26 June 1831 1882 Frederick William, Elector of Hesse

Notes[edit]

^ Thomas Curtis (1829). The London Encyclopaedia: Or, Universal Dictionary of Science, Art, Literature, and Practical Mechanics, Comprising a Popular View of the Present State of Knowledge. Illustrated by Numerous Engravings, a General Atlas, and Appropriate Diagrams. T. Tegg

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