The Info List - Eleanor Marx

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Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
(16 January 1855 – 31 March 1898), sometimes called Eleanor Aveling and known to her family as Tussy, was the English-born youngest daughter of Karl Marx. She was herself a socialist activist who sometimes worked as a literary translator. In March 1898, after discovering that Edward Aveling, her partner and a prominent British Marxist, had secretly married a young actress in June of the previous year, she committed suicide by poison. She was 43.


1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Political career 1.3 Involvement in theatre 1.4 Death and legacy

2 Ancestry 3 Publications by Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx

3.1 Writings 3.2 Translations

4 Notes 5 Further reading 6 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit]

Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
(middle) with her two sisters - Jenny Longuet, Laura Marx, father Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels

Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
was born in London
on 16 January 1855, the sixth child and fourth daughter[1] of Marx and his wife Jenny von Westphalen. She was called "Tussy" from a young age. She showed an early interest in politics, even writing to political figures during her childhood.[2] The hanging of the "Manchester Martyrs" when she was twelve, for example, horrified her and shaped her lifelong sympathy for the Fenians.[1] Her father's story-telling also inspired an interest in literature in her, she could recite passages by William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
at the age of three.[3] By her teenage years this love of Shakespeare led to the formation of the "Dogberry Club" at which she, her family and the family of Clara Collet,[4] all recited Shakespeare whilst her father watched. While Karl Marx
Karl Marx
was writing his major work Capital in the family home, his youngest daughter Eleanor played in his study. Marx invented and narrated a story for Eleanor based on an antihero called Hans Röckle. Eleanor reports that this was one of her favourite childhood stories. The story is significant because it offered Eleanor lessons through allegory of Marx's critique of political economy which he was writing in Capital.[5] As an adult, Eleanor was involved in translating and editing volumes of Capital.[6] She also edited Marx's lectures Value, Price and Profit and Wage Labour and Capital, which were based on the same material, into books.[7] Eleanor Marx's biographer, Rachel Holmes, writes: "Tussy's childhood intimacy with [Marx] whilst he wrote the first volume of Capital provided her with a thorough grounding in British economic, political and social history. Tussy and Capital grew up together".[8] At the age of sixteen, Eleanor became her father's secretary and accompanied him around the world to socialist conferences.[3] A year later, she fell in love with Lissagaray, a journalist and participant of the Paris Commune, who had fled to London
after the Commune's suppression.[1] Although he agreed with the man politically, Karl Marx disapproved of the relationship because of the age gap between the two, Lissagaray being 34 years old. Eleanor then moved away from home to Brighton
working as a schoolteacher; she lived at 6 Vernon Terrace in the Montpelier suburb.[9] A year later she helped Lissagaray write History of the Commune of 1871, and translated it into English. Her father liked the book but was still disapproving of his daughter's relationship with its author. By 1880 Karl changed his view of the situation, allowing her to marry him. However, by then Eleanor herself was having second thoughts. She terminated the relationship in 1882.[3]

Eleanor Marx, pencil drawing by Grace Black in 1881

In the early 1880s, she had to nurse her ageing parents, but her mother died in December 1881. Her elder sister, Jenny Longuet, died in January 1883, of bladder cancer, and her father died in March 1883. Before his death, her father gave her the task of taking care of the publication of his unfinished manuscripts and the English language version of his main work, Capital.[3] Political career[edit]

Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
with Wilhelm Liebknecht
Wilhelm Liebknecht
in 1886.

In 1884, Eleanor joined the Social Democratic Federation
Social Democratic Federation
(SDF) led by Henry Hyndman
Henry Hyndman
and was elected to its executive. During her work in the SDF, she met Edward Aveling, with whom she would spend the rest of her life. In the same year, a split of the organisation led her to leave it and found the rival Socialist League. The split had two root causes: personality problems, as Hyndman was accused of leading the SDF in a dictatorial fashion,[3] and disagreements on the issue of internationalism. In this point Hyndman was accused by Marx among others of nationalist tendencies. He was, for example, opposed to Marx's idea of sending delegates to the French Workers' Party
French Workers' Party
calling the proposal a "family manoeuvre", since Eleanor Marx's sister Laura and her husband Paul Lafargue
Paul Lafargue
were members of that party. Therefore, both Marx and Aveling became founding members of the Socialist League, whose most prominent member was William Morris.[1] Marx regularly wrote a regular column called "Record of the Revolutionary International Movement" for the Socialist League's monthly newspaper, Commonweal.[10] In 1884, Marx also met Clementina Black, a painter and trade unionist, and became involved in the Women's Trade Union League. She would go on to support numerous strikes including the Bryant & May strike of 1888 and the London
Dock Strike of 1889. She spoke to the Silvertown strikers at an open meeting in November 1889 alongside her friends Edith Ellis
Edith Ellis
and Honor Brooke. She helped organise the Gasworkers' Union and wrote numerous books and articles.[3] In 1885, she helped organise the International Socialist Congress in Paris.[3] The following year, she toured the United States along with Aveling and the German socialist Wilhelm Liebknecht, raising money for the Social Democratic Party of Germany.[2] By the late 1880s, the Socialist League was deeply divided between those advocating political action and its opponents – who were themselves split between those like William Morris
William Morris
who felt that parliamentary campaigns represented inevitable compromises and corruptions, and an anarchist wing which opposed all electoral politics as a matter of principle. Marx and Aveling, as firm advocates of the principle of participation in political campaigns, found themselves in an uncomfortable minority in the party. At the 4th Annual Conference of the Socialist League the Bloomsbury branch, to which Marx and Aveling belonged, moved that a meeting of all socialist bodies should be called to discuss the formation of a united organisation. This resolution was voted down by a substantial margin, as was another put forward by the same branch in support of contesting seats in both local and parliamentary elections. Moreover, the Socialist League at this occasion suspended the 80 members of the Bloomsbury branch on the grounds that the group had put up candidates jointly with the SDF, against the policy of the party. The Bloomsbury branch thus exited the Socialist League for a new, albeit brief, independent existence as the Bloomsbury Socialist Society.[11] In 1893, Keir Hardie
Keir Hardie
founded the Independent Labour Party
Independent Labour Party
(ILP), Marx attended the founding conference as an observer, while Aveling was a delegate. Their goal of shifting the ILP's positions towards Marxism failed, however, as the party remained under a strong Christian socialist influence. In 1897, Marx and Aveling re-joined the Social Democratic Federation, like most former members of the Socialist League.[1] Involvement in theatre[edit] In the 1880s, Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
became more interested in theatre and took up acting. She believed in the arts as a socialist and feminist tool.[3] In 1886, she performed a groundbreaking if critically unsuccessful reading of Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House
A Doll's House
in London, with herself as Nora Helmer, Aveling as Torvald Helmer, and George Bernard Shaw as Krogstad.[12] She also translated various literary works, including the first English translation of Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary. She expressly learnt Norwegian in order to translate Ibsen's plays into English, and in 1888, was the first to translate An Enemy of Society. Two years later, the play was revised and renamed An Enemy of the People
An Enemy of the People
by William Archer. Marx also translated Ibsen's The Lady from the Sea
The Lady from the Sea
in 1890.[13][14] Death and legacy[edit] In 1898, Eleanor discovered that the ailing Edward Aveling
Edward Aveling
had secretly married a young actress, to whom he remained committed. Aveling's illness seemed to her to be terminal, and Eleanor was deeply depressed by the faithlessness of the man she loved. On 31 March 1898, Eleanor sent the maid to the local chemist with a note to which she signed the initials of the man the chemist knew as "Dr. Aveling," asking for chloroform (some sources say "padiorium") and a small quantity of hydrogen cyanide (then called "prussic acid") for her dog.[15][16] On receiving the package, Eleanor signed a receipt for the poisons, sending the maid back to the chemists to return the receipt book. Eleanor then retired to her room, wrote two brief suicide notes, undressed, got into bed, and swallowed the poison.[17] The maid discovered Eleanor in bed, scarcely breathing, when she returned. A doctor was called for but Eleanor had died by the time he arrived. She was 43. A post mortem examination determined the cause of death to have been poison.[17] A subsequent coroner's inquest delivered a verdict of "suicide while in a state of temporary insanity," clearing Aveling of criminal wrongdoing, but he was widely reviled throughout the socialist community as having caused Eleanor to take her life.[16] A funeral service was held in a room at the London
Necropolis railway station at Waterloo on 5 April 1898, attended by a large throng of mourners. Speeches were made by Aveling, Robert Banner, Eduard Bernstein, Pete Curran, Henry Hyndman
Henry Hyndman
and Will Thorne. Following the memorial, Eleanor Marx's body was taken by rail to Woking and cremated.[18] An urn containing her ashes was subsequently kept safe by a succession of left wing organisations, including the Social Democratic Federation, the British Socialist Party, and the Communist Party of Great Britain, before finally being buried alongside the remains of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and other family members in the Tomb of Karl Marx at Highgate Cemetery
Highgate Cemetery
in London
in 1956.[19] On 9 September 2008 an English Heritage blue plaque was placed on the house at 7 Jews Walk, Sydenham, south-east London, where Eleanor spent the last few years of her life.[20] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Eleanor Marx

16. Schmuel Mordechai ha-Levi

8. Marx Levi Mordechai

17. Malka Spira

4. Heinrich Marx

18. Moïse Lwow

9. Eva Lwow

19. Bella Eger

2. Karl Marx

20. Hirschl Michl Heymann Preßburg

10. Isaac Hijman Jitschak Preßburg

21. Heintje Isaac Kutsch

5. Henrietta Preßburg

22. Salomon David Cohen-Chazzan

11. Nanette Salomon Cohen

23. Sara Brandes

1. Eleanor Marx

24. Isaac Johann Christian Westphal

12. Christian Philip Heinrich von Westphalen

25. Anna Elisabeth Henneberg

6. Ludwig von Westphalen

26. George Wishart

13. Jeanie Wishart

27. Anne Campbell

3. Jenny von Westphalen

28. Johann Michael Heubel

14. Julius Christoph Heubel

29. Anna Christiane Zimmermann

7. Amalia Julia Carolina Heubel

30. Julius Ernst Wiegand Heubel

15. Sophie Friederike Heubel

31. Marie Elisabeth Alexandrine Storch

Publications by Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
Aveling[edit] Writings[edit]

The Factory Hell. With Edward Aveling. London: Socialist League Office, 1885. The Woman Question. With Edward Aveling. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1886. Shelley's Socialism: Two Lectures. London: privately printed, 1888. Israel Zangwill / Eleanor Marx: "A doll's house" repaired. London (Reprinted from: "Time", March 1891) The Working Class Movement in America. With Edward Aveling. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1891. The Working Class Movement in England: A Brief Historical Sketch Originally Written for the "Voles lexicon" Edited by Emmanuel Wurm. London: Twentieth Century Press, 1896.


Edward Bernstein, Ferdinand Lassalle as a Social Reformer. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 1893. Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary: Provincial Manners. Vizetelly & Co., London
1886 Henrik Ibsen, An Enemy of the People. Walter Scott Publishing Co., London
1888 Henrik Ibsen, The Pillars of Society and Other Plays. London: W. Scott, 1888. Henrik Ibsen, The Lady from the Sea. Fisher T. Unwin, London
1890 Henrik Ibsen, The Wild Duck: A Drama in FIve Acts. W.H. Baker, Boston 1890 Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray, History of the Commune of 1871. Reeves / Turner, London
1886 George Plechanoff, Anarchism
and Socialism. Twentieth Century Press, London


^ a b c d e Brodie, Fran: Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
in Workers' Liberty. Retrieved 23 April 2007. ^ a b Marx Family in Encyclopedia of Marxism. Retrieved 23 April 2007. ^ a b c d e f g h Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
Archived 19 February 2004 at the Wayback Machine. in Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 23 April 2007. ^ McDonald, Deborah (2004). Clara Collet 1860–1948: An Educated Working Woman. London: Woburn Press.  ^ Holmes, Rachel. Eleanor Marx: A Life. London: Bloomsbury. 2014. pgs 18-19. ^ Holmes, Rachel. Eleanor Marx: A Life. London: Bloomsbury. 2014. pgs 372, 393 ^ Holmes, Rachel. Eleanor Marx: A Life. London: Bloomsbury. 2014. pg. 408 ^ Holmes, Rachel. Eleanor Marx: A Life. London: Bloomsbury. 2014. pg 48 ^ Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton
& Hove Libraries. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2.  ^ Yvonne Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 2. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976; pg. 66. ^ Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 2, pp. 264–265. ^ Ronald Florence, Marx's Daughters, New York: Dial Press, 1975 ^ Bernstein, Susan David (2013). Roomscape: Women Writers in the British Museum from George Eliot to Virginia Woolf. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 47–48.  ^ Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
bibliography[permanent dead link] on marxists.org. Retrieved 23 April 2007. ^ Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 2, pg. 696. ^ a b Gwyther, Matthew (23 September 2000). "Inside story: 7 Jew's Walk". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012.  ^ a b Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 2, pp. 696–697. ^ Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 2, pp. 702–703. ^ Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 2, pp. 703–704. ^ "Marx, Eleanor (1855–1898)". 

Further reading[edit]

Rachel Holmes, Eleanor Marx: A Life. London: Bloomsbury, 2014. Yvonne Kapp, Eleanor Marx: Volume 1: Family Life, 1855–1883. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1972. Also: New York: Pantheon Books, 1976. Yvonne Kapp, Eleanor Marx, Volume 2: The Crowded Years, 1884–1898. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1976. Also: New York: Pantheon Books, 1976. Olga Meier and Faith Evans (eds.), The Daughters of Karl Marx: Family Correspondence, 1866–1898. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982. John Stokes, Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
(1855–1898): Life, Work, Contacts. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000. Chūshichi Tsuzuki, The Life of Eleanor Marx, 1855–1898: A Socialist Tragedy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967. McLellan, David (2004). "Marx, (Jenny Julia) Eleanor". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/40945.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links[edit]

Works written by or about Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
at Wikisource Works by Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
at Internet Archive Works by Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
Internet Archive, at Marxists Internet Archive. Eleanor Marx
Eleanor Marx
biography on Women of Brighton

v t e

Karl Marx


Jenny von Westphalen Eleanor Marx Paul Lafargue Edward Aveling Helene Demuth


Karl Marx: The Story of His Life Karl Marx: His Life and Environment Karl Marx: His Life and Thought


Die Deutschen Marx Reloaded The Young Karl Marx


Communist League International Workingmens Association

Other cultural depictions

Assassin's Creed Syndicate Marx in Soho "The Philosophers' Football Match" Tomb "World Forum/Communist Quiz" Young Marx


Friedrich Engels

Timeline of Karl Marx

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 252974120 LCCN: n50029939 ISNI: 0000 0001 0854 7447 GND: 118745913 SELIBR: 37405 SUDOC: 027014509 BNF: cb11914927j (data) BIBSYS: 90732793 NLA: 35011126 NDL: 00519688 NKC: skuk0000836 BNE: XX1301