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Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(/ˈɡɛri/; July 17, 1744 (O.S. July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth Vice President of the United States from March 1813 until his death in November 1814. He is known best for being the namesake of gerrymandering, a process by which electoral districts are drawn with the aim of aiding the party in power, although its initial "g" has recently softened to /dʒ/ from the hard /ɡ/ of his name.[2] Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British colonial policy in the 1760s, and was active in the early stages of organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
because it did not then include a Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural United States Congress, where he was actively involved in drafting and passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state liberties. Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, and cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France
France
that was treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts
Governor of Massachusetts
several times before winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the word "gerrymander"; he lost the next election, although the state senate remained Democratic-Republican. Chosen by Madison as his vice presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and a half into his term. He is the only signer of the Declaration of Independence who is buried in Washington, D.C.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early political career 3 Congress and Revolution 4 Constitutional Convention

4.1 Advocating indirect elections 4.2 Voting against proposed constitution 4.3 State ratification; Bill of Rights

5 United States House of Representatives 6 XYZ Affair 7 Governor of Massachusetts 8 Vice Presidency and death 9 Legacy 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life[edit] Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
was born on July 17, 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts. His father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating ships out of Marblehead, and his mother, Elizabeth (Greenleaf) Gerry, was the daughter of a successful Boston
Boston
merchant.[3] Gerry's first name came from John Elbridge, one of his mother's ancestors.[4] Gerry's parents had eleven children in all, although only five survived to adulthood. Of these, Elbridge was the third.[5] He was first educated by private tutors, and entered Harvard College
Harvard College
shortly before turning fourteen. After receiving a B.A. in 1762 and an M.A. in 1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest Massachusetts
Massachusetts
merchants, with trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, and along the North American coast.[3][6] Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the local militia.[7] Early political career[edit] Gerry was from an early time a vocal opponent of Parliamentary efforts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
ended in 1763. In 1770 he sat on a Marblehead committee that sought to enforce importation bans on taxed British goods. He frequently communicated with other Massachusetts
Massachusetts
opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, and others.[3] In May 1772 he won election to the Great and General Court of the Province of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay (its legislative assembly). There he worked closely with Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams
to advance colonial opposition to Parliamentary colonial policies. He was responsible for establishing Marblehead's committee of correspondence, one of the first to be set up after that of Boston.[8] However, an incident of mob action prompted him to resign from the committee the next year. Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island; because the means of transmission of the disease were not known at the time, fears amongst the local population led to protests which escalated into violence that wrecked the facilities and threatened the proprietors' other properties.[9] Gerry reentered politics after the Boston
Boston
Port Act closed that city's port in 1774, and Marblehead became a port to which relief supplies from other colonies could be delivered. As one of the town's leading merchants and Patriots, Gerry played a major role in ensuring the storage and delivery of supplies from Marblehead to Boston, interrupting those activities only to care for his dying father. He was elected as a representative to the First Continental Congress
First Continental Congress
in September 1774, but refused, still grieving the loss of his father.[10] Congress and Revolution[edit] Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted itself as the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Provincial Congress after Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the body in October 1774.[11] He was assigned to its committee of safety, responsible for assuring that the province's limited supplies of weapons and gunpowder remained out of British Army hands. His actions were partly responsible for the storage of weapons and ammunition in Concord; these stores were the target of the British raiding expedition that sparked the start of the American Revolutionary War with the Battles of Lexington and Concord
Battles of Lexington and Concord
in April 1775.[12] (Gerry was staying at an inn at Menotomy, now Arlington, when the British marched through on the night of April 18.)[13] During the Siege of Boston
Boston
that followed, Gerry continued to take a leading role in supplying the nascent Continental Army, something he would continue to do as the war progressed.[14] He leveraged business contacts in France
France
and Spain
Spain
to acquire not just munitions, but supplies of all types, and was involved in the transfer of financial subsidies from Spain
Spain
to Congress. He sent ships to ports all along the American coast, and dabbled in financing privateering operations.[15]

John Adams
John Adams
(portrait by John Trumbull) held Gerry in high regard.

Unlike some merchants, there is no evidence that Gerry profiteered from this activity (he spoke out against it, and in favor of price controls), although his war-related merchant activities notably increased the family's wealth.[16] His gains were tempered to some extent by the precipitous decline in the value of paper currencies, which he held in large quantities and speculated in.[17] Gerry served in the Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
from February 1776 to 1780, when matters of the ongoing war occupied the body's attention. He was influential in convincing a number of delegates to support passage of the United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
in the debates held during the summer of 1776; John Adams
John Adams
wrote of him, "If every Man here was a Gerry, the Liberties of America would be safe against the Gates of Earth and Hell."[18] He was implicated as a member of the so-called "Conway Cabal", a group of Congressmen and military officers who were dissatisfied with the performance of General George Washington
George Washington
during the 1777 military campaign. However, Gerry took Pennsylvania leader Thomas Mifflin, one of Washington's critics, to task early in the episode, and specifically denied knowledge of any sort of conspiracy against Washington in February 1778.[19] Gerry's political philosophy was one of limited central government, and he regularly advocated for the maintenance of civilian control of the military. He held these positions fairly consistently throughout his political career (wavering principally on the need for stronger central government in the wake of the 1786–87 Shays's Rebellion) and was well known for his personal integrity.[20] In later years he was against the idea of political parties, remaining somewhat distant from the developing Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties until later in his career. It was not until 1800 that he would formally associate with the Democratic-Republicans in opposition to what he saw as attempts by the Federalists to centralize too much power in the national government.[21] In 1780 he resigned from the Continental Congress over the issue, and refused offers from the state legislature to return to the Congress.[22] He also refused appointment to the state senate, claiming he would be more effective in the state's lower chamber, and also refused appointment as a county judge, comparing the offer by Governor John Hancock
John Hancock
to those made by royally appointed governors to benefit their political allies.[23] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1781.[24] Gerry was convinced to rejoin the Confederation Congress
Confederation Congress
in 1783, when the state legislature agreed to support his call for needed reforms.[25] He served in that body until September 1785, during which time it met in New York City. The following year he married Ann Thompson, the daughter of a wealthy New York merchant who was twenty years his junior; his best man was his good friend James Monroe.[18][26] The couple had ten children between 1787 and 1801, straining Ann's health.[18] The war made Gerry sufficiently wealthy that when it ended he sold off his merchant interests, and began investing in land. In 1787 he purchased the Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
estate of the last royal lieutenant governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Oliver, which had been confiscated by the state. This 100-acre (40 ha) property, known as Elmwood, became the family home for the rest of Gerry's life.[27] He continued to own property in Marblehead, and bought a number of properties in other Massachusetts
Massachusetts
communities. He also owned shares in the Ohio Company, prompting some political opponents to characterize him as an owner of vast tracts of western lands.[28] Constitutional Convention[edit] Gerry played a major role in the U.S. Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
during the summer of 1787.[29] In its deliberations he consistently advocated for a strong delineation between state and federal government powers, with state legislatures shaping the membership of federal government positions. Gerry's opposition to popular election of representatives was rooted in part by the events of Shays's Rebellion, a populist uprising in western Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in the year preceding the convention. Despite this position, he also sought to maintain individual liberties by providing checks on government power that might abuse or limit those freedoms.[30] He supported the idea that the Senate composition should not be determined by population; the view that it should instead be composed of equal numbers of members for each state prevailed in the Connecticut
Connecticut
Compromise. The compromise was adopted on a narrow vote in which the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
delegation was divided, Gerry and Caleb Strong voting in favor.[31] Gerry further proposed that senators of a state, rather than casting a single vote on behalf of the state, instead vote as individuals.[32] Gerry was also vocal in opposing the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of apportionment in the House of Representatives and gave southern states a decided advantage.[33]

Gerry's preference for a more highly centralized government throughout most of the Convention was not motivated by a desire for great social changes, but was intended rather to restrain such popular excesses as were evidenced in Shays's Rebellion. ... [H]e defended popular rights when the people appeared to be threatened by some powerful interest groups, and he called for restraints on popular influence when the people seemed to be gaining the upper hand too much.

—George Athan Billias[34]

Advocating indirect elections[edit] Because of his fear of demagoguery and belief the people of the United States could be easily misled, Gerry also advocated indirect elections. Although he was unsuccessful in obtaining them for the lower house of Congress, Gerry did obtain such indirect elections for the U.S. Senate, whose members were to be elected by the state legislatures. Gerry also advanced numerous proposals for indirect elections of the President of the United States, most of them involving limiting the right to vote to the state governors and electors.[35] Voting against proposed constitution[edit] Gerry was also unhappy about the lack of expression of any sort of individual liberties in the proposed constitution, and generally opposed proposals that strengthened the central government. He was one of only three delegates who voted against the proposed constitution in the convention (the others were George Mason
George Mason
and Edmund Randolph), citing a concern about the convention's lack of authority to enact such major changes to the nation's system of government, and to the constitution's lack of "federal features".[36] State ratification; Bill of Rights[edit] During the ratification debates that took place in the states following the convention, Gerry continued his opposition, publishing a widely circulated letter documenting his objections to the proposed constitution.[37] In this document he cited the lack of a Bill of Rights as his primary objection, but also expressed qualified approval of the constitution, indicating that he would accept it with some amendment.[38] Strong pro-Constitution forces attacked him in the press, comparing him unfavorably to the Shaysites. Henry Jackson was particularly vicious: "[Gerry has] done more injury to this country by that infamous Letter than he will be able to make atonement in his whole life",[37] and Oliver Ellsworth, a convention delegate from Connecticut, charged him with deliberately courting the Shays faction.[39] One consequence of the furor over his letter was that he was not selected as a delegate to the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
ratifying convention,[40] although he was later invited to attend by the convention's leadership. The convention leadership was dominated by Federalists, and Gerry was not given any formal opportunity to speak; he left the convention after a shouting match with convention chair Francis Dana.[41] The state ratified the constitution by a vote of 187 to 168.[42] The debate had the result of estranging Gerry from a number of previously friendly politicians, including chairman Dana and Rufus King.[43] United States House of Representatives[edit] Anti-Federalist forces nominated Gerry for governor in 1788, but he was predictably defeated by the popular incumbent John Hancock.[44] Following ratification, Gerry recanted his opposition to the Constitution, noting that a number of state ratifying conventions had called for amendments that he supported.[45] He was nominated by friends (over his own opposition to the idea) for a seat in the inaugural House of Representatives, where he then served two terms.[46]

Gerry supported the economic policies of Federalist Alexander Hamilton (portrait by Ezra Ames).

In June 1789 Gerry proposed that Congress consider all of the proposed constitutional amendments that various state ratifying conventions had called for (notably those of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and North Carolina, which had at the time still not ratified the constitution).[47] In the debate that followed, he led opposition to some of the proposals, arguing that they did not go far enough in ensuring individual liberties. He successfully lobbied for inclusion of freedom of assembly in the First Amendment, and was a leading architect of the Fourth Amendment protections against search and seizure.[48] He sought unsuccessfully to insert the word "expressly" into the Tenth Amendment, which might have more significantly limited the federal government's power.[49] He was successful in efforts to severely limit the federal government's ability to control state militias.[50] In tandem, with this protection, he had once argued against the idea of the federal government controlling a large standing army, comparing it – most memorably and mischievously – to a standing penis: "An excellent assurance of domestic tranquility, but a dangerous temptation to foreign adventure."[51] Gerry vigorously supported Alexander Hamilton's reports on public credit, including the assumption at full value of state debts, and supported Hamilton's new Bank of the United States, positions consistent with earlier calls he had made for economic centralization.[52] Although he speculated in depreciated Continental bills of credit (the IOUs at issue), there is no evidence he participated in large-scale speculation that attended the debate when it took place in 1790, and he became a major investor in the new bank.[53] He used the floor of the House to speak out against aristocratic and monarchical tendencies he saw as threats to republican ideals, and generally opposed laws and their provisions that he perceived as limiting individual and state liberties. He opposed any attempt to give officers of the executive significant powers, specifically opposing establishment of the Treasury Department because its head might gain more power than the President.[54] He opposed measures that strengthened the Presidency (such as the ability to fire cabinet officers), seeking instead to give the legislature more power over appointments.[55] Gerry did not stand for re-election in 1792, returning home to raise his children and care for his sickly wife.[56] He agreed to serve as a presidential elector for John Adams
John Adams
in the 1796 election.[57] During Adams' term in office, Gerry maintained good relations with both Adams and Vice President Thomas Jefferson, hoping that the divided executive might lead to less friction. His hopes were not realized: the split between Federalists (Adams) and Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson) widened.[58] XYZ Affair[edit] Main article: XYZ Affair

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
(portrait by François Gérard) insisted Gerry remain in Paris after negotiations failed.

President Adams appointed Gerry to be a member of a special diplomatic commission sent to Republican France
France
in 1797.[59] Tensions had risen between the two nations after the 1796 ratification of the Jay Treaty, made between the US and Great Britain. It was seen by French leaders as signs of an Anglo-American alliance, and France
France
had consequently stepped up seizures of American ships.[60] Adams chose Gerry, over his cabinet's opposition (on political grounds that Gerry was insufficiently Federalist), because of their long-standing relationship; Adams described Gerry as one of the "two most impartial men in America" (Adams himself being the other).[59] Gerry joined co-commissioners Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
and John Marshall in France
France
in October 1797 and met briefly with Foreign Minister Talleyrand.[61] Some days after that meeting, the delegation was approached by three French agents (at first identified as "X", "Y", and "Z" in published papers, leading the controversy to be called the "XYZ Affair") who demanded substantial bribes from the commissioners before negotiations could continue.[62] The commissioners refused, and sought unsuccessfully to engage Talleyrand in formal negotiations.[63] Believing Gerry to be the most approachable of the commissioners, Talleyrand successively froze first Pinckney and then Marshall out of the informal negotiations, and they left France
France
in April 1798.[64] Gerry, who sought to leave with them, stayed behind because Talleyrand threatened war if he left.[65] Gerry refused to make any significant negotiations afterward and left Paris in August.[66] By then dispatches describing the commission's reception had been published in the United States, raising calls for war.[67] The undeclared naval Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) followed.[68] Federalists, notably Secretary of State Timothy Pickering, accused Gerry of supporting the French and abetting the breakdown of the talks, while Adams and Republicans such as Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
supported him.[69] The negative press damaged Gerry's reputation, and he was burned in effigy by protestors in front of his home. He was only later vindicated, when his correspondence with Talleyrand was published.[58] In response to the Federalist attacks on him, and because of his perception that the Federalist-led military buildup threatened republican values, Gerry formally joined the Democratic-Republican Party in early 1800, standing for election as Governor of Massachusetts.[70] Governor of Massachusetts[edit] For four years Gerry unsuccessfully sought the governorship of Massachusetts. His opponent in these races, Caleb Strong, was a popular moderate Federalist, whose party dominated the state's politics despite a national shift toward the Republicans.[71] In 1803 Republicans in the state were divided, and Gerry only had regional support of the party. He decided not to run in 1804, returning to semi-retirement[72] and to deal with a personal financial crisis. His brother Samuel Russell had mismanaged his own business affairs, and Gerry had propped him up by guaranteeing a loan that was due. The matter ultimately ruined Gerry's finances for his remaining years.[73] Republican James Sullivan won the governor's seat from Strong in 1807, but his successor was unable to hold the seat in the 1809 election, which went to Federalist Christopher Gore.[74] Gerry stood for election again in 1810 against Gore, and won a narrow victory. Republicans cast Gore as an ostentatious British-loving Tory who wanted to restore the monarchy (his parents had remained Loyal during the Revolution), and Gerry as a patriotic American, while Federalists described Gerry as a "French partizan" and Gore as an honest man devoted to ridding the government of foreign influence.[75] A temporary lessening in the threat of war with Britain aided Gerry.[76] The two battled again in 1811, with Gerry once again victorious in a highly acrimonious campaign.[77][78]

The word gerrymander (originally written Gerry-mander) was used for the first time in the Boston
Boston
Gazette newspaper on March 26, 1812.[79] Appearing with the term, and helping spread and sustain its popularity, was this political cartoon, which depicts a state senate district in Essex County as a strange animal with claws, wings and a dragon-type head, satirizing the district's odd shape.

Gerry's first year as governor was less controversial than his second, because the Federalists controlled the state senate. He preached moderation in the political discourse, noting that it was important that the nation present a unified front in its dealings with foreign powers.[80] In his second term, with full Republican control of the legislature, he became notably more partisan, purging much of the state government of Federalist appointees. The legislature also enacted "reforms" of the court system that resulted in an increase in the number of judicial appointments, which Gerry filled with Republican partisans. Infighting within the party and a shortage of qualified candidates, however, played against Gerry, and the Federalists scored points by complaining vocally about the partisan nature of the reforms.[81] Other legislation passed during Gerry's second year included a bill broadening the membership of Harvard's Board of Overseers to diversify its religious membership, and another that liberalized religious taxes. The Harvard bill had significant political slant because the recent split between orthodox Congregationalists and Unitarians also divided the state to some extent along party lines, and Federalist Unitarians had recently gained control over the Harvard board.[82] In 1812 the state adopted new constitutionally mandated electoral district boundaries. The Republican-controlled legislature had created district boundaries designed to enhance their party's control over state and national offices, leading to some oddly shaped legislative districts.[83] Although Gerry was unhappy about the highly partisan districting (according to his son-in-law, he thought it "highly disagreeable"), he signed the legislation. The shape of one of the state senate districts in Essex County was compared to a salamander by a local Federalist newspaper in a political cartoon, calling it a "Gerry-mander".[84] Ever since, the creation of such districts has been called gerrymandering.[83] Gerry also engaged in partisan investigations of potential libel against him by elements of the Federalist press, further damaging his popularity with moderates. The redistricting controversy, along with the libel investigation and the impending War of 1812, contributed to Gerry's defeat in 1812 (once again at the hands of Caleb Strong, whom the Federalists had brought out of retirement).[85][86] The gerrymandering of the state senate was a notable success in the 1812 election: the body was thoroughly dominated by Republicans, even though the house and the governor's seat went to Federalists by substantial margins.[79] Vice Presidency and death[edit] Gerry's financial difficulties prompted him to ask President James Madison for a federal position after his loss in the 1812 election (which was held early in the year).[86] He was chosen by the Democratic-Republican party congress to be Madison's vice presidential running mate in the 1812 presidential election, although the nomination was first offered to John Langdon. He was viewed as a relatively safe choice who would attract Northern votes but not pose a threat to James Monroe, who was thought likely to succeed Madison. Madison easily won reelection, and Gerry took the oath of office at Elmwood in March 1813.[87] At that time the office of vice president was largely a sinecure; Gerry's duties included advancing the administration's agenda in Congress and dispensing patronage positions in New England.[88] Gerry's actions in support of the War of 1812
War of 1812
had a partisan edge: he expressed concerns over a possible Federalist seizure of Fort Adams (as Boston's Fort Independence was then known) as a prelude to Anglo-Federalist cooperation, and sought the arrest of printers of Federalist newspapers.[89] On November 23, 1814, he fell seriously ill while visiting Joseph Nourse of the Treasury Department,[90] and died not long after returning to his home in the Seven Buildings.[91] He is buried in the Congressional Cemetery
Congressional Cemetery
in Washington, D.C.,[92] with a memorial by John Frazee.[93] He is the only signer of the Declaration buried in the nation's capital.[94] The estate he left his wife and children was rich in land and poor in cash; he had managed to repay his brother's debts with his pay as vice president.[91] Aged 68 at the start of his Vice Presidency, he would be the oldest person to become VP until Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
in 1929. Legacy[edit]

Elbridge Gerry House
Elbridge Gerry House
in Marblehead

Gerry is generally remembered for the use of his name in the word gerrymander, for his refusal to sign the United States Constitution, and for his role in the XYZ Affair. His path through the politics of the age has been difficult to characterize; early biographers, including his son-in-law James T. Austin and Samuel Eliot Morison, struggled to explain his apparent changes in position. Biographer George Athan Billias posits that Gerry was a consistent advocate and practitioner of republicanism as it was originally envisioned,[95] and that his role in the Constitutional Convention had a significant impact on the document it eventually produced.[96] Gerry had ten children, of which seven survived into adulthood: Gerry's son, James Thompson Gerry, commanded the USS Albany, a United States Navy war sloop that went down with all hands in 1854.[97]

Catharine Gerry (1787–1850) Eliza Gerry (1791–1882) Ann Gerry
Ann Gerry
(1791–1883) Elbridge Gerry, Jr. (1793–1867)[98] Thomas Russell Gerry
Thomas Russell Gerry
(1794–1848), who married Hannah Green Goelet (1804–1845)[99] Helen Maria Gerry (1796–1864) James Thompson Gerry (1797–1854), who left West Point
West Point
upon his father's death and was Commander of the war-sloop USS Albany (1846); the sloop disappeared with all hands 28 or 29 September 1854 near the West Indies.[100]

Gerry's grandson Elbridge Thomas Gerry became a distinguished lawyer and philanthropist in New York. His great-grandson, Peter G. Gerry (1879–1957), was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives and a United States Senator from Rhode Island.[101]

General George Washington
George Washington
Resigning His Commission, by John Trumbull, shows Gerry standing on the left[102]

Gerry is depicted in two of John Trumbull's paintings, the Declaration of Independence and General George Washington
George Washington
Resigning His Commission.[103] Both are on view in the rotunda of the United States Capitol.[102] The upstate New York town of Elbridge is believed to have been named in his honor, as is the western New York town of Gerry, in Chautauqua County.[104][105] The town of Phillipston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
was originally incorporated in 1786 under the name Gerry in his honor, but was changed to its present name after the town submitted a petition in 1812, citing Democratic-Republican support for the War of 1812.[106] Gerry's Landing Road in Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is located near the Eliot Bridge
Eliot Bridge
not far from Elmwood. During the 19th century, the area was known as Gerry's Landing (formerly known as Sir Richard's Landing), and was used by a Gerry relative for a short time as a landing and storehouse.[107][108] The supposed house of his birth, the Elbridge Gerry House
Elbridge Gerry House
(it is uncertain whether he was born in the house currently standing on the site or an earlier structure) stands in Marblehead, and that town's Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
School is named in his honor.[109][110] References[edit] Notes

^ Austin, James Trecothick (1829). The Life of Elbridge Gerry: With Contemporary Letters. To the Close of the American Revolution. Wells and Lilly. pp. 308–. Retrieved 18 December 2013.  ^ Elster, p. 224 ^ a b c Purcell, p. 46 ^ Greenleaf, p. 77 ^ Billias, p. 5 ^ Billias, p. 4 ^ Billias, p. 3 ^ Austin, pp. 6–27 ^ Gilje, pp. 44–45 ^ Billias, pp. 42–44 ^ Billias, p. 46 ^ Billias, p. 49 ^ Billias, p. 52 ^ Billias, pp. 55–56 ^ Billias, pp. 124–30 ^ Billias, pp. 56, 123 ^ Billias, pp. 134–35 ^ a b c Hatfield, Mark. "Vice Presidents of the United States: Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(1813–1814)" (PDF). Senate Historical Office. Retrieved 2012-10-24.  ^ Billias, pp. 76–77 ^ Billias, pp. 140, 152, 192 ^ Billias, p. 105 ^ Billias, p. 101 ^ Billias, p. 102 ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter G" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.  ^ Billias, p. 103 ^ Ammon, p. 61 ^ "National Register Nomination for Elmwood" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-10-24.  ^ Billias, p. 137 ^ Billias, p. 158 ^ Billias, pp. 153–54 ^ Billias, p. 178 ^ Billias, p. 182 ^ Billias, p. 168 ^ Billias, p. 203 ^ https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2006/spring/gerry.html "A Founding Father in Dissent Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
Helped Inspire Bill of Rights in His Opposition to the Constitution". National Archives. ^ Billias, p. 159, 200 ^ a b Billias, p. 209 ^ Billias, pp. 207–08 ^ Billias, p. 212 ^ Billias, p. 211 ^ Billias, p. 213 ^ Billias, p. 214 ^ Billias, pp. 207–08, 213 ^ Billias, p. 215 ^ Billias, p. 207 ^ Billias, pp. 216, 243 ^ Billias, p. 229 ^ Billias, p. 231 ^ Billias, pp. 233–34 ^ Billias, p. 232 ^ Isaacson, Walter (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 456. ISBN 0-684-80761-0.  ^ Billias, pp. 223, 237 ^ Billias, pp. 240, 242 ^ Billias, p. 225 ^ Billias, p. 226 ^ Billias, p. 243 ^ Billias, p. 245 ^ a b Purcell, pp. 51–52 ^ a b Ferling, p. 345 ^ Elkins and McKitrick, pp. 537–38 ^ Stinchcombe, pp. 596–97 ^ Billias, pp. 268–69 ^ Billias, pp. 272–75 ^ Stinchcombe, pp. 598–613 ^ Billias, p. 280 ^ Billias, p. 283 ^ Ferling, pp. 354–57 ^ Smith, p. 130 ^ Billias, pp. 289–93 ^ Billias, pp. 289, 301 ^ Buel, pp. 39–44 ^ Billias, pp. 304–305 ^ Billias, pp. 305–06 ^ Buel, pp. 73–82, 103–04 ^ Billias, p. 313 ^ Buel, pp. 104–07 ^ Buel, pp. 116–17 ^ Formisano, p. 74 ^ a b Griffith, pp. 72–73 ^ Buel, pp. 107–08 ^ Buel, pp. 144–47 ^ Formisano, p. 76 ^ a b Hart, p. 3:458 ^ Billias, p. 317 ^ Buel, pp. 148–49 ^ a b Billias, p. 323 ^ Billias, p. 324 ^ Billias, p. 327 ^ Morison, p. 2:57 ^ "To John Adams
John Adams
from Rufus King, 23 November 1814". archive.gov. Retrieved 12 May 2015.  ^ a b Billias, p. 329 ^ Purcell, p. 53 ^ "Search results for: Frazee John, page 2 - Collections Search Center, Smithsonian Institution". collections.si.edu.  ^ Roberts and Schmidt, p. 47 ^ Billias, p. 2 ^ Billias, p. 204 ^ Adams Family, Adams Family Correspondence, Volume 12, Harvard University Press, 2015, editor's note p. 20. ^ "DIED". May 21, 1867. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  ^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence. "The Political Graveyard: Gerry family". politicalgraveyard.com. The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  ^ See U.S. Military and Naval Academies, Cadet Records and Applications, 1805–1908, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; U.S. Military Academy Cadet Application Papers, 1805–1866; Microfilm Serial: M688; Microfilm Roll: 3, File
File
#1–108 and Unnumbered; 1814: James T. Gerry, 1814. Accessed 4 November 2015. (subscription required). See also Charles R. Hale Collection. Hale Collection of Connecticut
Connecticut
Cemetery Inscriptions. Hartford, Connecticut: Connecticut
Connecticut
State Library. Connecticut Headstone Inscriptions Vol 32, Transcription here. Accessed 4 November 2015. ^ "Biographical Abstract of Peter G. Gerry". United States Congress. Retrieved 2012-12-08.  ^ a b "General George Washington
George Washington
Resigning His Commission". Architect of the Capitol.  ^ Weir, pp. 66–67 ^ Beauchamp, p. 361 ^ Downs and Hedley, p. 187 ^ Marvin, pp. 220–21 ^ Publications of the Cambridge Historical Society, p. 85 ^ Bethell et al, p. 62 ^ "MACRIS Inventory: Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
House". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2012-12-08.  ^ "MACRIS Inventory: Eldridge[sic] Gerry School". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2012-12-08. 

Sources

Ammon, Harry (1990) [1971]. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 9780813912660. OCLC 20294950.  Austin, James (1828–29). Life of Elbridge Gerry. Boston: Wells and Lily. OCLC 3672336.  Volume 2 Austin was Gerry's son-in-law. Bethell, John; Hunt, Richard; Shenton, Robert (2004). Harvard A to Z. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Harvard University
Press. ISBN 9780674012882. OCLC 492735502.  Beauchamp, William (1908). Past and Present of Syracuse and Onondaga County, Volume 1. New York: S. J. Clark. OCLC 3151469.  Billias, George (1976). Elbridge Gerry, Founding Father and Republican Statesman. McGraw-Hill Publishers. ISBN 0-07-005269-7.  Buel, Richard (2005). America on the Brink. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403962386. OCLC 55510543.  Downs, John Phillips; Hedley, Frederick (1921). History of Chautauqua County and its People, Volume 1. Boston: American Historical Society. OCLC 1215442.  Elkins, Stanley; McKitrick, Eric (1993). The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195068900. OCLC 26720733.  Elster, Charles (2005). The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780618423156. OCLC 317828351.  Ferling, John (1992). John Adams: A Life. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0870497308.  Formisano, Ronald (1983). The Transformation of Political Culture: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Parties, 1790s–1840s. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195035094. OCLC 18429354.  Gilje, Paul (1999). Rioting in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253212627. OCLC 185656124.  Greenleaf, James (1910). Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family. Boston: F. Wood. OCLC 4652345.  Griffith, Elmer (1907). The Rise and Development of the Gerrymander. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co. OCLC 45790508.  Hart, Albert Bushnell (ed) (1927). Commonwealth History of Massachusetts. New York: The States History Company. OCLC 1543273. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) (five volume history of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
until the early 20th century) Marvin, Abijah (1879). History of Worcester County, Volume 2. Boston: C. F. Jewett. OCLC 1804192.  Morison, Samuel Eliot (2006) [1913]. The Life and Letters of Harrison Gray Otis. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 9781428606494. OCLC 706649803.  Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 9781438130712. OCLC 650307529.  Roberts, Rebecca Boggs; Schmidt, Sandra K (2012). Historic Congressional Cemetery. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738592244. OCLC 769988285.  Smith, Jean Edward (1996). John Marshall: Definer Of A Nation. New York: Henry, Holt & Company. ISBN 9780805055108. OCLC 248101402.  Stinchcombe, William (October 1977). "The Diplomacy of the WXYZ Affair". William and Mary Quarterly (34:590–617). JSTOR 2936184.  Trees, Andy (2000). "Private Correspondence for the Public Good: Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
to Elbridge Gerry, 26 January 1799". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Virginia Historical Society. 108 (3): 217–254. ISSN 0042-6636. JSTOR 4249849.  Shows that Gerry ignored Jefferson's 1799 letter inviting him to switch parties. Weir, John (1901). John Trumbull: A Brief Sketch of his Life. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. OCLC 2103628.  Political Register and Congressional Directory. Boston: Houghton, Osgood. 1878. OCLC 1466601.  Publications of the Cambridge Historical Society. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Historical Society. 1920. OCLC 6177743. 

Further reading[edit]

Kramer, Eugene F (1956). "Some New Light on the XYZ Affair: Elbridge Gerry's Reasons for Opposing War with France". New England Quarterly (Volume 29, No. 4): 509–13. ISSN 0028-4866.  Billias, George. Elbridge Gerry: Founding Father and Republican Statesman. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutElbridge Gerryat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

United States Congress. " Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(id: G000139)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Elbridge Thomas Gerry at Find a Grave Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856 A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825 Delegates to the Constitutional Convention: Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(Brief Biography of Gerry) Gerry family archive at Hartwick College

U.S. House of Representatives

New constituency Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district 1789–1793 Succeeded by Shearjashub Bourne Peleg Coffin Jr.

Party political offices

New political party Democratic-Republican nominee for Governor of Massachusetts 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 Succeeded by James Sullivan

Preceded by Levi Lincoln Democratic-Republican nominee for Governor of Massachusetts 1810, 1811, 1812 Succeeded by Joseph B. Varnum

Preceded by George Clinton Democratic-Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States 1812 Succeeded by Daniel D. Tompkins

Political offices

Preceded by Christopher Gore Governor of Massachusetts 1810–1812 Succeeded by Caleb Strong

Preceded by George Clinton Vice President of the United States 1813–1814 Succeeded by Daniel D. Tompkins

v t e

Signers of the United States Declaration of Independence

Physical history of the Declaration of Independence, Memorial

J. Adams S. Adams Bartlett Braxton Carroll Chase Clark Clymer Ellery Floyd Franklin Gerry Gwinnett Hall Hancock Harrison Hart Hewes Heyward Hooper Hopkins Hopkinson Huntington Jefferson F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Livingston Lynch McKean Middleton L. Morris R. Morris Morton Nelson Paca Paine Penn Read Rodney Ross Rush Rutledge Sherman Smith Stockton Stone Taylor Thornton Walton Whipple Williams Wilson Witherspoon Wolcott Wythe

v t e

Signers of the Articles of Confederation

A. Adams S. Adams T. Adams Banister Bartlett Carroll Clingan Collins Dana Dickinson Drayton Duane Duer Ellery Gerry Hancock Hanson Harnett Harvie Heyward Holten Hosmer Huntington Hutson Langworthy Laurens F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Lovell Marchant Mathews McKean G. Morris R. Morris Penn Reed Roberdeau Scudder Sherman Smith Telfair Van Dyke Walton Wentworth Williams Witherspoon Wolcott

v t e

Vice Presidents of the United States (list)

John Adams
John Adams
(1789–1797) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1797–1801) Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
(1801–1805) George Clinton (1805–1812) Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(1813–1814) Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1817–1825) John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(1825–1832) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1833–1837) Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1845–1849) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1849–1850) William R. King
William R. King
(1853) John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge
(1857–1861) Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865) Schuyler Colfax
Schuyler Colfax
(1869–1873) Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
(1873–1875) William A. Wheeler
William A. Wheeler
(1877–1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881) Thomas A. Hendricks
Thomas A. Hendricks
(1885) Levi P. Morton
Levi P. Morton
(1889–1893) Adlai Stevenson (1893–1897) Garret Hobart
Garret Hobart
(1897–1899) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901) Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks
(1905–1909) James S. Sherman
James S. Sherman
(1909–1912) Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas R. Marshall
(1913–1921) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1921–1923) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1925–1929) Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(1929–1933) John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner
(1933–1941) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–1953) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1953–1961) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1961–1963) Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
(1965–1969) Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
(1969–1973) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1973–1974) Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
(1974–1977) Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
(1977–1981) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–1989) Dan Quayle
Dan Quayle
(1989–1993) Al Gore
Al Gore
(1993–2001) Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–2009) Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(2009–2017) Mike Pence
Mike Pence
(2017–present)

List Category

v t e

Governors of Massachusetts

Colony (1629–86)

Endecott Winthrop T. Dudley Haynes Vane Winthrop T. Dudley Bellingham Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Endecott Bellingham Endecott Bellingham Leverett Bradstreet

Dominion (1686–89)

J. Dudley Andros Bradstreet

Province (1692–1776)

W. Phips Stoughton Bellomont Stoughton Governor's Council J. Dudley Governor's Council J. Dudley Tailer Shute Dummer Burnet Dummer Tailer Belcher Shirley S. Phips Shirley S. Phips Governor's Council Pownall Hutchinson Bernard Hutchinson Gage

Commonwealth (since 1776)

Hancock Cushing Bowdoin Hancock Adams Sumner Gill Governor's Council Strong Sullivan Lincoln Sr. Gore Gerry Strong Brooks Eustis Morton Lincoln Jr. Davis Armstrong Everett Morton Davis Morton Briggs Boutwell Clifford E. Washburn Gardner Banks Andrew Bullock Claflin W. Washburn Talbot Gaston Rice Talbot Long Butler Robinson Ames Brackett Russell Greenhalge Wolcott Crane Bates Douglas Guild Draper Foss Walsh McCall Coolidge Cox Fuller Allen Ely Curley Hurley Saltonstall Tobin Bradford Dever Herter Furcolo Volpe Peabody Volpe Sargent Dukakis King Dukakis Weld Cellucci Swift Romney Patrick Baker

Italics indicate acting officeholders

v t e

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts

1st district

F. Ames Dexter Goodhue Holten Sedgwick Skinner Sedgwick J. Bacon Eustis Quincy Ward Jr. Mason Gorham Webster Gorham N. Appleton Gorham A. Lawrence Fletcher A. Lawrence Winthrop N. Appleton Winthrop S. Eliot W. Appleton Scudder T. D. Eliot Hall T. D. Eliot Buffington Crapo R. Davis Randall Wright G. Lawrence Treadway Heselton Conte Olver Neal

2nd district

Goodhue Foster W. Lyman Sedgwick Ward Sr. W. Lyman Shepard J. Crowninshield Story Pickman W. Reed Pickering Silsbee Barstow B. Crowninshield Choate Phillips Saltonstall D. King Rantoul Fay Crocker Buffington O. Ames Harris Long E. Morse Gillett Churchill Bowles Kaynor Granfield Clason Furcolo Boland Neal McGovern

3rd district

Gerry Bourne Coffin Lyman Mattoon Cutler Nelson Livermore White Pickering Nelson Varnum Nelson Osgood Cushing A. Abbott Duncan Edmands Damrell C. Adams Thomas A. Rice Twichell Whiting I Pierce Field B. Dean Field Ranney L. Morse J. Andrew Walker J. R. Thayer R. Hoar C. Washburn J. A. Thayer Wilder Paige F. Foss Casey Philbin Drinan Donohue Early Blute McGovern N. Tsongas

4th district

Sedgwick Dearborn G. Thatcher Wadsworth Foster L. Lincoln Sr. Hastings Varnum W. Richardson Dana Stearns Fuller E. Everett Sa. Hoar Parmenter Thompson Palfrey Thompson Sabine Walley Comins A. Rice Hooper Frost J. Abbott L. Morse Collins O'Neil Apsley Weymouth Tirrell Mitchell Wilder Winslow Stobbs P. Holmes Donohue Drinan Frank Kennedy III

5th district

Partridge Bourne Freeman L. Williams T. Dwight Ely Mills Lathrop Sibley J. Davis L. Lincoln Jr. Hudson C. Allen W. Appleton Burlingame W. Appleton Hooper Alley Butler Gooch Banks Bowman L. Morse Hayden Banks Sh. Hoar Stevens Knox B. Ames J. Rogers E. Rogers B. Morse Cronin P. Tsongas Shannon Atkins Meehan N. Tsongas Markey Clark

6th district

G. Thatcher Leonard J. Reed Sr. J. Smith Taggart S. Allen Locke Kendall Grennell Alvord Baker Ashmun G. Davis Upham T. Davis Alley Gooch Banks Butler Thompson Loring Stone Lovering Lodge Cogswell Moody Gardner Lufkin A. Andrew G. Bates W. Bates Harrington Mavroules Torkildsen Tierney Moulton

7th district

Leonard Ward Sr. Leonard Bullock Bishop Mitchell Barker Baylies Turner Baylies Hulbert Shaw H. Dwight S. Allen Grennell Briggs J. Rockwell Goodrich Banks Gooch Boutwell Brooks Esty E. Hoar Tarbox Butler W. Russell Stone Cogswell W. Everett Barrett Roberts Phelan Maloney W. Connery L. Connery Lane Macdonald Markey Capuano

8th district

Grout G. Thatcher F. Ames Otis Eustis L. Williams Green Gardner Green J. Reed Jr. Baylies Sampson Hobart Lathrop Bates Calhoun J. Adams Mann Wentworth Knapp Train Baldwin G. Hoar J. M. S. Williams Warren Claflin Candler W Russell C. H. Allen Greenhalge Stevens McCall Deitrick Dallinger H. Thayer Dallinger Healey Goodwin Macdonald O'Neill Kennedy II Capuano Lynch

9th district

Varnum Bishop J. Dean Wheaton J. Reed Jr. Folger J. Reed Jr. H. Dwight Briggs Jackson Hastings H. Williams Hale Fowler Little De Witt E. Thayer Bailey A. Walker W. Washburn Crocker G. Hoar W. Rice T. Lyman Ely Burnett Candler G. Williams O'Neil Fitzgerald Conry Keliher Murray Roberts Fuller Underhill Luce R. Russell Luce T. H. Eliot Gifford Nicholson Keith McCormack Hicks Moakley Lynch Keating

10th district

Goodhue Sewall Read Hastings Upham J. Allen Brigham Wheaton Morton F Baylies Bailey H. A. S. Dearborn W. Baylies Borden H. Williams Borden Burnell Grinnell Scudder Dickinson Chaffee Delano Dawes Crocker Stevens Seelye Norcross W. Rice J. E. Russell J. Walker McEttrick Atwood Barrows Naphen McNary O'Connell Curley Murray Tague Fitzgerald Tague Douglass Tinkham Herter Curtis Martin Heckler Studds Delahunt Keating

11th district

Bradbury Bartlett Cutler Stedman A. Bigelow Brigham B. Adams J. Russell Hobart J. Richardson J. Adams J. Reed Jr. Burnell Goodrich Trafton Dawes Chapin Robinson Whiting II Wallace Coolidge Draper Sprague Powers Sullivan Peters Tinkham Douglass Higgins Flaherty Curley Kennedy O'Neill Burke Donnelly

12th district

H. Dearborn I. Parker Lee S. Thatcher Skinner Larned Bidwell Bacon Dewey Hulbert Strong Kendall L. Bigelow Baylies Hodges J. Adams Robinson F. Rockwell Crosby E. Morse Lovering Powers Weeks Curley Gallivan McCormack Keith Studds

13th district

Wadsworth Seaver Ruggles Dowse Eustis J. Reed Jr. Randall Simpkins Greene Weeks Mitchell Carter Luce Wigglesworth Burke

14th district

G. Thatcher Cutts C. King J. Holmes Lovering E. Foss Harris Gilmore Olney Frothingham Wigglesworth Martin

15th district

Wadsworth Ilsley Whitman Widgery Bradbury Whitman Greene Leach Martin Gifford

16th district

S. Thatcher Cook Tallman S. Davis Brown Orr Hill Thacher Walsh Gifford

17th district

Bruce Chandler Gannett F. Carr Wood J. Carr Wilson Kinsley

18th district

Wilson T. Rice J. Parker

19th district

J. Parker Conner Gage Cushman

20th district

Hubbard Parris E. Lincoln

At-large

Cobb

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 1254054 LCCN: n50017112 ISNI: 0000 0000 2791 3054 SUDOC: 07513957X US Congress: G000139 SN

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