HOME
The Info List - Elam


--- Advertisement ---



Elam
Elam
(/ˈiːləm/) (Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾, haltamti,Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠, NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan
Khuzestan
and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam
Elam
stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian
Akkadian
elamtu, and the Elamite
Elamite
haltamti. Elamite
Elamite
states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East.[1] In classical literature, Elam
Elam
was also known as Susiana, which is a name derived from its capital, Susa.[2] Elam
Elam
was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Sumerian history, where slightly earlier records have been found.[3][4] In the Old Elamite
Elamite
period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa
Susa
in the Khuzestan
Khuzestan
lowlands.[5] Its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty
Achaemenid dynasty
that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite
Elamite
is generally considered a language isolate unrelated to the much later arriving Persian and Iranic
Iranic
languages. In accordance with geographical and archaeological matches, some historians argue that the Elamites comprise a large portion of the ancestors of the modern day Lurs,[6][7] whose language, Luri, split from Middle Persian.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Proto-Elamite 3.2 Old Elamite
Elamite
period 3.3 Middle Elamite
Elamite
period

3.3.1 Anshan and Susa 3.3.2 Kassite invasions 3.3.3 Elamite
Elamite
Empire

3.4 Neo- Elamite
Elamite
period

3.4.1 Neo- Elamite
Elamite
I (c. 1100 – c. 770 BC) 3.4.2 Neo- Elamite
Elamite
II (c. 770 – 646 BC) 3.4.3 Neo- Elamite
Elamite
III (646–539 BC)

4 Art of the Elamites

4.1 Statuettes 4.2 Seals 4.3 Statue of Queen Napir-Asu 4.4 Stele
Stele
of Untash Napirisha

5 Religion 6 Language

6.1 Suggested relations to other language families

7 Legacy 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The Elamite language
Elamite language
endonym of Elam
Elam
as a country appears to have been Haltamti.[8] Exonyms included the Sumerian names NIM.MAki𒉏𒈠𒆠 and ELAM, the Akkadian
Akkadian
Elamû (masculine/neuter) and Elamītu (feminine) meant "resident of Susiana, Elamite".[9] In prehistory, Elam
Elam
was centered primarily in modern Khuzestān and Ilam. The name Khuzestān is derived ultimately from the Old Persian Hūjiya lang-peo𐎢𐎺𐎩 meaning Susa/Elam.[8] In Middle Persian this became Huź "Susiana", and in modern Persian Xuz, compounded with the toponymic suffix -stån "place". Geography[edit] In geographical terms, Susiana basically represents the Iranian province of Khuzestan
Khuzestan
around the river Karun. In ancient times, several names were used to describe this area. The great ancient geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
was the earliest to call the area Susiana, referring to the country around Susa. Another ancient geographer, Strabo, viewed Elam
Elam
and Susiana as two different geographical regions. He referred to Elam
Elam
("land of the Elymaei") as primarily the highland area of Khuzestan.[10] Disagreements over the location also exist in the Jewish historical sources says Daniel T. Potts. Some ancient sources draw a distinction between Elam
Elam
as the highland area of Khuzestan, and Susiana as the lowland area. Yet in other ancient sources 'Elam' and 'Susiana' seem equivalent.[10] The uncertainty in this area extends also to modern scholarship. Since the discovery of ancient Anshan, and the realization of its great importance in Elamite
Elamite
history, the definitions were changed again. Some modern scholars[11] argued that the centre of Elam
Elam
lay at Anshan and in the highlands around it, and not at Susa
Susa
in lowland Khuzistan. Potts disagrees suggesting that the term 'Elam' was primarily constructed by the Mesopotamians to describe the area in general terms, without referring specifically either to the lowlanders or the highlanders,

" Elam
Elam
is not an Iranian term and has no relationship to the conception which the peoples of highland Iran
Iran
had of themselves. They were Anshanites, Marhashians, Shimashkians, Zabshalians, Sherihumians, Awanites, etc. That Anshan played a leading role in the political affairs of the various highland groups inhabiting southwestern Iran
Iran
is clear. But to argue that Anshan is coterminous with Elam
Elam
is to misunderstand the artificiality and indeed the alienness of Elam
Elam
as a construct imposed from without on the peoples of the southwestern highlands of the Zagros mountain range, the coast of Fars and the alluvial plain drained by the Karun-Karkheh river system.[12]

History[edit]

Timeline of Elam.

Knowledge of Elamite
Elamite
history remains largely fragmentary, reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian (Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian) sources. The history of Elam
Elam
is conventionally divided into three periods, spanning more than two millennia. The period before the first Elamite
Elamite
period is known as the proto- Elamite
Elamite
period:

Proto-Elamite: c. 3200 – c. 2700 BC ( Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
script in Susa) Old Elamite
Elamite
period: c. 2700 – c. 1600 BC (earliest documents until the Eparti dynasty) Middle Elamite
Elamite
period: c. 1500 – c. 1100 BC (Anzanite dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa) Neo- Elamite
Elamite
period: c. 1100 – 540 BC (characterized Assyrian and Median
Median
influence. 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period.)

Proto-Elamite[edit] Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
civilization grew up east of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates alluvial plains; it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. At least three proto- Elamite
Elamite
states merged to form Elam: Anshan (modern Khuzestan Province), Awan (modern Lorestan Province) and Shimashki (modern Kerman). References to Awan are generally older than those to Anshan, and some scholars suggest that both states encompassed the same territory, in different eras (see Hanson, Encyclopædia Iranica). To this core Shushiana (modern Khuzestan) was periodically annexed and broken off. In addition, some Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
sites are found well outside this area, spread out on the Iranian plateau; such as Warakshe, Sialk
Sialk
(now a suburb of the modern city of Kashan) and Jiroft[13] in Kerman
Kerman
Province. The state of Elam
Elam
was formed from these lesser states as a response to invasion from Sumer
Sumer
during the Old Elamite
Elamite
period. Elamite
Elamite
strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region. Traditionally, this was done through a federated governmental structure. The Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
city of Susa
Susa
was founded around 4000 BC in the watershed of the river Karun. It is considered to be the site of Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
cultural formation. During its early history, it fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite
Elamite
power. The earliest levels (22—17 in the excavations conducted by Le Brun, 1978) exhibit pottery that has no equivalent in Mesopotamia, but for the succeeding period, the excavated material allows identification with the culture of Sumer
Sumer
of the Uruk
Uruk
period. Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
influence from the Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in Susa
Susa
becomes visible from about 3200 BC, and texts in the still undeciphered Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
writing system continue to be present until about 2700 BC. The Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
period ends with the establishment of the Awan dynasty. The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam
Elam
is the king Enmebaragesi of Kish (c. 2650 BC?), who subdued it, according to the Sumerian king list. Elamite history can only be traced from records dating to beginning of the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(2335–2154 BC) onwards. The Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
states in Jiroft
Jiroft
and Zabol (not universally accepted), present a special case because of their great antiquity. In ancient Luristan, bronze-making tradition goes back to the mid-3rd millennium BC, and has many Elamite
Elamite
connections. Bronze objects from several cemeteries in the region date to the Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) I, and to Ur-III
Ur-III
period c. 2900–2000 BC. These excavations include Kalleh Nisar, Bani Surmah, Chigha Sabz, Kamtarlan, Sardant, and Gulal-i Galbi.[14] Old Elamite
Elamite
period[edit]

The current Chogha Zanbil
Chogha Zanbil
ziggurat site, showing the vicinity of the main structure as well

Relief resembles a fish-tailed woman holding snakes

Relief of a woman being fanned by an attendant while she holds what may be a spinning device before a table with a bowl containing a whole fish

An ornate design on this limestone ritual vat from the Middle Elamite period depicts creatures with the heads of goats and the tails of fish

Ashurbanipal's campaign against Susa
Susa
is triumphantly recorded in this relief showing the sack of Susa
Susa
in 647 BC. Here, flames rise from the city as Assyrian soldiers topple it with pickaxes and crowbars and carry off the spoils.

Silver cup with linear- Elamite
Elamite
inscription on it. Late 3rd millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.

The Old Elamite
Elamite
period began around 2700 BC. Historical records mention the conquest of Elam
Elam
by Enmebaragesi the Sumerian king of Kish in Mesopotamia. Three dynasties ruled during this period. We know of twelve kings of each of the first two dynasties, those of Awan (or Avan; c. 2400 – c. 2100) and Simashki (c. 2100 – c. 1970), from a list from Susa
Susa
dating to the Old Babylonian period. Two Elamite dynasties said to have exercised brief control over parts of Sumer
Sumer
in very early times include Awan and Hamazi; and likewise, several of the stronger Sumerian rulers, such as Eannatum
Eannatum
of Lagash
Lagash
and Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab, are recorded as temporarily dominating Elam. The Avan dynasty was partly contemporary with that of the Mesopotamian emperor Sargon of Akkad, who not only defeated the Awan king Luhi-ishan and subjected Susa, but attempted to make the East Semitic Akkadian
Akkadian
the official language there. From this time, Mesopotamian sources concerning Elam
Elam
become more frequent, since the Mesopotamians had developed an interest in resources (such as wood, stone, and metal) from the Iranian plateau, and military expeditions to the area became more common. With the collapse of Akkad under Sargon's great great-grandson, Shar-kali-sharri, Elam
Elam
declared independence under the last Avan king, Kutik-Inshushinak
Kutik-Inshushinak
(c. 2240 – c. 2220), and threw off the Akkadian
Akkadian
language, promoting in its place the brief Linear Elamite script. Kutik-Inshushinnak conquered Susa
Susa
and Anshan, and seems to have achieved some sort of political unity. Following his reign, the Awan dynasty
Awan dynasty
collapsed as Elam
Elam
was temporarily overrun by the Guti, another pre- Iranic
Iranic
people from what is now north west Iran
Iran
who also spoke a language isolate. About a century later, the Sumerian king Shulgi
Shulgi
of the Neo-Sumerian Empire retook the city of Susa
Susa
and the surrounding region. During the first part of the rule of the Simashki dynasty, Elam
Elam
was under intermittent attack from the Sumerians of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and also Gutians from northwestern Iran, alternating with periods of peace and diplomatic approaches. The Elamite
Elamite
state of Simashki at this time also extended into northern Iran, and possibly even as far as the Caspian Sea. Shu-Sin
Shu-Sin
of Ur gave one of his daughters in marriage to a prince of Anshan. But the power of the Sumerians was waning; Ibbi-Sin
Ibbi-Sin
in the 21st century did not manage to penetrate far into Elam, and in 2004 BC, the Elamites, allied with the people of Susa
Susa
and led by king Kindattu, the sixth king of Simashki, managed to sack Ur and lead Ibbi-Sin
Ibbi-Sin
into captivity, ending the third dynasty of Ur. The Akkadian kings of Isin, successor state to Ur, managed to drive the Elamites out of Ur, rebuild the city, and to return the statue of Nanna that the Elamites had plundered. The succeeding dynasty, the Eparti (c. 1970 – c. 1770), also called "of the sukkalmahs" after the title borne by its members, was roughly contemporary with the Old Assyrian Empire, and Old Babylonian period in Mesopotamia, being younger by approximately sixty years than the Akkadian
Akkadian
speaking Old Assyrian Empire
Old Assyrian Empire
in Upper Mesopotamia, and almost seventy-five years older than the Old Babylonian Empire. This period is confusing and difficult to reconstruct. It was apparently founded by Eparti I. During this time, Susa
Susa
was under Elamite
Elamite
control, but Akkadian
Akkadian
speaking Mesopotamian states such as Larsa
Larsa
and Isin continually tried to retake the city. Around 1850 BC Kudur-mabuk, apparently king of another Akkadian
Akkadian
state to the north of Larsa, managed to install his son, Warad-Sin, on the throne of Larsa, and Warad-Sin's brother, Rim-Sin, succeeded him and conquered much of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
for Larsa. Notable Eparti dynasty rulers in Elam
Elam
during this time include Sirukdukh (c. 1850), who entered various military coalitions to contain the power of the south Mesopotamian states; Siwe-Palar-Khuppak, who for some time was the most powerful person in the area, respectfully addressed as "Father" by Mesopotamian kings such as Zimrilim
Zimrilim
of Mari, Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
of Assyria, and even Hammurabi
Hammurabi
of Babylon; and Kudur-Nahhunte, who plundered the temples of southern Mesopotamia, the north being under the control of the Old Assyrian Empire. But Elamite
Elamite
influence in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
did not last. Around 1760 BC, Hammurabi
Hammurabi
drove out the Elamites, overthrew Rim-Sin of Larsa, and established a short lived Babylonian Empire
Babylonian Empire
in Mesopotamia. Little is known about the latter part of this dynasty, since sources again become sparse with the Kassite rule of Babylon (from c. 1595). Middle Elamite
Elamite
period[edit] Anshan and Susa[edit] The Middle Elamite
Elamite
period began with the rise of the Anshanite dynasties around 1500 BC. Their rule was characterized by an "Elamisation" of Susa, and the kings took the title "king of Anshan and Susa". While the first of these dynasties, the Kidinuids continued to use the Akkadian
Akkadian
language frequently in their inscriptions, the succeeding Igihalkids and Shutrukids used Elamite
Elamite
with increasing regularity. Likewise, Elamite language
Elamite language
and culture grew in importance in Susiana. The Kidinuids (c. 1500 – 1400) are a group of five rulers of uncertain affiliation. They are identified by their use of the older title, "king of Susa
Susa
and of Anshan", and by calling themselves "servant of Kirwashir", an Elamite
Elamite
deity, thereby introducing the pantheon of the highlands to Susiana. Kassite invasions[edit] Of the Igehalkids (c. 1400 – 1210), ten rulers are known, and there were possibly more. Some of them married Kassite princesses. The Kassites
Kassites
were also a Language Isolate speaking people from the Zagros Mountains who had taken Babylonia
Babylonia
shortly after its sacking by the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
in 1595 BC. The Kassite king of Babylon
Babylon
Kurigalzu II who had been installed on the throne by Ashur-uballit I of the Middle Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
(1366–1020 BC), temporarily occupied Elam
Elam
around 1320 BC, and later (c. 1230) another Kassite king, Kashtiliash IV, fought Elam
Elam
unsuccessfully. Kassite-Babylonian power waned, as they became dominated by the northern Mesopotamian Middle Assyrian Empire. Kiddin-Khutran of Elam
Elam
repulsed the Kassites
Kassites
by defeating Enlil-nadin-shumi in 1224 BC and Adad-shuma-iddina
Adad-shuma-iddina
around 1222–1217. Under the Igehalkids, Akkadian
Akkadian
inscriptions were rare, and Elamite highland gods became firmly established in Susa. Elamite
Elamite
Empire[edit] Under the Shutrukids (c. 1210 – 1100), the Elamite
Elamite
empire reached the height of its power. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte and his three sons, Kutir-Nakhkhunte II, Shilhak-In-Shushinak, and Khutelutush-In-Shushinak were capable of frequent military campaigns into Kassite Babylonia
Babylonia
(which was also being ravaged by the empire of Assyria
Assyria
during this period), and at the same time were exhibiting vigorous construction activity—building and restoring luxurious temples in Susa
Susa
and across their Empire. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte raided Babylonia, carrying home to Susa
Susa
trophies like the statues of Marduk and Manishtushu, the Manishtushu
Manishtushu
Obelisk, the Stele
Stele
of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and the stele of Naram-Sin. In 1158 BC, after much of Babylonia
Babylonia
had been annexed by Ashur-Dan I of Assyria
Assyria
and Shutruk-Nakhkhunte, the Elamites defeated the Kassites
Kassites
permanently, killing the Kassite king of Babylon, Zababa-shuma-iddin, and replacing him with his eldest son, Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who held it no more than three years before being ejected by the native Akkadian
Akkadian
speaking Babylonians. The Elamites then briefly came into conflict with Assyria, managing to take the Assyrian city of Arrapha
Arrapha
(modern Kirkuk) before being ultimately defeated and having a treaty forced upon them by Ashur-Dan I. Kutir-Nakhkhunte's son Khutelutush-In-Shushinak was probably of an incestuous relation of Kutir-Nakhkhunte's with his own daughter, Nakhkhunte-utu.[citation needed] He was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon, who sacked Susa
Susa
and returned the statue of Marduk, but who was then himself defeated by the Assyrian king Ashur-resh-ishi I. He fled to Anshan, but later returned to Susa, and his brother Shilhana-Hamru-Lagamar may have succeeded him as last king of the Shutrukid dynasty. Following Khutelutush-In-Shushinak, the power of the Elamite
Elamite
empire began to wane seriously, for after the death of this ruler, Elam
Elam
disappears into obscurity for more than three centuries. Neo- Elamite
Elamite
period[edit] Neo- Elamite
Elamite
I (c. 1100 – c. 770 BC)[edit] Very little is known of this period. Anshan was still at least partially Elamite. There appear to have been unsuccessful alliances of Elamites, Babylonians, Chaldeans and other peoples against the powerful Neo Assyrian Empire
Neo Assyrian Empire
(911-605 BC); the Babylonian king Mar-biti-apla-ushur (984–979) was of Elamite
Elamite
origin, and Elamites are recorded to have fought unsuccessfully with the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi
Marduk-balassu-iqbi
against the Assyrian forces under Shamshi-Adad V (823–811). Neo- Elamite
Elamite
II (c. 770 – 646 BC)[edit]

Elamite
Elamite
archer. Alabaster. From Nineveh, Iraq. Reign of Ashurbanipal II, 668-627 BC. The Burrell Collection, Glasgow, UK

The later Neo- Elamite
Elamite
period is characterized by a significant migration of Indo-European speaking Iranians to the Iranian plateau. Assyrian sources beginning around 800 BC distinguish the "powerful Medes", i.e. the actual Medes, Persians, (Parthians, Sagartians, Margians, Bactrians, Sogdians
Sogdians
etc.). Among these pressuring tribes were the Parsu, first recorded in 844 BC as living on the southeastern shore of Lake Urmiah, but who by the end of this period would cause the Elamites' original home, the Iranian Plateau, to be renamed Persia proper. These newly arrived Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
were also conquered by Assyria, and largely regarded as vassals of the Neo-Assyrian Empire until the late 7th century. More details are known from the late 8th century BC, when the Elamites were allied with the Chaldean chieftain Merodach-baladan
Merodach-baladan
to defend the cause of Babylonian independence from Assyria. Khumbanigash (743–717) supported Merodach-baladan
Merodach-baladan
against Sargon II, apparently without success; while his successor, Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II (716–699), was routed by Sargon's troops during an expedition in 710, and another Elamite
Elamite
defeat by Sargon's troops is recorded for 708. The Assyrian dominion over Babylon
Babylon
was underlined by Sargon's son Sennacherib, who defeated the Elamites, Chaldeans and Babylonians
Babylonians
and dethroned Merodach-baladan
Merodach-baladan
for a second time, installing his own son Ashur-nadin-shumi
Ashur-nadin-shumi
on the Babylonian throne in 700. Shutruk-Nakhkhunte II, the last Elamite
Elamite
to claim the old title "king of Anshan and Susa", was murdered by his brother Khallushu, who managed to briefly capture the Assyrian governor of Babylonia Ashur-nadin-shumi
Ashur-nadin-shumi
and the city of Babylon
Babylon
in 694 BC. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
soon responded by invading and ravaging Elam. Khallushu was in turn assassinated by Kutir-Nakhkhunte, who succeeded him but soon abdicated in favor of Khumma-Menanu III (692–689). Khumma-Menanu recruited a new army to help the Babylonians
Babylonians
and Chaldeans against the Assyrians at the battle of Halule in 691. Both sides claimed the victory in their annals, but Babylon
Babylon
was destroyed by Sennacherib
Sennacherib
only two years later, and its Elamite
Elamite
allies defeated in the process. The reigns of Khumma-Khaldash I (688–681) and Khumma-Khaldash II (680–675) saw a deterioration of Elamite-Babylonian relations, and both of them raided Sippar. At the beginning of Esarhaddon's reign in Assyria
Assyria
(681–669), Nabu-zer-kitti-lišir, an ethnically Elamite governor in the south of Babylonia, revolted and besieged Ur, but was routed by the Assyrians and fled to Elam
Elam
where the king of Elam, fearing Assyrian repercussions, took him prisoner and put him to the sword (ABC 1 Col.3:39–42). Urtaku (674–664) for some time wisely maintained good relations with the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(668–627), who sent wheat to Susiana during a famine. But these friendly relations were only temporary, and Urtaku was killed in battle during a failed Elamite
Elamite
attack on Assyria. His successor Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664–653) attacked Assyria, but was defeated and killed by Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
following the battle of the Ulaï in 653 BC; and Susa
Susa
itself was sacked and occupied by the Assyrians. In this same year the Assyrian vassal Median
Median
state to the north fell to the invading Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
under Madius, and displacing another Assyrian vassal people, the Parsu (Persians) to Anshan which their king Teispes captured that same year, turning it for the first time into an Indo-Iranian kingdom under Assyrian dominance that would a century later become the nucleus of the Achaemenid dynasty. The Assyrians successfully subjugated and drove the Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
from their Iranian colonies, and the Persians, Medes
Medes
and Parthians
Parthians
remained vassals of Assyria. During a brief respite provided by the civil war between Ashurbanipal and his own brother Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
whom their father Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
had installed as the vassal king of Babylon, the Elamites both gave support to Shamash-shum-ukin, and indulged in fighting among themselves, so weakening the Elamite
Elamite
kingdom that in 646 BC Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
devastated Susiana with ease, and sacked Susa. A succession of brief reigns continued in Elam
Elam
from 651 to 640, each of them ended either due to usurpation, or because of capture of their king by the Assyrians. In this manner, the last Elamite
Elamite
king, Khumma-Khaldash III, was captured in 640 BC by Ashurbanipal, who annexed and destroyed the country.[15] In a tablet unearthed in 1854 by Henry Austin Layard, Ashurbanipal boasts of the destruction he had wrought:

“ Susa, the great holy city, abode of their Gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed … I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam
Elam
to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur. I devastated the provinces of Elam
Elam
and on their lands I sowed salt.[16] ”

Neo- Elamite
Elamite
III (646–539 BC)[edit] The devastation was a little less complete than Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
boasted, and a weak and fragmented Elamite
Elamite
rule was resurrected soon after with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Humban-umena III (not to be confused with Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, son of Indada, a petty king in the first half of the 6th century). Elamite
Elamite
royalty in the final century preceding the Achaemenids was fragmented among different small kingdoms, the united Elamite
Elamite
nation having been destroyed and colonised by the Assyrians. The three kings at the close of the 7th century (Shuttir-Nakhkhunte, Khallutush-In-Shushinak and Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak) still called themselves "king of Anzan and of Susa" or "enlarger of the kingdom of Anzan and of Susa", at a time when the Achaemenid Persians were already ruling Anshan under Assyrian dominance. The various Assyrian Empires, which had been the dominant force in the Near East, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, North Africa, Arabian peninsula and East Mediterranean for much of the period from the first half of the 14th century BC, began to unravel after the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC, descending into a series of bitter internal civil wars which also spread to Babylonia. The Iranian Medes, Parthians, Persians and Sagartians who had been largely subject to Assyria
Assyria
since their arrival in the region around 1000 BC, quietly took full advantage of the anarchy in Assyria, and in 616 BC freed themselves from Assyrian rule. The Medians took control of Elam
Elam
during this period. Cyaxares
Cyaxares
the king of the Medes, Persians, Parthians
Parthians
and Sagartians entered into an alliance with a coalition of fellow former vassals of Assyria; Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
of Babylon
Babylon
and Chaldea, and also the Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians
Cimmerians
against Sin-shar-ishkun of Assyria, who was faced with unremitting civil war in Assyria
Assyria
itself. This alliance then attacked a disunited and war weakened Assyria, and between 616 BC and 599 BC at the very latest, had conquered its vast empire which stretched from the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains to Egypt, Libya
Libya
and the Arabian Peninsula, and from Cyprus
Cyprus
and Ephesus
Ephesus
to Persia
Persia
and the Caspian Sea. The major cities in Assyria
Assyria
itself were gradually taken; Arrapha (modern Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and Kalhu
Kalhu
(modern Nimrud) in 616, Ashur, Dur-Sharrukin and Arbela (modern Erbil) in 613, Nineveh
Nineveh
falling in 612, Harran
Harran
in 608 BC, Carchemish
Carchemish
in 605 BC, and finally Dur-Katlimmu
Dur-Katlimmu
by 599 BC. Elam, already largely destroyed and subjugated by Assyria, thus became easy prey for the Median
Median
dominated Iranian peoples, and was incorporated into the Median
Median
Empire (612-546 BC) and then the succeeding Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(546-332 BC), with Assyria
Assyria
suffering the same fate. (see Achaemenid Assyria, Athura).[17] The prophet Ezekiel
Ezekiel
describes the status of their power in the 12th year of the Hebrew Babylonian Captivity
Babylonian Captivity
in 587 BC:

“ There is Elam
Elam
and all her multitude, All around her grave, All of them slain, fallen by the sword, Who have gone down uncircumcised to the lower parts of the earth, Who caused their terror in the land of the living; Now they bear their shame with those who go down to the Pit. ( Ezekiel
Ezekiel
32:24)[18] ”

Their successors Khumma-Menanu and Shilhak-In-Shushinak II bore the simple title "king", and the final king Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak used no honorific at all. In 540 BC, Achaemenid rule began in Susa. Art of the Elamites[edit]

Elamite
Elamite
worshipper

Statuettes[edit] Dated to approximately the twelfth century BCE, these gold and silver figurines of Elamite
Elamite
worshippers are shown carrying a sacrificial goat. These divine and royal statues were meant to assure the king of the enduring protection of the deity, well-being and a long life. Works which showed a ruler and his performance of a ritual action were intended to eternalize the effectiveness of such deeds. Found near the Temple of Inshushinak
Inshushinak
in Susa, these statuettes would have been considered charged with beneficial power. [19] While archaeologists cannot be certain that the location where these figures were found indicates a date before or in the time of the Elamite
Elamite
king Shilhak-Inshushinak, stylistic features can help ground the figures in a specific time period. The hairstyle and costume of the figures which are strewn with dots and hemmed with short fringe at the bottom, and the precious metals point to a date in the latter part of the second millennium BCE rather than to the first millennium. [20] In general, any gold or silver statuettes which represent the king making a sacrifice not only served a religious function, but also revealed the significance of displaying wealth that should not be overlooked. [21] Seals[edit]

Cylinder seal and modern impression- worshiper before a seated ruler or deity; seated female under a grape arbor MET DP370181

Elamite
Elamite
seals reached their peak of complexity in the 4th millennium BCE when their shape became cylindrical rather than stamp-like. Seals were primarily used as a form of identification and were often made out of precious stones. Because seals for different time periods had different designs and themes, seals and seal impressions can be used to track the various phases of the Elamite
Elamite
Empire and can teach a lot about the empire in ways which other forms of documentation cannot.[22] The seal pictured shows two seated figures holding cups with a man in front of them wearing a long robe next to a table. A man is sitting on a throne, presumably the king, and is in a wrapped robe. The second figure, perhaps his queen, is draped in a wide, flounced garment and is elevated on a platform beneath an overhanging vine. A crescent is shown in the field.[23] Statue of Queen Napir-Asu[edit]

Statue of Napirasu

This life-size votive offering of Queen Napir-Asu
Napir-Asu
was commissioned around 1300 BCE in Susa, Iran. It is made of copper using the lost-wax casting method and rests on a solid bronze frame that weighs 1750 kg (3760 lb). This statue is different from many other Elamite
Elamite
statues of women because it resembles male statues due to the wide belt on the dress and the patterns which closely resemble those on male statues.[24] The inscription on the side of the statue curses anyone, specifically men, who attempts to destroy the statue: "I, Napir-Asu, wife of Untash-Napirisha. He who would seize my statue, who would smash it, who would destroy its inscription, who would erase my name, may he be smitten by the curse of Napirisha, of Kiririsha, and of Inshushinka, that his name shall become extinct, that his offspring be barren, that the forces of Beltiya, the great goddess, shall sweep down on him. This is Napir-Asu's offering."[25] Stele
Stele
of Untash Napirisha[edit] The stele of the Elamite
Elamite
king, Untash-Napirisha
Untash-Napirisha
was believed to have been commissioned in the 12th century BCE. It was moved from the original religious capital of Chogha Zanbil
Chogha Zanbil
to the city of Susa
Susa
by the successor king, Shutruk-Nahnante. Four registers of the stele are left. The remains depict the god Inshushinak
Inshushinak
validating the legitimacy of who is thought to be Shutruk-Nahnante. In the periphery are two priestesses, deity hybrids of fish and women holding streams of water, and two half-man half-mouflon guardians of the sacred tree. The names of the two priestesses are carved on their arms.[26] King Untash Napirisha dedicated the stele to the god Ishushinak. Like other forms of art in the ancient Near East, this one portrays a king ceremonially recognizing a deity. This stele is unique in that the acknowledgement between king and god is reciprocal.[27] Religion[edit] Main article: Matriarchal religion

A "two-horned" figure wrestling with serpent goddesses. The Elamite artifact was discovered by Iran's border police in the possession of historical heritage traffickers, en route to Turkey, and was confiscated. Style is determined to be from "Jiroft".[citation needed]

The Elamites practised polytheism. Knowledge about their religion is scant, but, according to Cambridge Ancient History, at one time they had a pantheon headed by the goddess Kiririsha/Pinikir.[28] Other deities included In-shushinak and Jabru, lord of the underworld. According to Cambridge Ancient History, "this predominance of a supreme goddess is probably a reflexion from the practice of matriarchy which at all times characterized Elamite
Elamite
civilization to a greater or lesser degree."[28] Language[edit] Main articles: Elamite language
Elamite language
and Origin of the name Khuzestan Elamite
Elamite
is traditionally thought to be a language isolate, and completely unrelated to the neighbouring Semitic, Sumerian (also an isolate), and the later Indo-European Iranian languages
Iranian languages
that came to dominate the region. It was written in a cuneiform adapted from the Semitic Akkadian
Akkadian
script of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia, although the very earliest documents were written in the quite different "Linear Elamite" script. In 2006, two even older inscriptions in a similar script were discovered at Jiroft
Jiroft
to the east of Elam, leading archaeologists to speculate that Linear Elamite
Elamite
had originally spread from further east to Susa. It seems to have developed from an even earlier writing known as "proto-Elamite", but scholars are not unanimous on whether or not this script was used to write Elamite
Elamite
or another language, as it has not yet been deciphered. Several stages of the language are attested; the earliest date back to the third millennium BC, the latest to the Achaemenid Empire. The Elamite language
Elamite language
may have survived as late as the early Islamic period (roughly contemporary with the early medieval period in Europe). Among other Islamic medieval historians, Ibn al-Nadim, for instance, wrote that "The Iranian languages
Iranian languages
are Fahlavi (Pahlavi), Dari (not to be confused with Dari Persian in modern Afghanistan), Khuzi, Persian and Suryani (Assyrian)", and Ibn Moqaffa noted that Khuzi was the unofficial language of the royalty of Persia, "Khuz" being the corrupted name for Elam. Suggested relations to other language families[edit] A minority of scholars have proposed that the Elamite language
Elamite language
could be related to the Munda Language
Munda Language
of India, some to Mon–Khmer
Mon–Khmer
of Cambodia
Cambodia
and some to the modern Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
of India
India
and Sri Lanka such as Tamil and Malayalam,[29] in contrast to the majority who denote it as a language isolate.[30] David McAlpine believes Elamite may be related to the living Dravidian languages. This hypothesis is considered under the rubric of Elamo-Dravidian languages. Legacy[edit]

Ancient history

Preceded by Prehistory

Ancient Near East

Egyptian Old Kingdom Sumer Uruk Ur Jiroft
Jiroft
culture Ebla Mari Minoan Crete Oxus civilisation Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire Gutian dynasty Lullubi Guti Neo-Sumerian Empire Egyptian Middle Kingdom Yamhad Qatna First Dynasty of Isin Old Assyrian Empire Old Babylonian Empire Hattians Hurrians Amurru kingdom Apum Isuwa Nuhašše Kurda Ṭābetu Tepe Sialk Teppe Hasanlu Shahr-e Sukhteh Tureng Tepe Godin Tepe Marlik Kizzuwatna Tepe Hissar Eshnunna Egyptian New Kingdom Hittite Empire Kassite dynasty Amorites Arameans Kingdom of Edom Kingdom of Moab Kingdom of Ammon Awan dynasty Shimashki Dynasty Chaldea Mitanni
Mitanni
Empire Troy Alashiya Ugarit Nuragic civilization Mycenaean Greece Middle Assyrian Empire Second Dynasty of Isin Elam Ellipi Kingdom of Kummuh Gurgum Phrygia Lydia Canaan Tyre Sidon Phoenicia Israel and Judah Arzawa Neo-Assyrian Empire Kushite Empire Kingdom of Kush Hyksos Punt Syro-Hittite states Hayasa-Azzi Georgia Etruscan League Roman Kingdom Urartu Mannaeans Cimmerians Colchis Zikirti Musasir Neo-Babylonian Empire Median
Median
Empire

Classical antiquity

Achaemenid Empire Carthaginian Empire Delian League Bosporan Kingdom Kingdom of Pontus Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Kingdom of Armenia Magna Graecia Macedonian Empire Odrysian kingdom Parthian Empire Peloponnesian League Ptolemaic Kingdom Roman Empire Roman Republic Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire Lakhmids Ghassanids Kingdom of Aksum Seleucid Empire Scythians Antigonid dynasty Palmyra Nabataean Kingdom

East Asia

Erlitou Shang dynasty Zhou dynasty Spring and Autumn period Warring States period Qin dynasty Gojoseon Jin (Korean state) Nanyue Han dynasty Three Kingdoms of Korea Silla Three Kingdoms of China Jin dynasty Northern and Southern dynasties Sui dynasty Japan

South Asia

Indus Valley Vedic period Kuru Kingdom Mahajanapada Magadha Kingdom Nanda Empire Maurya Empire Satavahana Indo-Greek Kingdom Indo-Scythian Kingdom Early Cholas Kushan Empire Vakataka Pallava Gupta Empire

Mesoamerica

Olmec Epi- Olmec
Olmec
culture Zapotec civilization Maya civilization Tikal Calakmul Palenque Teotihuacan Toltec Empire League of Mayapan Cuzcatlan Mixtec Tepanec Tarascan state Aztec Empire

Andes

Norte Chico Valdivia Kotosh Casma/Sechin culture Chiripa Cupisnique Chavín Moche Nazca Tiwanaku Empire Wari Empire Chimú culture Chincha Chachapoya Muisca Confederation Inca Empire Mapuche

Mississippi

Adena Hopewell Mississippian Fort Ancient Huron Confederacy Three Fires Confederacy Mi'kmaq
Mi'kmaq
Confederacy Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy

West Africa

Dhar Tichitt Djenné-Djenno Nok Bura culture Ghana Empire Mossi Kingdoms Kingdom of Nri Benin Empire Oyo Empire Ghana Empire Kanem–Bornu Empire Almoravid dynasty Sosso Empire Mali Empire Empire of Great Fulo Jolof Empire Hausa Kingdoms Gao Empire Songhai Empire

See also

History of the world

Ancient maritime history Protohistory Axial Age Iron Age Historiography Ancient literature Ancient warfare Cradle of civilization

Followed by the Postclassical Era

v t e

The Assyrians had utterly destroyed the Elamite
Elamite
nation, but new polities emerged in the area after Assyrian power faded. Among the nations that benefited from the decline of the Assyrians were the Iranian tribes, whose presence around Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
to the north of Elam is attested from the 9th century BC in Assyrian texts. Some time after that region fell to Madius the Scythian (653 BC), Teispes son of Achaemenes conquered Elamite
Elamite
Anshan in the mid 7th century BC, forming a nucleus that would expand into the Persian Empire. They were largely regarded as vassals of the Assyrians, and the Medes, Mannaeans
Mannaeans
and Persians paid tribute to Assyria
Assyria
from the 10th century BC until the death of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
in 627 BC. After his death the Medes
Medes
played a major role in the destruction of the weakened Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Empire
in 612 BC. The rise of the Achaemenids in the 6th century BC brought an end to the existence of Elam
Elam
as an independent political power "but not as a cultural entity" (Encyclopædia Iranica, Columbia University). Indigenous Elamite
Elamite
traditions, such as the use of the title "king of Anshan" by Cyrus the Great; the " Elamite
Elamite
robe" worn by Cambyses I of Anshan and seen on the famous winged genii at Pasargadae; some glyptic styles; the use of Elamite
Elamite
as the first of three official languages of the empire used in thousands of administrative texts found at Darius’ city of Persepolis; the continued worship of Elamite deities; and the persistence of Elamite
Elamite
religious personnel and cults supported by the crown, formed an essential part of the newly emerging Achaemenid culture in Persian Iran. The Elamites thus became the conduit by which achievements of the Mesopotamian civilizations were introduced to the tribes of the Iranian plateau. Conversely, remnants of Elamite
Elamite
had "absorbed Iranian influences in both structure and vocabulary" by 500 BC,[31] suggesting a form of cultural continuity or fusion connecting the Elamite
Elamite
and the Persian periods.[32] The name of "Elam" survived into the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
and beyond. In its Greek form, Elymais, it emerges as designating a semi-independent state under Parthian suzerainty during the 2nd century BC to the early 3rd century AD. In Acts 2:8-9 in the New Testament, the language of the Elamitēs is one of the languages heard at the Pentecost. From 410 onwards Elam
Elam
(Beth Huzaye) was the senior metropolitan province of the Church of the East, surviving into the 14th century.

A 4.5 inch long lapis lazuli dove is studded with gold pegs. Dated 1200 BC from Susa, a city later on shared with the haemenids.

Elamite
Elamite
reliefs at Eshkaft-e Salman. The picture of a woman with dignity shows the importance of women in the Elamite
Elamite
era.

See also[edit]

Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
portal

List of rulers of Elam Matriarchal religion

References[edit]

^ Elam: surveys of political history and archaeology, Elizabeth Carter and Matthew W. Stolper, University of California Press, 1984, p. 3 ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 6. p. 283. ISBN 978-0028659343.  ^ Hock, Hans Heinrich (2009). Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship: An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics (2nd ed.). Mouton de Gruyter. p. 69. ISBN 978-3110214291.  ^ Gnanadesikan, Amalia (2008). The Writing Revolution: Cuneiform
Cuneiform
to the Internet. Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 978-1444304688.  ^ Elam: surveys of political history and archaeology, Elizabeth Carter and Matthew W. Stolper, University of California Press, 1984, p. 4 ^ Edwards, I.E.S.; Gadd, C.J.; Hammond, G.L. (1971). The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 644. ISBN 9780521077910.  ^ Potts, D.S (1999). The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780521564960.  ^ a b Kent, Roland (1953). Old Persian: Grammar, Texts & Lexicon. American Oriental Series. 33). American Oriental Society. p. 53. ISBN 0-940490-33-1.  ^ Jeremy Black, Andrew George & Nicholas Postgate (eds.), ed. (1999). A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 68. ISBN 3-447-04225-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ a b D. T. Potts, The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, 2015 ISBN 1107094690 p11 ^ F. Vallat 1980 ^ The Archaeology of Elam
Elam
(excerpt) assets.cambridge.org/ ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 March 2005. Retrieved 15 June 2005.  ^ Current Projects in Luristan
Luristan
penn.museum ^ Potts, D. T. (1999) "The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State" (Cambridge World Archaeology) ^ Persians: Masters of Empire. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-8094-9104-4.  ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq ^ Ezekiel.  ^ Porada, Edith (2017). "Art of the Elamites". www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/art_of_elamites.php.  ^ Porada, Edith (2017). "Art of the Elamites". www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/art_of_elamites.php.  ^ Porada, Edith (2017). "Art of the Elamites". www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/art_of_elamites.php.  ^ “Cylinder Seal and Modern Impression: Worshiper before a Seated Ruler or Deity; Seated Female under a Grape Arbor Work of Art Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1987.343/. ^ “Cylinder Seal and Modern Impression: Worshiper before a Seated Ruler or Deity; Seated Female under a Grape Arbor Work of Art Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1987.343/. ^ Domanico, Emily. “Statue of Queen Napir-Asu.” APAH2011, AP Art History, 12 Sept. 2011, apah2011.wikispaces.com/Statue of Queen Napir-Asu. ^ The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. D.T.Potts, second edition ^ Borne interactive du département des Antiquités orientales. Malbran-Labat Florence, Les Inscriptions de Suse : briques de l'époque paléo-élamite à l'empire néo-élamite, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1995, p.168-169. Miroschedji Pierre de, "Le Dieu élamite au serpent", in : Iranica antiqua, Vol.16, 1981, Gand, Ministère de l'Éducation et de la Culture, 1989, p.13-14, pl.8. ^ Borne interactive du département des Antiquités orientales. Malbran-Labat Florence, Les Inscriptions de Suse : briques de l'époque paléo-élamite à l'empire néo-élamite, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1995, p.168-169. Miroschedji Pierre de, "Le Dieu élamite au serpent", in : Iranica antiqua, Vol.16, 1981, Gand, Ministère de l'Éducation et de la Culture, 1989, p.13-14, pl.8. ^ a b Edwards, F.B.A., I.E.S.; Gadd, C.J.; Hammond, F.B.A., N.G.L.; Sollberger F.B.A., E., eds. (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History, Third Edition, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 B.C. Cambridge University Press (published 1975). pp. 400–416. ISBN 0 521 08691 4.  ^ Black Athena: The linguistic evidence, by Martin Bernal, p. 701 ^ Excavations at Haft Tepe, Iran
Iran
By Ezat O. Negahban, ʻIzzat Allāh Nigāhbān, p. 3 ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, Columbia University ^ "There is much evidence, both archaeological and literary/epigraphic, to suggest that the rise of the Persian empire witnessed the fusion of Elamite
Elamite
and Persian elements already present in highland Fars". The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge World Archaeology. Chap 9 Introduction. 

Further reading[edit]

Quintana Cifuentes, E., Historia de Elam
Elam
el vecino mesopotámico, Murcia, 1997. Estudios Orientales. IPOA-Murcia. Quintana Cifuentes, E., Textos y Fuentes para el estudio del Elam, Murcia, 2000. Estudios Orientales. IPOA-Murcia. Quintana Cifuentes, E., La Lengua Elamita (Irán pre-persa), Madrid, 2010. Gram Ediciones. ISBN 978-84-88519-17-7 Khačikjan, Margaret: The Elamite
Elamite
Language, Documenta Asiana IV, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto per gli Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, 1998 ISBN 88-87345-01-5 Persians: Masters of Empire, Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia (1995) ISBN 0-8094-9104-4 Pittman, Holly (1984). Art of the Bronze Age: southeastern Iran, western Central Asia, and the Indus Valley. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870993657.  Potts, Daniel T.: The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge University Press (1999) ISBN 0-521-56496-4 and ISBN 0-521-56358-5 McAlpin, David W., Proto Elamo Dravidian: The Evidence and Its Implications, American Philosophy Society (1981) ISBN 0-87169-713-0 Vallat, François. 2010. "The History of Elam". The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) Álvarez-Mon, Javier; Basello, Gian Pietro; Wicks, Yasmina, eds. (2018). The Elamite
Elamite
World. Routledge Worlds. Oxford: Routledge. ISBN 9781315658032. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elam.

Lengua e historia elamita, by Enrique Quintana History of the Elamite
Elamite
Empire Elamite
Elamite
Art Stele
Stele
of King Untash Napirisha Statue of Queen Napir Asu Elamite
Elamite
Seals All Empires – The Elamite
Elamite
Empire Elam
Elam
in Ancient Southwest Iran Persepolis
Persepolis
Fortification Archive Project Iran
Iran
Before Iranians Encyclopedia Iranica: Elam Modelling population dispersal and language origins during the last 120,000 years Hamid-Reza Hosseini, Shush at the foot of Louvre
Louvre
(Shush dar dāman-e Louvre), in Persian, Jadid Online, 10 March 2009, [1]. Audio slideshow: [2] (6 min 31 sec) http://www.elamit.net/

v t e

Provinces of the Achaemenid Empire (Behistun / Persepolis / Naqsh-e Rustam / Susa / Daiva
Daiva
inscriptions)

Amyrgoi Arabia Arachosia Aria Armenia Assyria Babylonia Bactria Cappadocia Caria Carmania Caucasian Albania Chorasmia Cilicia Colchis Dahae Drangiana 1st Egypt
Egypt
/ 2nd Egypt Eber-Nari Elam Kusha (Nubia) Gandhara Gedrosia Hyrcania Ionia Hindush Libya Maka Margiana Media Lesser Media Massagetae Parthia Persia Phoenicia Phrygia

Hellespontine Phrygia Greater Phrygia

Saka Samaritan Province Lydia Sattagydia Thrace Sogdia Yehud

See also Districts of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(according to Herodotus)

v t e

Ancient Mesopotamia

Geography

Modern

Euphrates Upper Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Persian Gulf Syrian Desert Taurus Mountains Tigris Zagros Mountains

Ancient

Akkad Assyria Babylonia Chaldea Elam Hittites Media Mitanni Sumer Urartu Cities

History

Pre- / Protohistory

Acheulean Mousterian Trialetian Zarzian Natufian Nemrikian Khiamian Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
(PPNA) Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
(PPNB) Hassuna/Samarra Halaf Ubaid Uruk Jemdet Nasr Kish civilization

History

Early Dynastic Akkadian Ur III Old Babylonian Kassite Neo-Assyrian Neo-Babylonian Achaemenid Seleucid Parthian Roman Sasanian Muslim conquest Timeline of the Assyrian Empire

Languages

Akkadian Amorite Aramaic Eblaite Elamite Gutian Hittite Hurrian Luwian Middle Persian Old Persian Parthian Proto-Armenian Sumerian Urartian

Culture / Society

Architecture Art Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script Akkadian
Akkadian
literature Sumerian literature Music Religion

Archaeology

Looting Destruction by ISIL Tell

Portal

v t e

Provinces of the Sasanian Empire

Abarshahr Adurbadagan Albania Arbayistan Armenia Asoristan Balasagan Dihistan Egypt* Eran-Khwarrah-Yazdegerd* Garamig Garamig ud Nodardashiragan Gurgan Harev Iberia India Khuzestan Kirman Kushanshahr Khwarazm Lazica Machelonia Makuran Marw Mazun Media Meshan Nodardashiragan Paradan Padishkhwargar Pars Sakastan Sogdia Spahan Turgistan

* indicates short living provinces

v t e

Iran
Iran
topics

History

Prehistory

Ancient

3400–550 BCE

Kura-Araxes culture
Kura-Araxes culture
(3400–2000 BC) Proto-Elamite
Proto-Elamite
civilization (3200–2800 BC) Elamite
Elamite
dynasties (2800–550 BC) Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) Kassites
Kassites
(c.1500–c.1155 BC) Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC) Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–609 BC) Urartu
Urartu
(860 BC–590 BC) Median
Median
Empire (728–550 BC) (Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC) Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(626–539 BC)

550 BC – 224 AD

Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 AD) Kingdom of Armenia (331 BC–428 AD) Atropatene
Atropatene
(320s BC–3rd century AD) Kingdom of Cappadocia
Kingdom of Cappadocia
(320s BC–17 AD) Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(330 BC–150 AD) Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
(281 BC–62 AD) Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(248 BC –  224 AD)

224–651 AD

Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651 AD)

Medieval

637 – 1055

Patriarchal Caliphate (637–651) Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–1258) Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
(821–873) Alavid dynasty (864–928) Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
(861–1003) Samanid dynasty (819–999) Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(928–1043) Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
(934–1062)

975–1432

Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187) Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
(1011–1215) Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
(1037–1194) Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
(1077–1231) Eldiguzids
Eldiguzids
(1135/36-1225) Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1335) Kurt dynasty
Kurt dynasty
(1231–1389) Muzaffarid dynasty (1314–1393) Chobanid dynasty (1337–1357) Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
dynasty (1339–1432)

1370–1925

Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
(1370–1507) Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1375–1468) Ag Qoyunlu
Ag Qoyunlu
Turcomans (1378–1508) Safavid Empire (1501 – 1722 / 1736) Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
(1736–50) Zand Dynasty (1750–94) Qajar Dynasty (1794–1925)

Khanates of the Caucasus
Caucasus
(18th century–20th century)

Modern

1925–1979

Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979) Iran
Iran
Constituent Assembly, 1949 1953 coup d'état Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1979) Interim Government

Islamic Republic

History (1979–) Arab separatism in Khuzestan

Embassy siege (1980)

Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (1980–88) Iranian pilgrim massacre (1987) Iran
Iran
Air Flight 655 shootdown (1988) PJAK insurgency Balochistan conflict Syrian Civil War Military intervention against ISIL

See also

Ancient Iran Greater Iran Iranic
Iranic
peoples (languages) Kura–Araxes culture Jiroft
Jiroft
culture Aryans Persian people Azerbaijanis Caucasian peoples Kings of Persia Heads of state Cities Military history History of democracy List of years in Iran

Geography

Cities (list) Earthquakes Iranian Azerbaijan Iranian Balochistan Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Caucasus Iranian Kurdistan Iranian Plateau Lake Urmia Islands Mountains Provinces Wildlife

Politics

General

Censorship Constitution (Persian Constitutional Revolution) Elections (2009 presidential Green Revolution) Foreign relations Human rights (LGBT) Judicial system Military (Army Air Force Navy) Ministry of Intelligence and National Security Cyberwarfare Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747) Political parties Principlists Propaganda Reformists Terrorism (state-sponsorship allegations) White Revolution
White Revolution
(1963) Women's rights movement

Councils

Assembly (or Council) of Experts Expediency Discernment Council City and Village Councils Guardian Council Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
(parliament) Supreme National Security Council

Officials

Ambassadors President Provincial governors Supreme Leader

Economy

General

Bonyad
Bonyad
(charitable trust) Brain drain Companies (Automotive industry) Corruption Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Economic history Economic Reform Plan Energy Environmental issues Foreign direct investment Intellectual property International oil bourse International rankings Iran
Iran
and the World Trade Organization Taxation Main economic laws Economy of the Middle East Milad Tower
Milad Tower
and complex Military equipment manufactured Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747) Privatization Rial (currency) Space Agency Setad Supreme Audit Court Tehran Stock Exchange Venture capital (Technology start-ups)

Sectors

Agriculture (fruit) Banking and insurance (Banks (Central Bank) Electronic banking) Construction Defense Health care (Pharmaceuticals) Industry Mining Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil Company) Telecommunications and IT (TCI) Transport (airlines metro railways shipping) Tourism

State-owned companies

Defense Industries Organization
Defense Industries Organization
(DIO) Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO) Iran
Iran
Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) Iran
Iran
Electronics Industries (IEI) National Iranian Oil Company
National Iranian Oil Company
(NIOC) National Development Fund

Places

Asaluyeh
Asaluyeh
industrial corridor Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone Kish Island
Kish Island
Free Trade Zone Research centers

Society

Demographics

Languages

Persian (Farsi) Armenian Azerbaijani Kurdish Georgian Neo-Aramaic Iranian languages

Peoples

Iranian citizens (abroad) Ethnic minorities

Armenians Assyrians Azerbaijanis Circassians Georgians Kurds Persian Jews Turkmen

Religion

Islam Bahá'í (persecution) Christianity Zoroastrians (persecution) minorities

Other

Corruption Crime Education (higher scientists and scholars universities) Brain drain Health care International rankings Nationality Water supply and sanitation Women

Culture

Architecture (Achaemenid architects) Art (modern / contemporary) Blogs Calendars (Persian New Year (Nowruz)) Chādor (garment) Chicago Persian antiquities dispute Cinema Crown jewels Cuisine Folklore Intellectual movements Iranians Iranian studies Islam (Islamization) Literature Media (news agencies (student) newspapers) Mythology National symbols (Imperial Anthem) Opium consumption Persian gardens Persian name Philosophy Public holidays Scouting Sport (football)

Music

Folk Heavy metal Pop Rap and hip-hop Rock and alternative Traditional Ey Iran

Other topics

Science and technology Anti-Iranian sentiment Tehrangeles

Category Portal WikiProject Commons

Authority control

NDL: 00575957

Coordinates: 29°54′N 52°24′E / 29.900°N 52.400°E / 29

.