Elaine is a city in Phillips County, Arkansas, United States. The
population was 865 at the 2000 census.
It is best known as the location of the Elaine massacre of 1919, in
which an estimated 237 Black people were killed in the rural county by
rampaging white mobs. This was one of the worst incidents of racial
violence in American history.
4 Notable people
See also: Elaine Race Riot
In 1919, two whites tried to break up a meeting of black sharecroppers
who were trying to organize a farmers' union to get better conditions
of payment and accounting from white landowners of cotton plantations.
After a white man was killed, hundreds of other whites poured into the
area, attacking blacks. Governor
Charles Hillman Brough
Charles Hillman Brough requested
federal troops to stop what was called the Elaine Race Riot. White
mobs spread throughout the county, and an estimated 237 blacks were
killed, and five whites. The governor accompanied the troops to the
scene; their use had been approved by
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.
Sharecroppers generally remained at a disadvantage in dealing with
At 6:15 PM, April 26, 2011, a tornado – part of the 2011 Super
Outbreak – hit the Elaine area. The tornado was classified as an
EF-0, with estimated wind speeds of 75 miles per hour (121 km/h;
65 kn). The tornado's path of destruction was 200 yards
(180 m) wide and the tornado travelled a path of 21.5 miles
(34.6 km) along Highway 61 and across the
Mississippi state line,
ending near Lula, Mississippi. Most of the tornado's damage was
concentrated in Friars Point and Coahoma, Mississippi.
Elaine is located at 34°18′31″N 90°51′15″W /
34.30861°N 90.85417°W / 34.30861; -90.85417 (34.308595,
According to the United States
Census Bureau, the city has a total
area of 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2), all land.
U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2000, there were 865 people, 330 households,
and 222 families residing in the city. The population density was
1,725.8 people per square mile (668.0/km²). There were 356 housing
units at an average density of 710.3 per square mile (274.9/km²). The
racial makeup of the city was 39.08% White, 58.15% Black or African
American, 0.92% from other races, and 1.85% from two or more races.
6.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Agriculture by rice production brought in seasonal migrant laborers
Latin America in the town, nearby Lake View and the
There were 330 households out of which 31.8% had children under the
age of 18 living with them, 34.2% were married couples living
together, 30.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and
32.7% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of
individuals and 18.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age
or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family
size was 3.31.
In the city, the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of
18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 19.5% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, and
16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years.
For every 100 females there were 80.2 males. For every 100 females age
18 and over, there were 73.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $19,479, and the
median income for a family was $22,813. Males had a median income of
$22,386 versus $18,056 for females. The per capita income for the city
was $12,640. About 33.5% of families and 41.1% of the population were
below the poverty line, including 59.1% of those under age 18 and
26.5% of those age 65 or over.
John Hughey, country musician
Levon Helm, musician
Barry Williamson, Texas politician was reared in Elaine.
Marvell–Elaine School District serves the community. Marvell
Primary School and Marvell High School in Marvell serve Elaine.
Elaine School District served the community. On July 1,
2006, the Elaine district merged into the Marvell district. When
the district existed, it operated Lucilia Wood Elementary School and
Elaine High School.
^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved
Jul 18, 2017.
^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9,
^ "US Map of 73 years of lynching", New York Times, 10 February 2015
^ a b c d NWS Memphis Office Report
^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census
Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the
original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated
Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
^ "American FactFinder". United States
Census Bureau. Archived from
the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
^ "Schools." Marvell-Elaine School District. Retrieved on March 2,
^ "Consolidation/Annexations of LEA's (1983–2010) Archived September
24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.."
Arkansas Department of Education.
Retrieved on March 2, 2011.
^ "Lucilia Wood Elementary School." Information Network of Arkansas
(State of Arkansas). Retrieved on March 2, 2011. "100 College St.
Elaine, AR 72333"
^ "Elaine high School." Information Network of
Arkansas (State of
Arkansas). Retrieved on March 2, 2011. "100 College St. Elaine, AR
Municipalities and communities of Phillips County, Arkansas, United
County seat: Helena-West Helena